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Thirty-seventh Congress

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Thirty-seventh Congress

37th United States Congress
United States Capitol (1861)

Duration: March 4, 1861 – March 4, 1863

Senate President: Hannibal Hamlin
Senate Pres. pro tem: Solomon Foot
House Speaker: Galusha A. Grow
Members: 50 Senators
183 Representatives
7 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Republican
House Majority: Republican

Sessions
Special: March 4, 1861 – March 28, 1861
1st: July 4, 1861 – August 6, 1861
2nd: December 2, 1861 – July 17, 1862
3rd: December 1, 1862 – March 4, 1863
<36th 38th>

The Thirty-seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1861 to March 4, 1863, during the first two years of Abraham Lincoln's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Seventh Census of the United States in 1850. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

Contents

Major events

Two special sessions

The Senate, a continuing body, was called into special session by President Buchanan, meeting in March 1861, to address national issues. It confirmed calling forth troops and raising money. The border states and Texas were still represented. Shortly after the Senate session adjourned, Fort Sumter was attacked. The immediate results were to draw four additional states[9] "into the confederacy with their more Southern sisters", and Lincoln called Congress into extraordinary session on July 4, 1861.[10]

Both Houses then duly met July 4, 1861. Seven states which would send representatives held their state elections for Representative over the months of May to June 1861.[11] Members taking their seats had been elected before the secession crisis, during the formation of the Confederate government, and after Fort Sumter.[6]

Once assembled with a quorum in the House, Congress approved Lincoln's war powers innovations as necessary to preserve the Union.[12] Following the July Federal defeat at First Manassas, the Crittenden Resolution[13] asserted the reason for "the present deplorable civil war." It was meant as an address to the nation, especially to the Border States at a time of U.S. military reverses, when the war support in border state populations was virtually the only thing keeping them in the Union.[14]

Following resignations and expulsions occasioned by the outbreak of the Civil War, five states had some degree of dual representation in the U.S and the C.S. Congresses. Congress accredited Members elected running in these five as Unionist (19), Democratic (6), Constitutional Unionist (1) and Republican (1). All ten Kentucky and all seven Missouri representatives were accepted. The other three states seated four of thirteen representatives from Virginia, three of ten Tennesseans, and two of four from Louisiana.[15]

The Crittenden Resolution declared the civil war "… has been forced upon the country by the disunionists of the southern States…" and it would be carried out for the supremacy of the Constitution and the preservation of the Union, and, that accomplished, "the war ought to cease". Democrats seized on this document, especially its assurances of no conquest or overthrowing domestic institutions (emancipation of slaves).[14]

Steps to emancipation - by Congress, Generals and Lincoln

Slaves and slavery

Congressional policy and military strategy were intertwined. In the first regular March session, Republicans superseded the Crittenden Resolution, removing the prohibition against emancipation of slaves.[14]

In South Carolina, Gen. David Hunter, issued a General Order in early May 1861 freeing all slaves in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. President Lincoln quickly rescinded the order, reserving this "supposed power" to his own discretion if it were indispensable to saving the Union.[16] Later in the same month without directly disobeying Lincoln's prohibition against emancipation, General Benjamin Butler at Fort Monroe Virginia declared slaves escaped into his lines as "contraband of war", that is, forfeit to their rebel owners.[17] On May 24, Congress followed General Butler's lead, and passed the First Confiscation Act in August, freeing slaves used for rebellion.[18]

In Missouri, John C. Frémont, the 1856 Republican nominee for President, exceeded his authority as a General, declaring that all slaves held by rebels within his military district would be freed.[18] Republican majorities in Congress responded on opening day of the December Session. Sen. Lyman Trumbull introduced a bill for confiscation of rebel property and emancipation for their slaves. "Acrimonious debate on confiscation proved a major preoccupation" of Congress.[14] On March 13, 1862, Congress directed the armies of the United States to stop enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act. The next month, the Congress abolished slavery in the District of Columbia with compensation for loyal citizens. An additional Confiscation Act in July declared free all slaves held by citizens in rebellion, but it had no practical effect without addressing where the act would take effect, or how ownership was to be proved.[19]

Lincoln's preliminary Emancipation Proclamation was issued September 22, 1862.[19] It became the principle issue before the public in the mid-term elections that year for the 38th Congress. But Republican majorities in both houses held (see 'Congress as a campaign machine' below), and the Republicans actually increased their majority in the Senate.[20]

On January 1, 1863, the war measure by executive proclamation directed the army and the navy to treat all escaped slaves as free when entering Union lines from territory still in rebellion. The measure would take effect when the escaped slave entered Union lines and loyalty of the previous owner was irrelevant.[21] Congress passed enabling legislation to carry out the Proclamation including "Freedman's Bureau" legislation.[22] The practical effect was a massive internal evacuation of Confederate slave labor, and augmenting Union Army teamsters, railroad crews and infantry for the duration of the Civil War.

Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War

Congress assumed watchdog responsibilities with this and other investigating committees.

The principle conflict between the president and congress was found in the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War. Eight thick volumes of testimony were filled with investigations of Union defeats and contractor scandals.

They were highly charged with partisan opinions "vehemently expressed" by chair Benjamin Wade of Ohio, Representative George Washington Julian of Indiana, and Zachariah Chandler of Michigan.[23]

Sen. Chandler, who had been one of McClellan's advocates promoting his spectacular rise,[24] particularly documented criticism of McClellan's Peninsular Campaign with its circuitous maneuvering, endless entrenchment and murderous camp diseases. It led to support for his dismissal.

A congressional committee could ruin a reputation, without itself having any military expertise. It would create the modern Congressional era in which generals fought wars with Congress looking over their shoulders, "and with public opinion following closely behind."[23]

Republican Platform goals

Republican majorities in both houses, apart from pro-union Democrats, and without vacant southern delegations, were able to enact their party platform. These included the Legal Tender Act, February 20, 1862, and increases in the tariff that amounted to protective tariffs. The Homestead Act, May 20, 1862, for government lands, and the Morrill Land Grant Act, July 2, 1862, for universities promoting practical arts in agriculture and mining, had no immediate war purpose. But they would have long range effects, as would the Pacific Railroad Act, July 1, 1862, for a transcontinental railroad.[25]

Treasury innovations were driven by Secretary Salmon P. Chase and necessity of war. The Income Tax of 1861, numerous taxes on consumer goods such as whiskey, and a national currency all began in Civil War Congresses.[25]

Congress as election machinery

Member's floor speeches were not meant to be persuasive, but for publication in partisan newspapers. The real audience was the constituents back home. Congressional caucuses organized and funded political campaigns, publishing pamphlet versions of speeches and circulating them by the thousands free of postage on the member's franking privilege. Party congressional committees stayed in Washington during national campaigns, keeping an open flow of subsidized literature pouring back into the home districts.[26]

Nevertheless, like other Congresses in the 1850s and 1860s, this Congress would see less than half of its membership reelected.[27] The characteristic turmoil found in the "3rd Party Period, 1855-1896" stirred political party realignment in the North even in the midst of civil war. In this Congress, failure to gain nomination and loss at the general election together accounted for a Membership turnover of 25%.[28]

This Congress in the generations cycle


This first Civil War Congress was one of the last with a plurality of members drwan from the "Transcendental" generation born between 1792 and 1821.[29] They accounted for 87% of the national leadership, with 12% from the upcoming Gilded Age, and only 1% from the older Compromise Generation.[30] As an age cohort, they were idealistic and exalted "inner truth" on both sides of the Civil War, with neither side prepared to compromise its principles. Those few Compromisers left with a voice were pushed to the side. Representative Thaddeus Stevens was typical of his Transcendentalist generations northern expression: "Instruments of war are not selected on account of their harmlessness ... lay waste to the whole South."[31]

Major legislation

Main article: Major legislation: 37th United States Congress


  • August 5, 1861: 292
  • August 6, 1861: 319
  • February 25, 1862: Legal Tender Act of 1862, Sess. 2, ch. 33, 12 345
  • April 16, 1862: Slavery in the District of Columbia abolished, Sess. 2, ch. 54, 12 376
  • May 15, 1862: An Act to Establish a Department of Agriculture, Sess. 2, ch. 72, 12 387
  • May 20, 1862: Homestead Act, Sess. 2, ch. 75, 12 392
  • June 19, 1862: An Act to secure Freedom to all persons within the Territories of the United States, Sess. 2, ch 111, 12 432
  • July 1, 1862: 501
  • July 1, 1862: 432
  • July 1, 1862: 489
  • July 2, 1862: 503
  • July 17, 1862: 597
  • February 25, 1863: 665
  • March 2, 1863: 696
  • March 3, 1863: 731
  • March 3, 1863: Habeas Corpus Suspension Act, Sess. 3, ch. 81, 12 755
  • March 3, 1863: Tenth Circuit Act, 12 794

States admitted and seceded and Territories organized

States admitted

  • December 31, 1862: 633, pending a presidential proclamation. (It became a state on June 20, 1863)

Territories organized or changed

  • July 14, 1862: 575
  • February 24, 1863: 664
  • March 3, 1863: 808

Secession

Congress did not accept secession. Most of the Representatives and Senators from states that attempted to secede left Congress; those who took part in the rebellion were expelled.

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

Template:USCongress Party summary

House of Representatives

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority/pluality caucus)
Total
Constitutional
Unionist

(CU)
Democratic
(D)
Independent
Democratic
(ID)
Republican
(R)
Unionist
(U)
Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 0 6 56 116 0 32 210 29
Begin 2 44 1 107 23 0 178 63
End 1 45 106 30 183 57
Final voting share 0.5% 24.6% 0.5% 57.9% 16.4% 0.0%
Beginning of the next Congress 0 72 0 85 9 14 180 61

Leadership

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1862; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1864; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1866.

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are listed by their districts. Once source reports no Virginians in this Congress,[37] while another source recognizes five.[6]

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

Template:Ordinal US Congress Senate |- | Missouri (3) | Vacant | style="font-size:80%" | Did not take seat until after Congress commenced | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Waldo P. Johnson (D) | March 17, 1861 |- | Kansas (2) | Vacant | style="font-size:80%" | Election not recognized by US Senate | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | James H. Lane (R) | April 4, 1861 |- | Kansas (3) | Vacant | style="font-size:80%" | Election not recognized by US Senate | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Samuel C. Pomeroy (R) | April 4, 1861 |- | Pennsylvania (1) | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Simon Cameron (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned March 4, 1861 to become Secretary of War. Successor was elected. | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | David Wilmot (R) | March 14, 1861 |- | North Carolina (2) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Thomas Bragg (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Withdrew[39] March 6, 1861; expelled later in 1861. | colspan=2 | Vacant thereafter |- | Ohio (3) | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Salmon P. Chase (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned March 7, 1861 to become Secretary of the Treasury. Successor was elected. | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | John Sherman (R) | March 21, 1861 |- | Texas (1) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Louis T. Wigfall (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Withdrew March 23, 1861 | Vacant | Vacant for remainder of term |- | North Carolina (3) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Thomas L. Clingman (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Withdrew[39] March 28, 1861; expelled later in 1861. | colspan=2 | Vacant thereafter |- | Virginia (2) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Robert M. T. Hunter (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Withdrew[39] March 28, 1861 and later expelled for support of the rebellion. Successor was elected. | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | John S. Carlile (U) | July 9, 1861 |- | Virginia (1) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | James M. Mason (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Expelled March 28, 1861 for supporting the rebellion. Successor was elected. | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | Waitman T. Willey (U) | July 9, 1861 |- | Illinois (2) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Stephen A. Douglas (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Died June 3, 1861. Successor was appointed. | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Orville H. Browning (R) | June 26, 1861 |- | Texas (2) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | John Hemphill (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Expelled July ????, 1861 | Vacant | Vacant for remainder of term |- | Illinois (2) | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Orville H. Browning (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Retired January 12, 1863 upon election of a successor. | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | William A. Richardson (D) | January 30, 1863 |- | Arkansas (2) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | William K. Sebastian (D) | colspan=2 rowspan=2 style="font-size:80%" | Expelled July 11, 1861 | colspan=2 rowspan=2 | Vacant thereafter |- | Arkansas (3) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Charles B. Mitchel (D) |- | Michigan (2) | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Kinsley S. Bingham (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Died October 5, 1861. Successor was elected. | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Jacob M. Howard (R) | January 17, 1862 |- | Oregon (2) | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Edward D. Baker (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Killed at Battle of Ball's Bluff October 21, 1861. Successor was appointed. | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Benjamin Stark (D) | October 29, 1861 |- | Kentucky (3) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | John C. Breckinridge (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Expelled December 4, 1861 for supporting the rebellion. Successor was elected. | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | Garrett Davis (U) | December 23, 1861 |- | Missouri (1) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Trusten Polk (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Expelled January 10, 1862 for supporting the rebellion. Successor was appointed. | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | John B. Henderson (U) | January 17, 1862 |- | Missouri (3) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Waldo P. Johnson (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Expelled January 10, 1862 for disloyalty to the government. Successor was appointed. | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | Robert Wilson (U) | January 17, 1862 |- | Indiana (1) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Jesse D. Bright (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Expelled February 5, 1862 on charges of disloyalty. Successor was appointed. | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | Joseph A. Wright (U) | February 24, 1862 |- | Tennessee (1) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Andrew Johnson (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned March 4, 1862 | colspan=2 | Vacant thereafter |- | Rhode Island (1) | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | James F. Simmons (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned August 15, 1862. Successor was elected. | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Samuel G. Arnold (R) | December 1, 1862 |- | New Jersey (1) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | John R. Thomson (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Died September 12, 1862. Successor was appointed. | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Richard S. Field (R) | November 21, 1862 |- | Oregon (2) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Benjamin Stark (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Retired September 12, 1862 upon election of a successor. | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Benjamin F. Harding (D) | September 12, 1862 |- | Maryland (3) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | James Pearce (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Died December 20, 1862. Successor was appointed. | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | Thomas H. Hicks (U) | December 29, 1862 |- | Indiana (1) | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | Joseph A. Wright (U) | style="font-size:80%" | Retired January 14, 1863 upon election of a successor. | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | David Turpie (D) | January 14, 1863 |- | New Jersey (1) | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Richard S. Field (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Retired January 14, 1863 upon election of a successor. | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | James W. Wall (D) | January 14, 1863 |}

House of Representatives

Template:Ordinal US Congress Rep |- | Colorado Territory At-large | colspan=2 | New seat | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Hiram P. Bennett
(Conservative R) | August 19, 1861 |- | Nevada Territory At-large | colspan=2 | New seat | nowrap | John Cradlebaugh | December 2, 1861 |- | Dakota Territory At-large | colspan=2 | New seat | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | John B. S. Todd
(D) | December 9, 1861 |- | Louisiana 1st | colspan=2 | Vacant | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | Benjamin F. Flanders (U) | December 3, 1862 |- | Louisiana 2nd | colspan=2 | Vacant | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | Michael Hahn (U) | December 3, 1862 |- | Tennessee 3rd | Vacant | style="font-size:80%" | Representative-elect George W. Bridges was arrested by Confederate troops while en route to Washington, D.C. and held prisoner before he escaped. | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | George W. Bridges (U) | February 25, 1863 |- | Virginia 1st | colspan=2 | Vacant | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | Joseph E. Segar (U) | May 6, 1862[38] |- | California At-large | Vacant | style="font-size:80%" | Low not permitted to take seat, qualified later under special act of Congress | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Frederick F. Low (R) | June 3, 1862 |- | Virginia 7th | colspan=2 | Vacant | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | Charles H. Upton (U) | July 4, 1861[38] |- | Ohio 7th | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Thomas Corwin (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned March 12, 1861 to become Minister to Mexico | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | Richard A. Harrison (U) | July 4, 1861 |- | Ohio 13th | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | John Sherman (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned March 12, 1861 when elected U.S. Senator | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Samuel T. Worcester (R) | July 4, 1861 |- | Pennsylvania 12th | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | George W. Scranton (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Died March 24, 1861 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Hendrick B. Wright (D) | July 4, 1861 |- | Massachusetts 3rd | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Charles F. Adams, Sr. (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned May 1, 1861 to become Ambassador to Great Britain | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | Benjamin Thomas (U) | June 11, 1861 |- | Pennsylvania 2nd | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Edward Joy Morris (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned June 8, 1861 to become Minister Resident to Turkey | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Charles J. Biddle (D) | July 2, 1861 |- | Virginia 11th | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | John S. Carlile (U) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned July 9, 1861 to become United States Senator from the loyal faction of Virginia | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | Jacob B. Blair (U) | December 2, 1861 |- | Missouri 3rd | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | John B. Clark (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Expelled July 13, 1861 for having taken up arms against the Union | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | William A. Hall (D) | January 20, 1862 |- | Oregon At-large | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Andrew J. Thayer (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Election was successfully contested July 30, 1861 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | George K. Shiel (D) | July 30, 1861 |- | Missouri 5th | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | John W. Reid (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Withdrew August 3, 1861 and then expelled December 2, 1861 for having taken up arms against the Union | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Thomas L. Price (D) | January 21, 1862 |- | Iowa 1st | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Samuel Curtis (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned August 4, 1861 to become colonel of the 2nd Iowa Infantry | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | James F. Wilson (R) | October 8, 1861 |- | Massachusetts 5th | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | William Appleton (CU) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned September 27, 1861 due to failing health | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Samuel Hooper (R) | December 2, 1861 |- | Illinois 6th | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | John A. McClernand (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned October 28, 1861 to accept a commission as brigadier general of volunteers for service in the Civil War | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Anthony L. Knapp (D) | December 12, 1861 |- | Kentucky 1st | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Henry C. Burnett (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Expelled December 3, 1861 for support of secession | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | Samuel L. Casey (U) | March 10, 1862 |- | Kentucky 2nd | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | James S. Jackson (U) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned December 13, 1861 to enter the Union Army | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | George H. Yeaman (U) | December 1, 1862 |- | Virginia 7th | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | Charles H. Upton (U) | style="font-size:80%" | Declared not entitled to seat February 27, 1862 | nowrap style="background:#FFBBFF" | Lewis McKenzie (U) | February 16, 1863 |- | Illinois 9th | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | John A. Logan (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned April 2, 1862 to enter the Union Army | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | William J. Allen (D) | June 2, 1862 |- | Pennsylvania 7th | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Thomas B. Cooper (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Died April 4, 1862 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | John D. Stiles (D) | June 3, 1862 |- | Massachusetts 9th | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Goldsmith F. Bailey (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Died May 8, 1862 | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Amasa Walker (R) | December 1, 1862 |- | Maine 2nd | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Charles W. Walton (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned May 26, 1862 to become associate justice of the Maine Supreme Judicial Court | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Thomas A. D. Fessenden (R) | December 1, 1862 |- | Missouri 1st | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Francis P. Blair, Jr. (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned July 1862 to become colonel in Union Army | Vacant | Vacant for remainder of term |- | Wisconsin 2nd | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Luther Hanchett (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Died November 24, 1862 | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Walter D. McIndoe (R) | January 26, 1863 |- | Illinois 5th | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | William A. Richardson (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned January 29, 1863 after being elected to US Senate | Vacant | Vacant for remainder of term |}

Committees

Senate

Standing committees of the Senate resolved, Friday, March 8, 1861[40]

House of Representatives

Members by committee assignments, Congressional Globe, as published July 8, 1861[41] Spellings conform to those found in the Congressional Biographical Dictionary.

Unless otherwise noted, all committees listed are Standing, as found at the Library of Congress[42]

Joint committees

Enrolled Bills

Library

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

References

External links

  • Statutes at Large, 1789-1875
  • Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress
  • House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress

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