World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0001504495
Reproduction Date:

Title: Tiruvalla  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Abraham Mar Thoma, Mar Thoma Syrian Church, Titus II Mar Thoma, Mallapally, Mar Thoma College
Collection: Cities and Towns in Pathanamthitta District
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Tiruvalla is located in Kerala
Location in Kerala, India
Country  India
State Kerala
District Pathanamthitta
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 52,883
 • Official

Malayalam, English

Literacy = 98.5%
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 689101
Telephone code 91-469
Vehicle registration KL-27
Nearest city Kollam (69 km)
Nearest Airport Cochin International Airport Limited

Tiruvalla (alternately spelled Thiruvalla) is a town and a Taluk headquarters located in Pathanamthitta district in the State of Kerala in South India. Spread over an area of 27.94 km2, it is the biggest commercial centre in the district of Pathanamthitta. The town has a tropical climate with a temperatures ranging from highs of 34.4 °C in the summer to a low of 18.5 °C in the winter, with a healthy rainfall of 3040 mm. Tiruvalla became a municipality in 1919.The nedumparam palace is in Thiruvalla near kavumbhagom.


  • Demographics 1
  • Location 2
  • Transport 3
    • Road 3.1
    • Rail 3.2
    • Airport 3.3
  • History 4
  • Politics 5
  • Religion 6
  • Media 7
  • Topography 8
  • Major educational institutions in and around Tiruvalla 9
  • Major hospitals in and around Tiruvalla 10
  • Famous personalities from the taluk 11
  • Major shopping centres in Tiruvalla 12
  • Attractions at Tiruvalla 13
    • Subdivisions of Tiruvalla Taluk 13.1
    • PIN Codes 13.2
  • References 14
  • See Also 15
  • External links 16


The city spans a geographic area of 27.94 km² with a population of 56,828 as of 2001.[2] Males constitute 48% of the population and females 52%. In Tiruvalla, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Tiruvalla has a large Non-Resident Indian Community.


View over Tiruvalla: Stadium and outskirts

Tiruvalla is on the western border of Pathanamthitta district. The municipal town limits are Thirumoolapuram, Kattod, Kaviyoor, Kuttoor, Kuttapuzha and Manipuzha. Formerly, some areas of present Changanacherry were parts of Tiruvalla taluk. Now the boundaries of the taluk are Varattar Bridge in the south, Parumala in the south west, Lappalam in the north, Pullad in the east and Neerattupuram in the west, situated in Alappuzha district. Maramon is the last point of Tiruvalla town in the east, and it is in the Koipuram panchayath. Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi are the nearest major cities.

Tiruvalla is located at the meeting point of M C Road (Main Central Road/SH-01) and T. K. Road (Thiruvalla-Kumbazha Road) (Tiruvalla-Pathanamthitta-Kumbazha Road/SH-07/State Highway 7 (Kerala)); it links the eastern parts of the district with the western rice bowl of 'Kuttanad'. The Tiruvalla-Kayamkulam road is the most used link between the National Highway and the M C Road. Tiruvalla also connects to NH-47 through the Thakazhi-Ambalappuzha Link.



Kerala State Road Transport Corporation has a depot at Tiruvalla (station code: TVLA) which is one among the 29 major depots in the state. KSRTC operates long distance and interstate bus services from the Tiruvalla depot. KSRTC operates daily Interstate Airbus service to Bangalore from Tiruvalla. KSRTC is currently constructing a Bus Terminal and multi-functional shopping complex in Tiruvalla as part of its modernisation. Private buses are operated from a Municipal Private Bus stand to various places such as: Mallappally, Kozhencherry, Ranni, Perunad, Manimala, Kottayam, Kayamkulam, Haripad, Mavelikkara, Ochira, Karunagapally, Thrikkunnapuzha, AayiramThengu, Kundara, Seethathodu, Chunkappara, Mundakkayam, Changanassery, and Chengannur. Thiruvalla KSRTC is the biggest depot in the district.


Tiruvalla railway station (station code: TRVL) is the sole railway station in Pathanamthitta district. The station is in the "Class A" category under the Trivandrum railway division. Most trains stop here. The major railway stations near Tiruvalla are Chengannur railway station and Kottayam railway station.


The nearest airports are Cochin International Airport (105 km) and Trivandrum airport (126 km). The proposed rural Aranmula International Airport would be the closest airport upon completion, at 18 km away.


There is plenty of evidence to suggest that the area had been inhabited since 500 BCE, although an organized settlement was only founded around 800 CE. The present day areas of Niranam, and Kadapra on the western part of Tiruvalla were submerged under the sea before then.

Old tradition tells that the name Tiruvalla comes from the word "Thiru Valla Vaay", named after the river Manimala which was known as Vallayar. Tiruvalla was the mouth of river Manimala and hence was known as Valla vai(vai in old Malayalam means mouth of river). Because of this, the deity of Sri Vallabha temple was called "Thiru Vallavayappan", which later reformed as "Sri Vallabhan" Thiru Vallabha temple, considering that the deity is the god Vishnu.

Brahmin Hindu version tells that Sree or Lakshmi is the wife of lord Vishnu. "Sree Vallabhan" means Husband of Lakshmi Devi. Sree Vallabhan is the presiding deity of the Tiruvalla Temple. Hence Thiruvallabha Puram (Land of Vallabhan) became Tiruvalla.It is one of the 64 ancient brahmana graamams (ബ്രാഹ്മണഗ്രാമം).

On the western part of Tiruvalla, the rivers Pampa, Manimala and Achen Kovil join for a panoramic view. As in many other places in India, the culture and heritage of Tiruvalla are tied to its temples. Historical evidence such as copper plates and proclamations point to Tiruvalla as a flourishing and major center of spiritual and educational prominence in 1100 CE. The Sree Vallaba Temple governed a Vedic School with one thousand students and one hundred teachers. The temple also maintained a hospital in the service for the public at large. Women were only allowed to enter the template once a year until the late 1960s.

The rulers of Tiruvalla belonged to the Thekkumkoor Dynasty, which had one of its headquarters at Idathil near Kaavil Temple. Idathil (Vempolinadu Edathil Karthavu)[3] was the family name of the Thekkumkoor kings. Today's Paliakara Palace is a branch of Lakshmipuram Palace of Changanacherry, which is a branch of Alikottu Kovilakam of Pazhancherry in Malabar. Similarly, Nedumpuram Palace is a branch of Mavelikkara Palace is an heir to the Kolathiri tradition of Udayamangalam. The Thekkumkoor kings lost their control in the course of time and Vilakkili (വിലക്കിലി) Nampoothiris were rulers in 1752-53 when Anizham Thirunaal Marthanda Varma, the king of Travancore, seized it in a bloody battle in which the ruler was killed, though some dispute it, saying the surrender was peaceful as the Namboothiris were not naive to challenge the mighty army of Ramayyan, the shrewd and sadistic Dalava (ദളവ)- head of administration and advisor - of Travancore.[4] Ruins of Vilakkili illam can be seen on the side of Kavmbhagom-Muthoor road.

The Kaavil market (കാവിൽ കമ്പോളം), which is no longer in existence, was once one of the most famous markets of Kerala, where there were even foreign trade links. Even now, the houses in this street are known as "Kaavil" among residents, and the houses in the area which is now Pushpagiri-Thukalassery are known as "Malayil" because they are in an elevated area compared to Kaavil. The Kaavil market was actually situated in the street starting from Erankavu Temple to the Kaavil temple in the present Kavumbhagom. It was also the first settlement area of the early Christians in Tiruvalla. The renowned Poem "Unnuneeli Sandesham" discusses this then famous street and its people. This was the heartland of Tiruvalla up to the 19th century. (East to MC road was forest area. Dens were found in the KSRTC garage area, which are now buried.) The first school in Tiruvalla started sometime in mid 19th century in Kaavil market, along the road to Pallippalam. Still, all major religious processions are required to pass through this way, even though new roads have been constructed in parallel.

Tiruvalla Christians were part of the autonomous Indian Syrian Church, which was not affected by the schism which occurred in the 17th century due to the intervention of Portuguese colonists (Introduction of Catholicism in India). By 19th century, inspired by the work of the British missionaries, a reformation movement happened which eventually resulted in a schism, leading to the formation of Marthoma Church.

Tiruvalla was never under direct British rule, and before India's independence from Britain, it was governed by the Travancore dynasty. The Tiruvalla municipality started functioning in 1919, with Shri M.K. Kesavan Nair as the first Chairman of the Municipal Council. The constitution was officially approved on 8 October 1920. The municipal office has established several public health facilities, libraries and sports facilities.


The current Chairperson of the Municipality is Delsy Sam from Kulakkadu.

Tiruvalla's assembly constituency is the part of the newly formed Pathanamthitta (Lok Sabha constituency).[5] Current MLA is Adv.Mathew T Thomas. Current MP Pathanamthitta (Lok Sabha constituency) is Anto Antony


The pilgrimage center of Sabarimala is only about 100 km from Tiruvalla and Parumala Church, a major Christian pilgrimage center, is about 10 km from the town. The spiritual conventions at Maramon, Kalloopara, Kumbanad and Ayroor-Cherukolpuzha are all located east of Tiruvalla.

The city's Sreevallabha Temple is one of the famous Vishnu Mahakshetras of India. There is also a Sree Chakkulathukavu Devi temple located west of Thiruvalla thaluk.The Mar Thoma Church, the Believers Church, the St. Thomas Evangelical Church, the Indian Pentecostal Church of God (IPC) and the Sharon Fellowship Church have their headquarters in and around Tiruvalla. The headquarters of the Niranam diocese of Jacobite church, Orthodox Church and Syro Malankara Catholic Tiruvalla Archdiocese are also in Tiruvalla. The Niranam, Paliakkara, Kallooppara, Parumala and Parra churches are also common tourist destinations.


Tiruvalla is headquarters for two Malayalam satellite channels which cater to Christian Devotional content, Power Vision and Athmeeya Yathra.

Radio Macfast 90.4 is an FM Station managed by the Mar Athanasios College for Advanced Studies, in Tiruvalla. This FM station is the first on-campus community radio in Kerala.

Tiruvalla also has one of the first high-definition sound recording studios (the Department of Sacred Music and Communications), which caters primarily to the religious community internationally, though secular recordings also take place.


The topography of Tiruvalla comprises plains, paddy fields, and small ranges. The major crops grown are rice, tapioca, coconuts, rubber, plantains, sugarcane and a variety of vegetables.

Major educational institutions in and around Tiruvalla

  • Amalloor E.A.L.P School, Manjadi, Thiruvalla
  • AMM Bible College, Meenthalakara, Tiruvalla
  • AMM HS, othera
  • Amrita Vidalayam, Thukalassery, Tiruvalla
  • Aptech Aviation Academy, Tiruvalla
  • B.A.M.College, Thuruthicaud, Tiruvalla
  • Balabhavan LP School, Manipuzha, Tiruvalla
  • Balikamadom Girls Higher Secondary School, Tirumoolapuram, Tiruvalla
  • Believers Church Medical College and Hospital, Tiruvalla
  • Believers Church Residential School, Kuttapuzha, Tiruvalla
  • The Choice school,Thiruvalla
  • Christ Central School, Muthoor Jn, Tiruvalla
  • CMS High School, Mundiappally
  • CMS High School, Tiruvalla
  • College of Engineering, Kalloopara, Tiruvalla
  • College of Optometry, Eye Microsurgery and Laser Center, Tiruvalla
  • DB Higher Secondary School, Kavumbhagom, Tiruvalla
  • E.A.L.P School,Othera
  • Government Girls High School, Tiruvalla
  • Government LP School, Kavumbhagom, Tiruvalla
  • KSG Higher Secondary School Kadapra, Tiruvalla
  • Mar Athanasios College for Advanced Studies (MACFAST), Tiruvalla
  • Mar Thoma Academy (near TMM Hospital), Tiruvalla
  • Mar Thoma College, Kuttapuzha, Tiruvalla
  • Marthoma Residential School, Kuttapuzha, Tiruvalla
  • MGM Higher Secondary School, Tiruvalla (established in 1903 by Hg Mar Gregorious (Parumala Thirumeni))
  • Mulamoottil International Business School (MIBS), Tiruvalla
  • Nazareth College of Pharmacy, Othera, Tiruvalla
  • Nicholson Syrian Girls Higher Secondary School, Meenthalakara, Tiruvalla
  • NSS High School, Muthoor Jn, Tiruvalla
  • Pamba DB College, Parumala, Tiruvalla
  • Parumala mar Gregorious College Valanjavalttom, Tiruvalla
  • Prince Marthanda Varma Higher Secondary School, Peringara, Tiruvalla
  • Prince Marthandavarma College, Peringara, Tiruvalla
  • Pushpagiri Dental College, Tiruvalla
  • Pushpagiri Medical College, Tiruvalla
  • Pushpagiri Pharmacy College, Tiruvalla
  • Salvation Army School, Tiruvalla
  • SNVS High School, Tirumoolapuram, Tiruvalla
  • Sree Sankara Vidyapeedom, Peringol, Tiruvalla
  • SS Academy of Management and Science (SSMS), Thiruvalla
  • SSKG & UP School, Meenthalakara, Tiruvalla
  • St. Mary's Central School, Othera
  • St. Mary's Residential Central School, Paliakara, Tiruvalla
  • St. Mary's College for Women, Tiruvalla
  • St. Thomas Higher Secondary School, Thirumoolapuram, Tiruvalla
  • Stella Maris Residential Central School, Valanjavattom, Tiruvalla
  • Sudarshanam School of Ayurveda Nursing & Panchakarma(SSA),Thymala,Manjadi
  • Syrian Christian Seminary (SCS) Higher Secondary School, Tiruvalla
  • Syrian Jacobite Public School, Tiruvalla
  • T.M.M. College of Nursing, Tiruvalla
  • Thiruvalla Cricket Academy, Tiruvalla
  • Titus-2 Teachers Training College, SCS Campus, Tiruvalla
  • Sankaramangalam Public School, Kaviyoor, Thiruvalla
  • Sankaramangalam Training College, Thiruvalla

Major hospitals in and around Tiruvalla

  • Aswathibhavan Chikitsa Nilayam
  • Believers Church Medical College Hospital
  • GK Hospital
  • Government Taluk Hospital
  • Mary Queens Allergy Speciality Hospital
  • Pushpagiri Medical College Hospital
  • Sudarshanam Netra Chikitsalayam, Thymala, Manjadi
  • Thiruvalla Medical Mission Hospital
  • Vasan Eye Care Super Speciality Eye Hospital
  • Sree Dhanwanthari Madom Ayurvedic clinic

Famous personalities from the taluk

  • Abraham Kovoor, famous hypnotherapist and rationalist
  • Abu Abraham, famous cartoonist
  • Adv Mammen Mathai Former MLA
  • Ajith Abraham George Sankaramangalam, senior sound recordist (Vismaya Max, Media Artists, Department of Sacred Music and Communications)
  • Alexander Karackal, Former Pro Vice Chancellor of Kannur University and former Sabha Secretary of The Indian Orthodox Church
  • Babu Thiruvalla, movie director and producer
  • Baselios Marthoma Didymos I, former Catholicos of India and All the East (Malankara Orthodox Church)
  • Blessy (Blessy Iype Thomas), movie director
  • C. K. Ra, famous artist
  • C.P. Mathen (1890–1960), banker and founder of the Quilon Bank, Member of Parliament from Mavelikkara Constituency to the first Lok Sabha (1952), Indian Ambassador to the Sudan (1957)
  • Chippy, movie actress
  • E John Jacob, MLA 1965-1979, Kerala Congress, Former Agriculture Minister of Kerala
  • E M Kovoor, Jurist, famous writer and novelist
  • Fr Iype Thoma Kovoor, pioneer of Marthoma Church in Tiruvalla
  • G Padmanabhan Thampi, MLA 1957-1960, Communist Party of India
  • Jacob Thomas, assistant professor and research guide in botany and plant and fungal taxonomist
  • John Abraham, movie director
  • John Sankaramangalam, former director of the Film and Television Institute of India, Pune
  • K. G. George, movie director
  • Kakkanadan, novelist and writer
  • Kandathil K M Mammen Mappilai, nephew of K V Mappillai
  • Kandathil Varghese Mappillai, founder of "Malayala Manorama"
  • Kaveri, movie actress
  • Kaviyoor Ponnamma, movie actress
  • Kaviyoor Shivarama Iyer, Sanskrit scholar, writer
  • Kochu Kunju Vaidian, MLC, Sri Moolam Praja Sabha, ex-counsellor of Tiruvalla Municipality, founder of the SNV Sanskrit School
  • Kunnumpurathu Kurien Thomas, Limca Record Holder in Mathematical Mental Calculation
  • M. G. Soman, movie actor
  • Mathew T. Thomas, MLA 2006–present, and 1987-1991, Janata Dal, former transport minister of Kerala (2006–2009)
  • Meera Jasmine (Jasmine Mary Joseph), movie actress
  • Nadiya Moythu, movie actress
  • Nayantara (Diana Mariam Kurien, Kodiyattu), movie actress
  • Olympian Pappan (Thiruvalla Pappan), a famous football player who represented the Indian team in London (1948).[6]
  • P C Thomas, MLA 1980-82 JNP and 1982-87 IND
  • P Chacko, MLA 1947 (Kallooppara Constituency) 1954 and 1960–1965, (Tiruvalla Constituency) Indian National Congress, orator, teacher and high school headmaster, social reformer
  • P. Unnikrishnan Nair, Niranasseril, historian
  • Parvathy (Ashwathy Kurup), movie actress
  • Raghavan Nambiar, Villuvattathu, veteran poet who suggested the name "Malayala Manorama" for the famous daily
  • Sajeev Purushothama Kurup, international theatre director, producer, and dramaturge
  • Thomas Thiruvalla, movie producer
  • V.D. Krishnan Nampiar, Villuvattathu, Kendra Sahitya Academy Winner and famous translator
  • V.P.P. Nampoothiri, former MLC, founder of Nampoothiri's College
  • Renny Johnson, Movie Actor and Movie Producer
  • Victor T Thomas, UDF Chairman and Kerala Congress Deputy President
  • Vishnu Narayanan Namboothiri, veteran poet
  • K T Chacko, former indial football team goali

Major shopping centres in Tiruvalla

  • Bhima Jewellers (coming soon)
  • Chalakuzhy Bazaar
  • Club 7 Shopping Mall
  • Deepa Towers
  • Elite plaza
  • Jolly Silks/Joy Alukkas
  • Josco Jewellers
  • Kalyan silks/Kalyan Jewellers
  • Karikkineth silks
  • KSRTC Shopping Mall
  • Mahalekshmi Silks
  • Malabar Gold
  • Pulimoottil Silks (coming soon)
  • PVR Multiplex Theatre KSRTC Shopping Centre (coming soon)
  • Rajan Jewellers/Vijayalakshmi Silks
  • Sky Jewellery

Attractions at Tiruvalla

Front sreevallabha temple
  1. Shri Vallabha Maha Kshetram (alternatively called the Tiruvalla Temple), one of the 108 divine Vishnu deshas in India. The Flagpost of the Thiru Vallabha Temple was carved out from a single rock with a Garudan at the top, created by the legendary "Perumthachan". The one and only one temple at which "KATHAKALI" is played everyday.
  2. Niranam Church: Established in 54 CE by Thomas the Apostle of Jesus(one out of only 8). Has a museum.(Saint Thomas Christians)
  3. Chakkulathukavu Bhagavathi Temple
  4. Parumala Church and Parumala Seminary: Burial place of St.Gregorios or Parumala Thirumeni, the first proclaimed Saint from India.
  5. Kaviyoor Mahadevar Temple
  6. Kaviyoor Thrikkalkudi (തൃക്കല്‍ക്കുടി) Cave Temple. The Cave Temple is one of the rare cave temples of Kerala. It is assumed that this temple is constructed in the Pallava architectural style and was built in the 8th century.
  7. Paliakkara Church: First church of Tiruvalla. It attracts many tourists because of the marvellous murals on the eastern wall of its altar, and thousands, regardless of religion, come and pray for the intercession of St. George here.
  8. Paliakkara Palace
  9. Headquarters of the Mar Thoma Syrian Church and SC Seminary
  10. The St George Simhasana church belongs to the Syrian-Orthodox Church under the Holy See of Antioch and all the East.
  11. Dharma Shasta Temple Meenthalakkara
  12. Metal Casting Centres, Mannar
  13. Believers Church headquarters, Kuttapuzha, Tiruvalla
  14. St. John's Cathedral, Tiruvalla
  15. CSI St. Thomas Church, Tholassery
  16. St. Mary's Orthodox Church, Venpala
  17. "Kadalimagalam Padayani", one of the great folk-performing-art centers, with all traditional forms of art conducted in the Kadalimangalam Devi Temple during March and April every year. The ten-day-long festival is conducted by the people of two local karas, namely Eruvellipara and Venupala. The rare and great Padayani Koolam, namely 'KALAYAKSHI', is performed here. It is the right of two families, namely Mukkanjirathu and Pullenplavil of the two karas, to perform this 'KALAYAKSHI KOOLAM'.
  18. St. Mary’s Orthodox Church, Kallooppara, situated on the banks of the river Manimala, is one of the oldest and renowned churches of Malankara Sabha. The church has a legacy of around seven centuries, keeping its tradition and culture intact without compromising on its religious values.
  19. Parra Church
  20. Kattappuram St. George Orthodox Church, Kavumbhagom
  21. Edathua church
  22. St. Paul's Marthoma Church Othera, this church is commonly known as Othera St. Paul's, situated at Althara Jn. Othera.

Subdivisions of Tiruvalla Taluk

  1. Amallor
  2. Meenthalakkara
  3. Kuttappuzha
  4. Eraviperoor
  5. Kaviyoor
  6. Koipuram
  7. Othera
  8. Thiruvalla
  9. Thottapuzhasserry
  10. Kadapra
  11. Kumbanad
  12. Kuttoor
  13. Nedumpuram
  14. Niranam
  15. Peringara
  16. Pullad
  17. Kavumbhagom
  18. Thiruvanvandoor
  19. Kizhakkanmuthoor
  20. Mathilbhagom
  21. Kattookara
  22. Thollassery
  23. Thirumoolapuram
  24. Vallamkulam
  25. Thiruvamanapuram
  26. Thuruthiyilbhagom

PIN Codes

  1. Thiruvalla 689101
  2. Anjilithanam 689582
  3. Ezhumattoor 689586
  4. Kavumbhagom 689102
  5. Kuttapuzha (Kizhakkanmuthoor) 689103
  6. Manjadi Junction (Meenthalakara)689105
  7. Muthoor 689107
  8. R.S.P.O. (Kuttapuzha) 689111
  9. Kuttoor 689106
  10. Thadiyoor 689545
  11. Valanjavattom 689104
  12. Karackal, Peringara 689108
  13. Podiyadi 689110
  14. Thirumoolapuram 689115
  15. Chathankari 689112
  16. Pullad 689548
  17. Kumbanad 689547
  18. Alanthuruthy, Azhyadathuchira 689113
  19. Venpala 689114 - (Kuttoor panchyath)
  20. Azyidathuchira 689113
  21. Vallamkulam(nannoor) 689541
  22. Eraviperoor 689542
  23. Othera 689546
  24. Nedumpuram 689578
  25. Kaviyoor 689580
  26. Mepral 689591
  27. Mundiappally 689581
  28. M. North 689543


  1. ^
  2. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  3. ^ P. Shungoonny Menon, A history of Travancore (first edition: 1878, new edition: 1983), page 130 and 131, ISBN 978-81-7020-040-6
  4. ^ Shree Vallabha Mahakshethra Charitham, P. Unnikrishnan Nair
  6. ^ "This Tiruvalla Defender Stood Like a Wall in London Olympics".  

See Also

External links

  • Information about kerala
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.