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The Shawshank Redemption

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Title: The Shawshank Redemption  
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Subject: The Mist (film), Willie D. Burton, Neil Giuntoli, Different Seasons, Sue Bea Montgomery
Collection: 1990S Drama Films, 1994 Films, American Drama Films, American Films, Buddy Films, Castle Rock Entertainment Films, Columbia Pictures Films, Directorial Debut Films, English-Language Films, Film Scores by Thomas Newman, Films About Miscarriage of Justice, Films Based on Short Fiction, Films Based on Works by Stephen King, Films Directed by Frank Darabont, Films Set in Maine, Films Set in the 1940S, Films Set in the 1950S, Films Set in the 1960S, Films Shot in Ohio, Prison Films, Screenplays by Frank Darabont
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The Shawshank Redemption

The Shawshank Redemption
Directed by Frank Darabont
Produced by Niki Marvin
Screenplay by Frank Darabont
Based on Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption 
by Stephen King
Music by Thomas Newman
Cinematography Roger Deakins
Edited by Richard Francis-Bruce
Distributed by
Release dates
  • September 10, 1994 (1994-09-10) (TIFF)
  • September 23, 1994 (1994-09-23) (United States)
Running time 142 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $25 million[1]
Box office $28.3 million[1]

The Shawshank Redemption is a 1994 IMDb's "Top 250" list based on over a million votes (9.3 out of 10) and is considered one of the best movies of all time.

Adapted from the Stephen King novella Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption, the film tells the story of Andy Dufresne, a banker who is sentenced to life in Shawshank State Prison for the murder of his wife and her lover despite his claims of innocence. During his time at the prison, he befriends a fellow inmate, Ellis Boyd "Red" Redding, and finds himself protected by the guards after the warden begins using him in his money laundering operation.

Despite being a box office flop (that barely recouped its budget), the film received multiple award nominations and outstanding reviews from critics for its acting, story, and realism. It has since been successful on cable television, VHS, DVD, and Blu-ray. It was included in the American Film Institute's 100 Years...100 Movies 10th Anniversary Edition.[2]


  • Plot 1
  • Cast 2
  • Themes 3
  • Production 4
  • Release 5
    • Critical response 5.1
    • Accolades 5.2
    • Home media 5.3
  • Music 6
  • Legacy 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • Further reading 10
  • External links 11


In 1947, banker Andy Dufresne is convicted of murdering his wife and her lover and sentenced to two consecutive life sentences at the fictional Shawshank State Penitentiary in the state of Maine. Andy befriends contraband smuggler Ellis "Red" Redding, an inmate serving a life sentence. Red procures a rock hammer and later a large poster of Rita Hayworth for Andy. Working in the prison laundry, Andy is regularly assaulted by the "bull queer" gang "the Sisters" and their leader, Bogs.

In 1949, Andy overhears the brutal captain of the guards, Byron Hadley, complaining about being taxed on an inheritance and offers to help him legally shelter the money. After a vicious assault by the Sisters nearly kills Andy, Hadley beats Bogs severely. Bogs is sent to another prison and Andy is never attacked again. Warden Samuel Norton meets with Andy and reassigns him to the prison library to assist elderly inmate Brooks Hatlen. Andy's new job is a pretext for him to begin managing financial matters for the prison employees. As time passes, the warden begins using Andy to handle matters for a variety of people including guards from other prisons and the warden himself. Andy begins writing weekly letters to the state government for funds to improve the decaying library.

In 1954, Brooks is paroled, but cannot adjust to the outside world after fifty years in prison and hangs himself. Andy receives a library donation that includes a recording of The Marriage of Figaro. He plays an excerpt over the public address system, resulting in his receiving solitary confinement. After his release from solitary Andy explains that hope is what gets him through his time, a concept that Red dismisses. In 1963, Norton begins exploiting prison labor for public works, profiting by undercutting skilled labor costs and receiving kickbacks. He has Andy launder the money using the alias Randall Stephens.

In 1965, Tommy Williams is incarcerated for burglary. He joins Andy's and Red's circle of friends, and Andy helps him pass his G.E.D. exam. In 1966, Tommy reveals to Red and Andy that an inmate at another prison claimed responsibility for the murders Andy was convicted of, implying Andy's innocence. Andy approaches Warden Norton with this information, but the warden refuses to listen and sends Andy back to solitary when he mentions the money laundering. Norton then has Captain Hadley murder Tommy under the guise of an escape attempt. Andy refuses to continue the money laundering, but relents after Norton threatens to burn the library, remove Andy's protection from the guards, and move him out of his cell into worse conditions. Andy is released from solitary confinement and tells Red of his dream of living in Zihuatanejo, a Mexican coastal town. Red feels Andy is being unrealistic, but promises Andy that if he is ever released he will visit a specific hayfield near Buxton, Maine and retrieve a package Andy buried there. Red becomes worried about Andy's state of mind, especially when he learns Andy asked another inmate to supply him with six feet of rope.

The next day at roll call the guards find Andy's cell empty. An irate Warden Norton throws a rock at the poster of Raquel Welch hanging on the wall, and the rock tears through the poster. Removing the poster, the warden discovers a tunnel that Andy dug with his rock hammer over the previous two decades. The previous night, Andy escaped through the tunnel and used the prison's sewage pipe to reach freedom. Andy escapes with Norton's suit, shoes, and the ledger containing details of the money laundering. While guards search for him the following morning, Andy poses as Randall Stephens and visits several banks to withdraw the laundered money. Finally, he mails the ledger and evidence of the corruption and murders at Shawshank to a local newspaper. The police arrive at Shawshank and take Hadley into custody, while Norton commits suicide to avoid arrest.

After serving 40 years, Red is finally paroled. He struggles to adapt to life outside prison and fears he never will. Remembering his promise to Andy, he visits Buxton and finds a cache containing money and a letter asking him to come to Zihuatanejo. Red violates his parole and travels to Fort Hancock, Texas to cross the border to Mexico, admitting he finally feels hope. On a beach in Zihuatanejo he finds Andy, and the two friends are happily reunited.


  • Tim Robbins as Andy Dufresne. Kevin Costner, Tom Hanks and Brad Pitt were all offered the role but turned it down because of scheduling conflicts with Waterworld, Forrest Gump and Interview with the Vampire, respectively.
  • narrator; convicted of murder in 1927. Before Freeman was cast, Clint Eastwood, Harrison Ford, Paul Newman, and Robert Redford were each considered for the role. Although written as a middle-aged Irishman with greying red hair (as in the novella), Darabont cast Freeman for his authoritative presence and demeanor; he could not see anyone else as Red.[3] The short dialogue with Andy is a jest towards this casting decision, as when asked about the origin of his nickname, Red answers, "Maybe it's because I'm Irish."
  • Bob Gunton as Warden Samuel Norton. Although he is well versed in the Bible and presents himself as a pious, devout Christian and reform-minded administrator, his actions reveal him to be corrupt, ruthless, and remorseless.
  • William Sadler as Heywood, a member of Red's gang of long-serving convicts.
  • Clancy Brown as Capt. Byron Hadley, chief of the guards. Hadley is a sadistic guard who thinks nothing of delivering beatings to the inmates to keep them in line. When cast for the role, Brown declined the offer to study real-life prison guards as preparation for his role, because he felt that he would end up with too many inspirations to balance.[4]
  • Gil Bellows as Tommy Williams, a young convict whose experiences in a previous prison hold the truth about Andy's innocence.
  • Mark Rolston as Bogs Diamond, the head of "The Sisters" gang and a prison rapist.
  • James Whitmore as Brooks Hatlen, prison librarian/trustee and one of the oldest convicts at Shawshank, having been in prison since 1905. Darabont cast Whitmore because he was one of his favorite character actors.[3]
  • Jeffrey DeMunn as the prosecuting attorney in Andy Dufresne's trial.


Chicago Sun-Times film reviewer Roger Ebert suggested that The Shawshank Redemption is an allegory for maintaining one's feeling of self-worth when placed in a hopeless position. Andy Dufresne's integrity is an important theme in the story line, especially in prison, where integrity is lacking.[5]

Isaac M. Morehouse suggests that the film provides a great illustration of how characters can be free, even in prison, or unfree, even in freedom, based on one's outlook on life.[6]


Frank Darabont secured the film adaptation rights from author Stephen King after impressing the author with his short film adaptation of The Woman in the Room in 1983. Although the two had become friends and maintained a pen-pal relationship, Darabont did not work with him until four years later in 1987, when he optioned to adapt Shawshank.[7] This is one of the more famous Dollar Deals made by King with aspiring filmmakers. Darabont later directed The Green Mile (1999), which was based on another work about a prison by Stephen King, and then followed that up with an adaptation of King's novella The Mist.

Rob Reiner, who had previously adapted another King novella, The Body, into the film Stand by Me (1986), offered $2.5 million in an attempt to write and direct Shawshank. He planned to cast Tom Cruise in the part of Andy and Harrison Ford as Red. Darabont seriously considered and liked Reiner's vision, but he ultimately decided it was his "chance to do something really great" by directing the film himself.[3]

Ohio State Reformatory, also known as the Mansfield Reformatory, served as the fictional Shawshank Prison

Though the film is set in Maine, the Gary Cooper role, Tim Robbins is unable to make Andy connect with the audience."[18]


The film was nominated for seven Academy Awards in 1994 without winning in any category: Best Picture, Best Actor for Freeman, Best Adapted Screenplay for Frank Darabont, Best Cinematography for Roger Deakins, Best Editing for Richard Francis-Bruce, Best Original Score for Thomas Newman, and Best Sound Mixing for Robert J. Litt, Elliot Tyson, Michael Herbick and Willie D. Burton.[19] It received two Golden Globe Award nominations for Best Performance by an Actor in a Motion Picture for Freeman, and Best Screenplay for Darabont.[20] Robbins and Freeman were both nominated for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Leading Role at the inaugural Screen Actors Guild Awards in 1995.[21] Darabont was nominated for a Directors Guild of America award in 1994 for Best Director for a feature film,[22] while cinematographer Roger Deakins won the American Society of Cinematographers award for Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography.[23]

Home media

Despite its disappointing box office return, Warner Bros. shipped 320,000 rental video copies throughout the United States, and it became one of the top rented films of 1995. The film's home viewing success was considered to be based on positive recommendations and repeat customers.[24] The film's Academy Award nominations enabled it to fare well in the video sales and cable TV viewings. In June 1997, TNT, an American cable network, showed the film for the first time. The film was the first feature in TNT's Saturday Night New Classics. A 2004 Sunday Times article suggested that TNT aired the film frequently from then on, about once every two months.[2] TV airings of the film accrued record breaking numbers.[24]


The score was composed by Thomas Newman and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Score in 1994, which was his first Oscar nomination. Much of the score consists of faint piano music, and pizzicato strings during the more active or humorous moments. The score's two main themes only occur two or three times. The prison theme, first heard in the beginning, is a four note ascending line in the bass, which is developed and reaches its climax when Andy is standing in the river in the rain. The second theme represents freedom, and is first heard when the inmates are sharing beer, feeling like 'free men.' This theme doesn't reoccur until the final credits, this time grander, with fuller orchestration. Like Hans Zimmer's score to the "Thin Red Line", the track is often played in trailers during their most dramatic moments. Zimmer himself has credited the score as the one "that has influenced everything the most" and that Newman opened up the harmonic palette of film scores. A central scene in the film features the "Letter Duet" ("Canzonetta sull'aria") from Mozart's The Marriage of FigaroAct 3 , K. 492,.

Also known, in Italian as, "Sull'aria...che soave zeffiretto" meaning a duettino, or a short duet. In the duettino, Countess Almaviva (a soprano) dictates to Susanna (also a soprano) the invitation to a tryst addressed to the countess' husband in a plot to expose his infidelity.

Ellis Boyd "Red" Redding (Morgan Freeman) remarks in his voice-over narration: "I have no idea to this day what those two Italian ladies were singing about. [...] I'd like to think they were singing about something so beautiful it can't be expressed in words, and it makes your heart ache because of it." The music highlights the irony in the movie as the opera characters are singing about a duplicitous love letter to expose infidelity. Both Red and Andy Dufresne are in prison for murdering their respectively unfaithful spouse.


In 1998, Shawshank was not listed in AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies, but nine years later (2007), it was #72 on the revised list, outranking both Forrest Gump (#76) and Pulp Fiction (#94), the two most critically acclaimed movies from the year of Shawshank's release. In 1999, film critic Roger Ebert listed Shawshank on his "Great Movies" list.[25] It has been #1 on IMDb's user-generated Top 250 since 2008, when it surpassed The Godfather.[26]

Readers of Empire magazine voted the film as the best film of the 1990s, and it placed number 4 on Empire '​s list of "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time" in 2008.[24][27] In March 2011, the film was voted by BBC Radio 1 and BBC Radio 1Xtra listeners as their favorite film of all time.[28] Additionally, the Writers Guild of America included Frank Darabont's screenplay on its 101 Greatest Screenplays list, at number twenty-two.

In the Christian parody film, Believe Me (film), when discussing different stances for worship, one student labels the stance for standing with your hands over your head, raised in the air, "The Shawshank", referencing the scene at the end of the film. [29][30]

Year Award Nominee Ranking Ref.
1998 AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies The Shawshank Redemption N/A [31]
2003 AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains Andy Dufresne (Hero) N/A [32]
Warden Samuel Norton (Villain) N/A [32]
2004 AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs Duettino – Sull'Aria (from The Marriage of Figaro) N/A [33]
2005 AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes "Get busy livin’, or get busy dyin'" N/A [34]
2005 AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores Thomas Newman, The Shawshank Redemption N/A [35]
2006 AFI's 100 Years...100 Cheers The Shawshank Redemption #23 [36]
2007 AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) The Shawshank Redemption #72 [37]
2008 Empire's 500 Greatest Movies of All Time The Shawshank Redemption #4 [27]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d "Shawshank Redemption".  
  2. ^ a b Gilbey, Ryan (2004-09-26). "Film: Why are we still so captivated?".  
  3. ^ a b c Audio commentary with director and writer Frank Darabont
  4. ^ Shawshank: The Redeeming Feature DVD Documentary
  5. ^  
  6. ^ Morehouse, Isaac M. (2008-10-03). "Stop Worrying about the Election". Mises Daily.  
  7. ^ Rauzi, Robin (1993-12-01). "Doing 'Redemption' Time in a Former Prison".  
  8. ^ a b c d e "Cleveland: The Shawshank Redemption prison".  
  9. ^ Whitmire, Lou (July 29, 2011). Shawshank' tree ripped by high wind"'".  
  10. ^ Destries, Michael (July 30, 2012). "Good News: The Shawshank Oak Tree is Alive and Well".  
  11. ^
  12. ^ Gordon, Sarah (April 9, 2014). "Public health warning closes Mexican beach made famous by Shawshank Redemption".  
  13. ^ The Shawshank Redemption – Did you know?
  14. ^ a b "The Shawshank Redemption (1994) – Weekend Box Office Results – Box Office Mojo". Retrieved 2011-04-29. 
  15. ^ "The Shawshank Redemption". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved 2010-08-19. 
  16. ^ "The Shawshank Redemption". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 2010-08-19. 
  17. ^ This claim is made by Alexander Hooke in issue 102 of Philosophy Now, accessible here (link, accessed 3rd June 2014.
  18. ^ a b  
  19. ^ "The 67th Academy Awards (1995) Nominees and Winners". 
  20. ^ "THE 52ND ANNUAL GOLDEN GLOBE AWARDS (1995)". Golden Globes. Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Retrieved September 30, 2012. 
  21. ^ "The Inaugural Screen Actors Guild Awards". Screen Actors Guild Awards.  
  22. ^ Dutka, Elaine (January 24, 1995). "DGA Nods: What's It Mean for the Oscars? : Movies: The surprising nominations of Frank Darabont ("Shawshank Redemption") and Mike Newell ("Four Weddings and a Funeral") may throw a twist into the Academy Awards".  
  23. ^ "9th Annual ASC Awards – 1994". American Society of Cinematographers Awards ( 
  24. ^ a b c Kermode, Mark (August 22, 2004). "Hope springs eternal".  
  25. ^  
  26. ^ Monaco, Paul (May 5, 2010). A History of American Movies: A Film-by-Film Look at the Art, Craft, and Business of Cinema. Scarecrow Press. p. 286.  
  27. ^ a b "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time". Empire. Bauer Consumer Media. 2008. Retrieved September 30, 2011. 
  28. ^ "Radio 1 Movies Blog". BBC. Retrieved 2011-04-29. 
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^ "America's Greatest Movies". AFI. Retrieved July 1, 2013. 
  32. ^ a b "AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains". AFI. Retrieved July 1, 2013. 
  33. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs". AFI. Retrieved July 1, 2013. 
  34. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes". AFI. Retrieved July 1, 2013. 
  35. ^ "AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores". AFI. Retrieved July 1, 2013. 
  36. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Cheers". AFI. Retrieved July 1, 2013. 
  37. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies -- 10th Anniversary Edition". AFI. Retrieved July 1, 2013. 

Further reading

  • Oliver, Simon; Watts, Pete. and The Bible"Shawshank Redemption". Bibledex Verses.   A discussion of Bible verses in the movie.
  • Turner, Cory (August 4, 2011). "On Location: Mansfield, Ohio's 'Shawshank' Industry".  

External links

The Shawshank Redemption garnered widespread critical acclaim from critics and has a "certified fresh" score of 91% on Rotten Tomatoes based on 64 reviews with an average rating of 8.2 out of 10. The critical consensus states "The Shawshank Redemption is an uplifting, deeply satisfying prison drama with sensitive direction and fine performances."[15] The film also has a score of 80 out of 100 on Metacritic based on 19 critics indicating "generally favorable reviews'.[16] The film has been critically acclaimed for depicting Jean-Paul Sartre's ideas about existentialism more fully than any other contemporary movie.[17]

Critical response

It was later re-released in February 1995, during the Oscar season, and made an additional $9 million.[14] In total the film made approximately $28.3 million in North American theaters, making it the number 51 highest grossing film of 1994 and the number 21 highest grossing R-rated film of 1994.[1]

The Shawshank Redemption received a limited release on September 23, 1994 in North America. During its opening weekend, the film earned $727,000 from 33 theaters—an average of $22,040 per theater. It received a wide release on October 14, 1994, expanding to a total of 944 theaters to earn $2.4 million—an average of $2,545 per theater—finishing as the number 9 film of the weekend.[1] The film left theaters in late November 1994, after 10 weeks with an approximate total gross of $16 million.[14]


The film was dedicated to Allen Greene, an agent and a close personal friend of the film's director, Frank Darabont. Greene died shortly before the film was released due to complications of HIV/AIDS.[13]

The beach at Zihuatanejo made famous by the film has recently been closed to the public due to a health warning as a result of high levels of pollution in the water.[12]

Just as a prison in Ohio stood in for a fictional one in Maine, the beach scenes shown in the final minutes of the film that were meant to portray Zihuatanejo, Mexico were actually shot in the Caribbean on the island of St.Croix, one of the U.S. Virgin Islands. The beach at ‘Zihuatanejo’ is Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge, a two-mile crescent of sand just south of Frederiksted on the southwestern tip of the island. The refuge is a hatching ground for leatherback turtles, and open only at limited times (10am to 4pm on Saturdays and Sundays), and not at all during the breeding season. [11]


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