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Tiruchirapalli

Tiruchirappalli
திருச்சிராப்பள்ளி
Trichy
City
Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam
Nickname(s): Rockfort city
Tiruchirappalli
Tiruchirappalli

Coordinates: 10°48′18″N 78°41′08″E / 10.80500°N 78.68556°E / 10.80500; 78.68556Coordinates: 10°48′18″N 78°41′08″E / 10.80500°N 78.68556°E / 10.80500; 78.68556

Country India
State Tamil Nadu
Region Chola Nadu
District Tiruchirappalli
zone central
Government
 • Mayor A. Jaya
Area
 • City 146.90 km2 (56.72 sq mi)
Elevation 88 m (289 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • City 846,915
 • Rank 47th
 • Density 5,800/km2 (15,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[2] 1,021,717
Languages
 • Official Tamil
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 620 xxx
Telephone code 0431
Vehicle registration TN-45,TN-48,TN-81
Website [3]

Tiruchirappalli (tiruccirāppaḷḷi) (

Tiruchirappalli's history can be traced back to the pre-Christian era when it was a Chola citadel. The city is believed to be of significant antiquity and has been ruled, at different times, by the Early Cholas, Early Pandyas, Pallavas, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Later Pandyas, Delhi Sultanate, Madurai Sultanate, Vijayanagar Empire, Nayak Dynasty, the Carnatic state and the British. The archaeologically important town of Uraiyur, which served as the capital of the Early Cholas, is a suburb of Tiruchirappalli. The city played a critical role in the Carnatic Wars between the British and the French East India companies. Tiruchirappalli has a number of historical monuments, the Rockfort, Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam and the Jambukeswarar temple at Thiruvanaikaval being the most prominent among them.

Tiruchirappalli is an important educational hub in the state with nationally-recognised institutions such as the Anna University, Bharathidasan University, Indian Institutes of Management (IIM), National Institutes of Technology (NIT), Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) and the Tamil Nadu National Law School (NLS) having their campuses in the city. The factories of Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Golden Rock Railway Workshops, Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli (OFT) and Heavy Alloy Penetrator Project (HAPP) are located in Tiruchirappalli. The presence of a large number of energy equipment manufacturing units in and around the city has earned the nickname "Energy equipment and fabrication capital of India". Tiruchirappalli is internationally popular for a brand of cheroot known as the Trichinopoly cigar which was exported in large quantities to the United Kingdom in the 19th century. According to the National urban sanitation policy (2010) Tiruchirappalli, with an index of 59.02, features among the top ten cleanest cities in India.

Etymology

There are many theories regarding the etymology of the name Tiruchirappalli. It is believed to derive from the Sanskrit word "Trishirapuram"—'Trishira' meaning "three-headed" and 'palli' or 'puram' meaning "City".[5][6] According to Hindu mythology, the town got its name from the three-headed demon Trishira who meditated on the Hindu god Shiva near the present-day Tiruchirappalli and obtained favours at this place.[5] However, this derivation is not universally accepted.[5] A few sources also mention that the city was named Natharnagar after the Sufi saint Nathar Vali who is said to have lived here in the 12th century AD.[7][8]

Other derivations of Tiruchirappalli have been provided by the Telugu scholar C. P. Brown who suggested that Tiruchirappalli might be a derivative of the word 'Chiruta-palli' meaning "little town".[5][6] In a rock inscription of the 16th century, Tiruchirappalli is mentioned as Tiru-ssila-palli, meaning "holy-rock-town" in Tamil. Orientalists Henry Yule and Arthur Coke Burnell believed that the name Tiruchirappalli may have derived from it.[5][6] A few other scholars feel that the name Tiruchirappalli is a rewording of Tiru-chinna-palli, meaning "holy little town".[5][6] The Madras Glossary gives the root as Tiruććināppalli or the "holy (tiru) village (palli) of the shina (Cissampelos pareira) plant".[6]

Historically in English, Tiruchirappalli was commonly referred to as "Trichinopoly".[9] The shortened forms "Trichy" or "Tiruchi" are more frequently used in common parlance.[10][11]

History

Early and medieval history

Tiruchirappalli is one of the oldest inhabited cities in Tamil Nadu, its earliest settlements dating back to the second millennium BC.[12] Uraiyur, which served as the capital of the Early Cholas from the 3rd century BC to the 3rd century AD[13] is identified by some with a suburb of present-day Tiruchirappalli.[14][15] The city is mentioned as "Orthoura" by the historian Ptolemy—2nd century AD—in his Geography.[16] The world's oldest surviving dam, the Kallanai (Lower Anaicut), built by Karikala Chola in 2nd century AD across the Kaveri River is about 24 kilometres (15 mi) from Uraiyur.[17]


The medieval history of Tiruchirappalli begins with the reign of the Pallava king Mahendravarman I who ruled over South India in the 6th century AD. Mahendravarman constructed the cave-temples within the Rockfort.[18][19][20] Following the downfall of the Pallavas in the 8th century AD, Tiruchirappalli was conquered by the Medieval Cholas who ruled till the 13th century AD.[21]

When the Chola Empire began to decline, Tiruchirappalli was conquered by the Pandyas[22] who ruled from 1216 until their defeat by Malik Kafur, the commander of Allauddin Khilji, in 1311.[23][24] The victorious armies of the Delhi Sultanate are believed to have plundered and ravaged the region.[23][24][25] The idol of the Hindu god Ranganatha in the temple of Srirangam disappeared at about this time and was not recovered and reinstated until more than fifty years later.[24][25] Tiruchirappalli was ruled by the Delhi and Madurai sultanates from 1311 to 1378. By the middle of the 14th century, the Madurai Sultanate had begun to decline.[26] Gradually, the Vijayanagar Empire began to establish their supremacy over the northern parts of the kingdom, and Tiruchirappalli was taken by the Vijayanagar prince Kumara Kampanna Udaiyar in 1371.[27] The empire ruled the region from 1378 till the 1530s. The Vijayanagar Empire played a prominent role in reviving Hinduism by reconstructing temples and monuments that were previously destroyed by the Muslim rulers.[28] When the Vijayanagar Empire began to decline in the early part of the 16th century, the Madurai Nayak kingdom began to assert its independence.[29][30][31] It was during the reign of Vishwanatha Nayak the city flourished; he is said to have protected the place by constructing the Teppakulam and built walls around the Srirangam temple.[32][33] His successor Kumara Krishnappa Nayaka made Tiruchirappalli his capital;[33] it continued to serve as the capital of the Madurai Nayak kingdom from 1616 to 1634 and from 1665 to 1736.[34][35][36]

In 1736, the last Madurai Nayak ruler Meenakshi committed suicide and Tiruchirappalli was conquered by Chanda Sahib.[31][37] Chanda Sahib ruled the kingdom from 1736 to 1741 when he was captured and imprisoned by the Marathas in the siege of Tiruchirappalli (1741) led by general Raghuji Bhonsle—under the order of Chhattrapati Shahu.[37][38][39] Chanda Sahib remained prisoner for a period of about eight years, when he managed to escape from the Maratha empire. Tiruchirappalli was administered by the Maratha general Murari Rao from 1741 to 1743, when it was invaded by the Nizam of Hyderabad who bribed Rao to hand over the city.[37][40] Nizam appointed Khwaja Abdullah as the ruler and went back to Golkonda.[41] When the Nawab of the Carnatic, Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah was dethroned by Chanda Sahib after the Battle of Ambur (1749), the former fled to Tiruchirappalli and set up his base there.[42][43][44] The subsequent siege of Tiruchirappalli (1751–1752) by Chanda Sahib took place during the Second Carnatic War between the British East India Company and Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah on one side and Chanda Sahib and the French East India Company on the other.[45] The British were successful in the war and Wallajah was restored to the throne. Tiruchirappalli was invaded by Nanjaraja and Hyder Ali of Mysore kingdom in 1753 and 1780, respectively, but both of these attacks were repulsed by the troops of the British East India Company.[46] A third attempt, by Tipu Sultan, son of Hyder Ali in 1793, ended in a stalemate;[47] as he was pursued by the British forces led by William Medows thus averting the attack.[48]

British rule

The Carnatic kingdom was annexed by the British in July 1801 as a consequence of the alleged discovery of secret correspondence, during the Anglo-Mysore Wars, between Tipu Sultan, an enemy of the Britishers, and Umdat Ul-Umra, son of Wallahjah and the Nawab at the time.[49] Tiruchirappalli was incorporated into the Madras Presidency, the same year, and the district of Trichinopoly was carved, with the city of Trichinopoly or Tiruchirappalli as its capital.[50]

During the Company Raj and later, the British Raj, Tiruchirappalli emerged as one of the most important cities in India. It was popular throughout the British Empire for its unique variety of cheroot known as the Trichinopoly cigar.[6] Tiruchirappalli was named the headquarters for the newly formed South Indian Railway Company in 1874 before relocating to Chennai in the early part of the 20th century.[51] According to the 1871 Indian census, the first in British India, Tiruchirappalli had a population of 76,530 making it the second largest city in Madras Presidency, next only to the capital city of Madras.[52]

Contemporary and modern history

Tiruchirappalli played an active role during the pre–independence era, as there were a number of strikes and non-violent protests during the Quit India Movement,[53] notably the South Indian Railway Strike that took place in 1928.[54] The city was the base for Vedaranyam salt march that was initiated by C. Rajagopalachari in parallel to the Dandi March in 1930.[55] Following India's independence in 1947, Tiruchirappalli remained a part of the Madras State, which in turn was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1969.[56] In the early 20th century, Tiruchirappalli grew further, achieving a decadal population growth rate of 36.9% during the period 1941–51.[57] However, post independence, Tiruchirappalli has fallen behind other cities as Salem and Coimbatore in terms of growth.[58][59][60] The city witnessed a major economic development in the 1960s with the commissioning of BHEL.[61][62] Attributing to the rapid growth of the city, M. G. Ramachandran, the then Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, drafted a plan to shift the administrative headquarters of the state to Tiruchirappalli.[63] A satellite town was also planned near Navalpattu which is located on the outskirts of the city. However, the idea was shelved by successive governments.[64]

Geography and climate

Tiruchchirappalli
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
14
 
30
20
 
 
5.4
 
33
21
 
 
9.5
 
35
23
 
 
51
 
37
26
 
 
65
 
37
26
 
 
35
 
37
27
 
 
61
 
36
26
 
 
86
 
35
26
 
 
147
 
35
25
 
 
192
 
32
24
 
 
132
 
30
23
 
 
84
 
29
21
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Indian Meteorological Department[65] For graphing purposes, the precipitation numbers of this graph are at a scale of 1:10.

Tiruchirappalli is located at 10°48′18″N 78°41′08″E / 10.8050°N 78.6856°E / 10.8050; 78.6856.[66] With an average elevation of 88 metres (289 ft).[67] it is located almost at the geographic centre of the state of Tamil Nadu.[57] The topology of Tiruchirappalli is nearly flat with a few isolated hillocks rising above the surface, the highest of which is the Rockfort.[68][69] The age of Rockfort is estimated to be around 3,800 million years old thus making it among the oldest rocks in the world.[70][71] Other prominent hillocks include the Golden Rock, Khajamalai,[72] and one each at Uyyakondan Thirumalai and Thiruverumbur.[73]

The land immediately surrounding the Kaveri is made up of fertile alluvial soil deposited by the Kaveri and its tributary, the Kollidam.[74] Further south, the surface is covered by poor-quality black soil.[74] The alluvial soil is conducive for agriculture and crops such as ragi (finger millet) and cholam (maize) are cultivated.[75] North-east of Tiruchirappalli runs a belt of Cretaceous rock known as the "Trichinopoly Group".[76] Layers of archaean rocks, granite and gneiss covered by a thin bed of conglomeratic laterite are found to the south-east of the city.[68] The region falls under Seismic Zone III, moderately vulnerable to earthquakes.[77]

Urban structure

Spread over an area of 167.23 square kilometres (64.57 sq mi),[4] Tiruchirappalli is situated on the plains between the Shevaroy Hills to the north and the Palni Hills to the south and south-west.[78] The city is situated at the head of the Kaveri Delta, which commences 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) from west where Kaveri branches into two streams to form the island of Srirangam.[79][80] Tiruchirappalli is completely surrounded by agricultural fields.[59] Densely–populated industrial and residential areas have recently emerged in the northern part of the city,[59] while the southern edge of the city too is occupied with residential areas.[59] The older part of Tiruchirappalli, situated within the Rockfort, is unplanned and congested while the adjoining newer sections are better executed.[81] Many of the old houses in Srirangam were constructed according to the shilpa sastras, the canonical texts of Hindu temple architecture.[82]

Climate

Tiruchirappalli experiences a tropical savanna climate—designated Aw under the Köppen climate classification—with no major change in temperature between summer and winter.[83][84] The climatology is generally characterised by high temperature and low humidity.[85] With an annual mean temperature of 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) and monthly average temperatures ranging between 25 °C (77 °F) and 32 °C (90 °F),[83] the city is the hottest in the state.[86] The hottest months are from March to May during which the city experiences frequent dust storms.[83] The maximum ever recorded temperature in Tiruchirappalli was 43.3 °C (109.9 °F) (on 2 May 1896),[87] while the lowest was observed on 6 February 1884 at 13.9 °C (57.0 °F).[88] The high level of temperature in the city have been attributed to the presence of two rivers—Kaveri and Kollidam— absence of greenery around the city.[86] As Tiruchirappalli is located in the Deccan Plateau, the days are extremely warm and dry while evenings are rendered cooler due to the cold winds that blow from the south-east.[83] The city experiences a moderate climate from June to September, tempered by heavy rain and thundershowers, and cool and balmy climate from December to February.[83] The average annual rainfall is 841.9 mm (33.15 in),[89] slightly less than the state's average of 945 mm (37.2 in).[90] Fog and dew are rare and occur only during the winter season.[91]

Climate data for Tiruchirapalli
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.1
(86.2)
32.6
(90.7)
35.1
(95.2)
36.9
(98.4)
37.4
(99.3)
36.7
(98.1)
35.7
(96.3)
35.4
(95.7)
34.5
(94.1)
32.2
(90)
30.1
(86.2)
29.2
(84.6)
33.8
(92.8)
Average low °C (°F) 20.3
(68.5)
20.9
(69.6)
23.0
(73.4)
25.8
(78.4)
26.4
(79.5)
26.5
(79.7)
25.9
(78.6)
25.5
(77.9)
24.7
(76.5)
23.9
(75)
22.7
(72.9)
21.2
(70.2)
23.9
(75)
Precipitation mm (inches) 14.3
(0.563)
5.4
(0.213)
9.5
(0.374)
50.5
(1.988)
65.2
(2.567)
34.9
(1.374)
60.6
(2.386)
85.5
(3.366)
146.6
(5.772)
191.5
(7.539)
131.8
(5.189)
84.4
(3.323)
880.2
(34.654)
Source: IMD

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Tiruchirappalli

According to the 2001 census, Tiruchirappalli had a population of 752,066 with in the municipal corporation limits with a total of 170,725 families.[92] The population density was recorded to be 5,127 /km2 (13,280 /sq mi) while the sex ratio stood at 1000.[93][94] With an urban agglomeration population of 866,354,[93] the Tiruchirappalli metropolitan area was ranked the fourth largest in Tamil Nadu and the 47th in India in 2001.[94] The city had an average literacy rate of 88.71%, much higher than the national average. 11.41% of the city's population was under 6 years of age. Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled tribes (ST) accounted for 10.51% and 0.44% of the total population respectively.[92] There are a total of 286 slums in the city with a population of about 162,000.[95]

As per the provisional results of the 2011 census, the population of the city was 846,915 with 1,025 females for every 1,000 males—well above the national average.[1] The corresponding urban agglomeration had a population of 1,021,717.[2] The daily floating population of the city is estimated at 0.25 million.[96]

The city's population is predominantly Hindu.[97] Muslims form nearly 20% of the total population.[98] There is a sizeable Christian population followed by Sikhs and Jains in smaller numbers.[99][100] The most widely spoken language is Tamil,[101] though there are also significantly large numbers of people speaking Telugu,[102] Gujarati,[103] Kannada and Malayalam.[104][105] The standard dialect of Tamil spoken is the Central Tamil dialect.[106][107] Saurashtrian is the mother tongue of the Patnūlkarars who migrated from Gujarat in the 16th century AD.[108] There is also a substantial population of Sri Lankan Tamil migrants, most of whom are housed in refugee camps on the outskirts of the city.[109][110] Roman Catholics in Tiruchirappalli are affiliated to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tiruchirapalli[111] while Protestants are affiliated to the Trichy–Tanjore Diocese of the Church of South India.[112] As a separate division of the Southern Railway is headquartered at Tiruchirappalli city, there is a considerably strong Anglo-Indian population in the city.[113][114]

Culture


A resident of Tiruchirappalli is generally referred to as a Tiruchiite.[115] Situated at the edge of the Kaveri Delta, the culture of Tiruchirappalli is similar to the Brahminical culture prevalent elsewhere in the delta.[116] With a substantial population of students and migrant industrial workers from different parts of India, Tiruchirappalli has a more cosmopolitan outlook than the surrounding countryside.[117][118] The main festival celebrated in Tiruchirappalli is Pongal, a regional harvest festival celebrated during the month of January. Jallikattu, a bull taming village sport played as a part of Pongal celebrations on the last day are occasionally held on the outskirts of the city.[119] Aadi Perukku,[120] Samayapuram flower festival,[121] Vaikunta Ekadasi,[122] Srirangam car festival,[123] Allur Jallathiru Vizha, and the Teppakulam float festival,[124] are some of the prominent local festivals. Bakrid is also widely celebrated owing to the substantial number of Muslims in the city.[125] Nation-wide festivals such as the Gregorian New Year,[126] Christmas, Deepavali[127] and Holi[128] are also celebrated in Tiruchirappalli.

The 12th century Tamil epic Kambaramayanam was recited at the Ranganathaswamy temple in Srirangam. Later in 1771, Rama Natakam, a musical drama based on Ramayana, written Arunachala Kavi was also delivered at the same place.[129] Tiruchirappalli was a home to some of the prominent Carnatic musicians—including Lalgudi Jayaraman, Srirangam Kannan and A. K. C. Natarajan—along with scholars such as T. S. Murugesan Pillai, Kundalam Rangachariar and K. A. P. Viswanatham.[130] Composers, poets and vocalists such as G. Ramanathan, T. K. Ramamoorthy,[131] Vaali and P. Madhuri who have made significant contributions to the Tamil film music hail from the city.[132]

Textile weaving, leather-work and gem cutting are some of the important crafts practised in Tiruchirappalli.[133] Wooden idols of Hindu gods and goddesses are sold at the crafts emporium, Poompuhar, run by the Government of Tamil Nadu.[134] The Trichy Travel Federation (TTF) was formed on 5 May 2009 to promote Tiruchirappalli as a favourable tourist destination.[135] The federation organises an annual food festival called Suvai.[136] Lack of infrastructure has been a major deterrent to the city's tourism industry.[137][138]

Landmarks


Once a part of the ancient Chola kingdom Tiruchirappalli has a number of exquisitely sculpted temples and fortresses.[140] Most of the temples, including the Rockfort temples, the Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam, the Jambukeswarar Temple at Thiruvanaikkaval, the Samayapuram Mariamman Temple, the Erumbeeswarar Temple and the temples in Urayur, are built in the Dravidian style of architecture[141]—the Ranganathaswamy Temple and Jambukeswarar Temple often being counted among the best examples of this style.[142][143][144] The rock-cut cave temples of Rockfort along with the gateway, and the Erumbeeswarar Temple are considered monuments of national importance in India by the Archaeological Survey of India.[145]

The Rockfort, considered to be one of the symbols of Tiruchirappalli, is a fortress which stands atop a 273-foot-high rock.[146] It consists of a set of monolithic rocks accommodating many rock-cut cave temples. Originally built by the Pallavas, it was later re-constructed by the Madurai Nayaks and Vijayanagara rulers. The temple complex has three shrines—two of them being dedicated to Lord Ganesha, one at the foot and the Ucchi Pillayar Temple at the top, and the Thayumanavar Temple in between them. The Thayumanavar temple, the largest of the three, houses a shrine for Pārvatī apart from the main deity. The Rockfort is visible from almost any part of the northern city.[70] The Teppakulam situated at the foot of the Rockfort is surrounded by bazaars.[147] It has a Manimandapam at its centre, and has facilities for boat riding.[148]

The Ranganathaswamy Temple, dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu, is located at the island of Srirangam.[70] Considered to be among the 108 Divya Desams (Holy shrines of Lord Vishnu),[149] the place is believed to house the mortal remains of the Vaishnavite saint and philosopher Ramanujacharya.[150] Originally built by the Cholas,[151] the temple was later renovated by various rulers—Pandyas, Hoysalas, Madurai Nayaks and the Vijayanagar empire between the 9th century and 16th century AD.[152] There are a total of 21 gopurams (towers),[153] of which the Rajagopuram is 236 feet (72 m).[154] According to the Limca Book of Records, it was the tallest temple tower in the world until 1999.[155] Often cited as the largest functioning Hindu temple in the world,[70] the temple has a perimeter of 4,116 metres (13,504 ft) and occupies an area of 156 acres (630,000 m2).[156]

The Jambukeswarar Temple at Thiruvanaikkaval and the Erumbeeswarar Temple at Thiruverumbur,[157] both date from the time of the Medieval Cholas.[158] The former is one of the Pancha Bhoota Stalams dedicated to Lord Shiva, is the fifth largest temple complex in Tamil Nadu.[159] The city's principal mosque is the Nadir Shah Mosque or Nathar Shah mosque which encloses the tomb of the 10th century Muslim saint Nadir Shah.[160] The Christ Church, constructed by the German Protestant missionary Christian Friedrich Schwarz in 1766, and the Our Lady of Lourdes Church, are noted examples of Gothic Revival architecture in the city.[161]

The Chokkanatha Nayak Palace which houses the Rani Mangammal Mahal was built by the Madurai Nayaks in the 17th century has now been converted into a museum.[162] The Nawab's palace,[163] the Upper Anaicut constructed by Sir Arthur Cotton and the world's oldest functional dam, the Grand Anaicut are some of the other important structures in Tiruchirappalli.[164][165]

Economy

During British rule, Tiruchirappalli was known for its tanneries, cigar-manufacturing units and oil presses.[166] At its peak, over 12 million cigars were manufactured and exported annually.[166] Tanned hides and skins from Tiruchirappalli were exported to the United Kingdom.[166] The city has a number of retail and wholesale markets, the most famous among them being the Gandhi market which is an important source of vegetables[167] for the whole region.[168][169] Other notable markets in the city are the flower bazaar in Srirangam[169] and the mango market at Mambazha Salai.[170] The suburb of Manachanallur is known for rice mills where polished Ponni rice is produced.[171]

Tiruchirappalli is a major engineering equipment manufacturing and fabrication hub in India.[62] The Golden Rock Locomotive Workshops, moved to Tiruchirappalli from Nagapattinam in 1928, is one of the three railway locomotive manufacturing units in Tamil Nadu.[172] The workshops produced 650 conventional and low-container flat wagons during the year 2007–2008.[173] The chief workshop manager's office at Golden Rock was awarded a star rating by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency for the proper and regulated usage of electricity in its offices.[174]

A High-pressure boiler manufacturing plant was set up by BHEL, India's largest public sector engineering company, in May 1965.[175][176] This was followed by a Seamless Steel Plant set up at a cost of INR580 million () and a Boiler Auxiliaries Plant. The three manufacturing units constitute the BHEL industrial complex and cover a total area of about 22,927.4 square metres (246,788 sq ft). The plant can generate up to 6.2 MW of electricity using coal as a resource.[177] BHEL is supported by a number of ancillary industries, which output nearly 250,000 tonnes (250,000,000 kg) of fabricated materials.[62] These ancillary units along with BHEL contribute to nearly 60% of the county's steel fabrication;[62] thus led to the title "Energy equipment and fabrication capital of India".[178] Other important industries in Tiruchirappalli include the Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Limited (TDCL) which was established at Senthaneerpuram in the then Golden Rock municipality in 1966.[179] and the Trichy Steel Rolling Mills which was started as a private limited company on 27 June 1961.[180] The Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Limited manufactures rectified spirit,[179] acetaldehyde,[179] acetic acid,[179] acetic anhydride[181] and ethyl acetate. It is one of the biggest private sector distilleries in Tamil Nadu and produced 13.5 million litres of spirit alcohol between December 2005 and November 2006.[182] A weapon manufacturing unit[183] and a Heavy Alloy Penetrator Project (HAPP) facility[184] are run by the Ordnance Factory Board of the Government of India.[185] The HAPP unit, set up in the late 1980s, comprises a Flexible manufacturing system (FMS), the first of its kind in India.[186]

The annual software exports of the Tiruchirappalli region amount to INR262.1 million ().[187] The ELCOT IT Park, the first IT park in the city has been commissioned at a cost of INR600 million () and inaugurated by the Deputy Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, M. K. Stalin on 9 December 2010.[188][189] Set up by the Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu, the park occupies an area of 59.74 hectares (147.6 acres) and constitutes a Special Economic Zone.[189][190] The Indian software company Infosys, is planning to start its operations in Tiruchirappalli.[191]

Administration and politics

Municipality officials
Mayor A. Jaya[192]
Commissioner V.P. Thandapani[193]
Deputy Mayor M. Ashik Meera[194]
Commissioner of Police E. Ma. Masanamuthu[195]
Members of Legislative Assembly
Tiruchirappalli-East R. Manoharan[196]
Tiruchirappalli-West M. Paranjothi[196]
Srirangam J.Jayalalitha[196]
Thiruverumbur S. Senthilkumar[196]
Member of Parliament
Tiruchirappalli P. Kumar[197]

The municipality of Tiruchirappalli was inaugurated under the Town Improvements Act 1865 on 1 November 1866 covering an area of 18 square kilometres (6.9 sq mi)[198] and originally consisted of two ex-officio and nine nominated members.[199] Elections to the council were introduced in 1877 and the first chairman was elected in 1889.[199] The municipality was upgraded to a municipal corporation as per the Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation Act 1994[200] by inclusion of the Srirangam and Golden Rock municipalities.[201] The municipal corporation currently covers an area of 167.23 square kilometres (64.57 sq mi) and comprises 65 wards and four administrative zones namely, Srirangam, Ariyamangalam, Golden Rock and Abhishekapuram.[202]


The Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation Council, the legislative body, comprises 65 councillors elected from each of the 65 wards and is headed by a mayor assisted by a Deputy Mayor.[203] The executive wing is made up of seven departments: General administration, revenue, town planning, engineering, public health, information technology and personnel and is headed by a City Commissioner. The Commissioner is assisted by two executive engineers for the east and west sections, and Assistant Commissioners for personnel, accounts and revenue departments, a public relations officer, a city engineer, a city health officer and an Assistant Commissioner for each of the four zones.[204] A Local Planning Authority for Tiruchirappalli was created on 5 April 1974 as per the Tamil Nadu Town and Country Planning Act of 1971 with the District Collector of Tiruchirappalli as chairman and the Assistant Director of Town and Country Planning as its member secretary.[205]

The city of Tiruchirappalli is represented in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly by four elected members, one each for the Tiruchirappalli – I, Tiruchirappalli – II, Srirangam and Thiruverumbur constituencies.[206][207] Jayalalithaa, the current chief minister of Tamil Nadu represents the Srirangam constituency.[208] Tiruchirappalli is also a part of the Tiruchirappalli Lok Sabha constituency and elects a member to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India, once every five years.[207][209] The Lok Sabha seat has been held by the Indian National Congress for four terms (1957–62,[210] 1984–89,[211] 1989–91[212] and 1991–96[213]), the Communist Party of India for three terms (1962–67,[214] 1971–77[215] and 1977–80[216]) and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (2001–04 and 2009–present[217]) and Bharatiya Janata Party (1998–99[218] and 1999–2001[219]) for two terms each. Candidates from the Communist Party of India,[220] Tamil Maanila Congress (Moopanar) and the Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam[221] have won once each. Indian politician Rangarajan Kumaramangalam who served as the Minister of Power in the government of Atal Bihari Vajpayee,[222] was elected to the Lok Sabha from Tiruchirappalli in the 1998 and 1999 elections.[218][219]

Law and order is enforced by the Tamil Nadu police, which, for administrative purposes, has constituted Tiruchirappalli city as a separate district.[195] The district is divided into five sub-divisions with a total of 18 police stations. The Tiruchirappalli city police force is headed by a Commissioner of police assisted by Deputy Commissioners. Law and order enforcement in the suburban areas are handled by the Tiruchirappalli district police.[223] As of 2008, Tiruchirappalli had a crime rate of 459.99 making it the second highest among cities in Tamil Nadu.[224] However, Tiruchirappalli had the lowest proportion of murder, rape and kidnapping cases.[224]

Education

Main article: List of educational institutions in Trichy

Even during British rule, Tiruchirappalli was recognised as an important educational centre in India.[225] St. Joseph's College, opened in Nagapattinam in 1846 and transferred to Tiruchirappalli in 1883, is one of the oldest educational institutions in South India.[226] The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG) college, established in 1883, is another premium missionary institution in the city.[225]


As of 2013, Tiruchirappalli has a total of 45 arts and science colleges, 40 polytechnic colleges and 13 colleges that offer management education.[227] The St. Joseph's College, National College,[228] Bishop Heber College,[229] Jamal Mohamed College[230] and the Government Law College are some of the prominent colleges that provide higher education under the arts and science category.[231] There are nearly 35 engineering colleges in and around the city.[187] The National Institutes of Technology have a campus at Thuvakudi on the outskirts of the city.[232] The Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute established as one of the constituent colleges of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University in 1989, and the National Research Centre for Banana are some of the institutions that offer higher education and research in the field of agriculture.[233] The Tiruchirappalli branch of Anna University was established following the bifurcation of Anna University in 2007.[234] A total of 64 self-financing colleges offering courses on engineering, architecture, management and computer applications in the districts of Ariyalur, Cuddalore, Nagapattinam, Perambalur, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur and Tiruvarur are affiliated to this University.[235] The SRM Group of Colleges established the SRM Institute of Science and Technology at Irungalur near Tiruchirappalli followed by Chennai Medical College and Hospital in 2007. A proposal by the group to include the institutions in the SRM University is under review of the Ministry of Human Resources Development of the Government of India.[236]

The Bharathidasan University is based in Tiruchirappalli and exercises its jurisdiction over 104 colleges in Tiruchirappalli district and seven neighbouring ones.[237][238] The university runs a management school, the Bharathidasan Institute of Management in Tiruchirappalli in collaboration with BHEL.[239] The Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli was set up during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan along with five other IIMs started functioning from the 2011–12 academic season.[240][241] In 2013, the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) approved Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT),[242] and the Tamil Nadu National Law School, modelled based on the National Law School of India University both started their operations in the city.[243]

There are a total of 200 higher secondary schools in Tiruchirappalli,[227] with notable ones being the Campion Anglo-Indian Higher Secondary School,[244] St Joseph's Anglo Indian Girls Higher Secondary School,[245] St. Johns Vestry Anglo Indian Higher Secondary School,[246] Railway Mixed Higher Secondary School and RSK Higher Secondary School.[247][248]

Notable people who were either born or educated at Tiruchirappalli include scientists C. V. Raman,[249] A. P. J. Abdul Kalam,[250] G. N. Ramachandran, and former president of the country R. Venkataraman.[237]

Sports and recreation


Hockey and Cricket are the most popular sports in Tiruchirappalli.[251] Former Indian—Hockey—goalkeepers Charles Cornelius and Leslie Fernandez, and Rajagopal Sathish, who represent the Mumbai Indians in Indian Premier League hail from the city.[252][253] The Anna Stadium complex, the principal venue for sports in the city, hosts an indoor stadium and astro turf hockey ground.[252] Apart from them, the stadium complex also includes a football ground, an athletic track, a swimming pool, a gymnasium, badminton court and a sports hostel.[254] The Tiruchirappalli District Cricket Association (TDCA) is one of the constituents of the Tamil Nadu Cricket Association and regulates school, college and club cricket in the district. First class cricket matches were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium (formerly the Khajamalai Stadium).[255] At the golden jubilee celebrations of the association in 2008–09, plans have been mooted for the setting up of another cricket stadium and an academy in the outskirts of Tiruchirappalli city.[256][257] The Mannarpuram Cricket Academy is one of the noted cricket coaching academies in Tiruchirappalli.[258] Domestic association football,[259] tennis[260] and volleyball[261] tournaments are held in and around the city. The city hosted the Federation Cup, a knockout style club football tournament in 1984 and an open chess tournament organised by FIDE in 2006.[262][263]

With limited sources of entertainment in the city, parks monitored by the corporation lack maintenance issues.[264][265] The Trichinopoly Club or Trichy Club was established in Tiruchirappalli Cantonment in 1869.[266] The club was disbanded in 1972 and its assets were taken over by the Madras Club.[267] The P. T. Rajan Park, Chinnaswamy Park, Lourdusamy Park, Raja Park, Parangiri Velusamy Park and Ibrahim Park are some of the important government-run parks in the city.[265] Of these, the Raja Park and Ibrahim Park are frequented by children.[251] There have been plans to set up a zoological park at M. R. Palaiyam on the outskirts of the city.[268] Once completed, the zoo is expected to house about 500 animals belonging to 50 different species. The Anna Science Centre in Tiruchirappalli is one of the two planetariums in the state.[269]

The Rasika Ranjana Sabha, founded in 1914, is the only popular venue for art and cultural events in the city.[270][271] According to the Limca Book of Records, the Maris theatre complex in Tiruchirappalli runs the highest number of regular film shows in the world as of 2001.[272] The Urvasi theatre is another notable cinema in Tiruchirappalli.[273] There are a few shopping malls in the city, the Femina Shopping Mall and the Spencer's Shopping Mall being the most prominent among them.[274][275]

Media

According to the Registrar of newspapers in India, a total of 111 newspapers have been registered in Tiruchirappalli.[276] The weekly newspaper Wednesday Review, founded in 1905, is the first prominent journal to be published from Tiruchirappalli.[277] Among the major English-language newspapers being published from Tiruchirappalli are The Hindu which launched a Tiruchirappalli edition in 2004,[278] and The New Indian Express which was publishing from Tiruchirappalli even before The Hindu.[279] Some of the important Tamil-language newspapers that publish a Tiruchirappalli edition are Dina Thanthi[280] Dina Mani,[281] Dina Malar, Malai Malar, Dinakaran,[282] Tamil Murasu and Tamil Sudar.[276] Popular Tamil weekly Ananda Vikatan launched a local supplement for Tiruchirappalli on the occasion of the 85th anniversary of its founding.[283]

The first radio transmission station in Tiruchirappalli was opened by the All India Radio (AIR) on 16 May 1939.[284][285] AIR started providing direct-to-home enabled radio broadcasting service from 2006.[286] In 2007, the AIR launched a separate Carnatic music channel – Ragam from Tiruchirappalli.[287] Apart from the government-owned AIR, private radio channels as Hello FM and Suryan FM also operate FM stations in Tiruchirappalli.[288] Indira Gandhi National Open University's Gyan Vani started broadcasting from Tiruchirappalli in 2008.[289] Tiruchirappalli's first campus community radio was started by Holy Cross College on 22 December 2006.[290]

Television broadcasting from Chennai was started on 15 August 1975.[291] Satellite television channels have been available from 1991 onwards.[292] Direct-to-home cable television services are provided by DD Direct Plus[293][294][295] and Sun Direct DTH.[296]

Utility services

Electricity supply to the city is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB).[297] Tiruchirappalli is the headquarters of the Trichy region of TNEB. The city along with its suburbs forms the Trichy Metro Electricity Distribution Circle which is further sub-divided into six divisions.[297] A Chief Distribution engineer is stationed at the regional headquarters at Tennur.[297] Water supply is provided by the Tiruchirappalli City Corporation.[298] The city gets its drinking water supply from the Kaveri River and 1,470 bore wells linked to 60 service reservoirs in and around the city.[95] Of the six head works from which the city gets its water supply, four are maintained by the municipal corporation and the rest by other agencies.[299] Pollution has been a major concern in Tiruchirappalli. The Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board has set up five stations in the city to check the quality of air.[300] About 400 tonnes (400,000 kg) of solid waste are released from city every year.[301] Apart from the Gandhi market, Central Bus terminus and the Chathram bus terminus, solid waste management in the city is handled by the corporation.[299] The principal landfill is at Ariyamangalam.[302] Recently, the Tiruchirappalli city corporation has gone in for scientific closure of the garbage dump and its replacement with a sewerage treatment plant.[302] Waste water management in the Trichy-Srirangam under ground drainage (UGD) areas are handled by the Tamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage Board (TWAD) and in other areas by the Tiruchirappalli Municipal Corporation.[299] As of 2013, there were a total of 40,580 UGD connections maintained by the municipal corporation.[303] The high toxicity of the waste water released by the Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Limited (TDCL) is a major cause of concern for the corporation.[304] The corporation's annual expenditure for the year 2010–11 is estimated to be Rs. 1559.4 million.[305] Under the National Urban Sanitation Policy, Tiruchirappalli, with an index of 59.02 percent was ranked sixth in India and first in Tamil Nadu on the basis of sanitation for the year 2009–10.[306] In January 2010, Tiruchirappalli became the first city in India where open defecation was prevented in all its slums.[307]

Tiruchirappalli comes under the Tiruchi Telecom District of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet services provider.[308] There are a total of about 20,000 business telephone subscribers in the city.[309] Both Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile services are available.[310] Apart from telecom, BSNL also provides broadband internet service.[311] BSNL began offering wireless internet services with the commencement of Evolution-Data Optimized (EVDO) transmission in 2008.[310] Tiruchirappalli is one of the few cities in India where BSNL's Caller Line Identification (CLI) based internet service Netone is available.[312] Softnet (STPI), Tata VSNL, Bharti and Reliance are other major broadband internet service providers in the city.[313]

Tiruchirappalli has a passport office, the second in Tamil Nadu, commenced its operations on 23 March 1983.[314] Apart from Tiruchirappalli, it also caters to the needs of seven adjacent districts namely, Karur, Nagappattinam, Perambalur, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur, Ariyalur and Tiruvarur.[315]

Infrastructure

Healthcare

Healthcare in Tiruchirappalli is mainly provided by government-run and private hospitals. The CSI Mission General Hospital at Uraiyur is one of the oldest hospitals in Trichy.[316] The Mahatma Gandhi Government Hospital—attached to the K.A.P.Viswanatham Government Medical College—and Srirangam Government Hospital offer low-cost facilities.[317][318] Major private hospitals that serve Tiruchirappalli include Kavery Medical Centre and Hospital (KMCH),[319] the 750-bed Chennai Medical College Hospital and Research Centre and Apollo Specialty Hospital.[320][321] Vasan Healthcare, one of the rapidly growing healthcare chains is based out of the city.[322] Tiruchirappalli has 29 nursing homes approved by the Department of Health and Family Welfare.[323] As of 2011, there are nearly 133 hospitals in the city,[324] including 10 maternity homes and two urban family welfare centres maintained by the municipal corporation.[325] The city serves as a hub for low-cost medical tourism in central Tamil Nadu.[326]

Transport

Main article: Transport in Tiruchirappalli


The most commonly used mode of local transport in Tiruchirappalli include the state government owned Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation (TNSTC) buses, and auto rickshaws.[327][328] In addition, passenger trains also carry a significant number of commuting population from the nearby towns.[327] Tiruchirappalli sits at the confluence of two major National HighwaysNH 45 and 67.[329] NH 45, one of the high-traffic density highways in south India handles nearly 10,000 lorries in the Trichy—Chennai stretch every night.[330] NH 45B, 210 and 227 are the other highways that originate from the city.[331][332][333] State highways that start from the city include SH 25 and 62.[334] Tiruchirappalli has 715.85 km (444.81 mi) of road length maintained by the municipal corporation.[335] A semi-ring road connecting all the NHs is being constructed to ease traffic congestion in the city.[336] Tiruchirappalli forms a part of the Kumbakonam division of the TNSTC.[337] The city has two major bus termini – Chatram Bus Stand and Central Bus Station, both operating inter city services and local transport to suburban areas.[338] As of 2013, nearly 328,000 two-wheelers, 93,500 cars and 10,000 public transport vehicles operate with in the city limits,[300] apart from the 1,500 inter-city buses that pass through Tiruchirappalli daily.[4] Tiruchirappalli suffers from traffic congestion mainly because of its narrow roads and absence of an integrated bus station.[4][339]

The Great Southern of India Railway Company was established in 1853 with its headquarters at England.[340] In 1859, the company constructed its first railway line connecting Tiruchirappalli and Nagapattinam.[340] The company merged with the Carnatic Railway company in 1874 to form the South Indian Railway Company with Tiruchirappalli as its headquarters.[341][342] The city continued to retain the position until 1908 when it was transferred to Madras.[343] Tiruchirappalli Junction is the second biggest railway station in Tamil Nadu and one of the busiest in India.[344] It constitutes a separate division of the Southern Railway.[345] Tiruchirappalli has rail connectivity with most important cities and towns in India.[332] Other railway stations in the city include Tiruchirappalli Fort, Tiruchirappalli Town, Srirangam, Palakkarai and Golden Rock.[346][347]

Tiruchirappalli is served by the Tiruchirapalli International Airport (IATA: TRZICAO: VOTR),[348] which is located at a distance of 5 km (3.1 mi) from the heart of the city.[349] It is the 10th busiest airport in the country in terms of international traffic.[350] The international traffic handled by the airport is five fold more than domestic services, making it the only airport in India with this huge variation.[350] It serves as a gateway to the immigrant population from Southeast Asian countries.[351] There are regular flights to Abu Dhabi, Chennai,[352] Colombo,[353] Dubai, Kuala Lumpur,[354] Mumbai and Singapore.[355] The airport handled 908,771 passengers and 2012 tonnes of cargo during the fiscal year 2011–12.[350][356]

See also

  • List of people from Tiruchirappalli

Notes

Footnotes

Citations

References

Further reading

External links

  • Trichy travel Federation (TTF)
  • Trichy Corporation
  • Trichy Local Planning Authority
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