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Tom Bradley (American politician)

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Title: Tom Bradley (American politician)  
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Subject: List of Los Angeles municipal election returns, California gubernatorial election, 1982, California gubernatorial election, 1986, Los Angeles International Airport, Ernie Barnes
Collection: 1917 Births, 1998 Deaths, African-American Lawyers, African-American Mayors, African-American Police Officers, African-American Politicians, Burials at Inglewood Park Cemetery, California Democrats, Candidates in United States Elections, 1982, Candidates in United States Elections, 1986, Deaths from Myocardial Infarction, Los Angeles Police Department Officers, Mayors of Los Angeles, California, People from Robertson County, Texas, People from South Los Angeles, California, Southwestern Law School Alumni, Spingarn Medal Winners, University of California, Los Angeles Alumni
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Tom Bradley (American politician)

Tom Bradley
Tom Bradley in 1984
38th Mayor of Los Angeles
In office
July 1, 1973 – June 30, 1993
Preceded by Sam Yorty
Succeeded by Richard Riordan
Personal details
Born (1917-12-29)December 29, 1917
Calvert, Texas, U.S.
Died September 29, 1998(1998-09-29) (aged 80)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Resting place Inglewood Park Cemetery, Inglewood, California, U.S.
Political party Democratic Party
Spouse(s) Ethel Arnold
Children Phyllis Bradley
Lorraine Bradley
Residence Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Alma mater University of California, Los Angeles (B.A)
Southwestern Law School (J.D)
Religion African Methodist Episcopal
Military service
Allegiance City of Los Angeles
Service/branch Los Angeles Police
Years of service 1940-1961
Rank Lieutenant

Thomas J. "Tom" Bradley (December 29, 1917 – September 29, 1998) was the 38th Bradley effect." In 1985, he was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP.[1]


  • Early life and education 1
  • Career 2
    • Entering politics 2.1
    • City Council 2.2
    • Campaign for mayor 2.3
    • Mayor of Los Angeles 2.4
    • Gubernatorial campaigns 2.5
  • Death 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Early life and education

Bradley, the grandson of a slave, was born on December 29, 1917, to Lee Thomas and Crenner Bradley, "poor sharecroppers who lived in a small log cabin outside Calvert, Texas." He had four siblings — Lawrence, Willa Mae, Ellis (who had cerebral palsy) and Howard. The family moved to Arizona to pick cotton and then in 1924 to the Temple-Alvarado area of Los Angeles, where Lee was a Santa Fe Railroad porter and Crenner was a maid.[2][3]

Bradley attended Rosemont Elementary School, Lafayette Junior High School and Polytechnic High School, where he was the first black to be elected president of the Boys League and the first to be inducted into the Ephebians national honor society. He was captain of the track team and all-city tackle for the high school football team. He went to UCLA in 1937 on an athletic scholarship and joined Kappa Alpha Psi, a black fraternity. Among the jobs he had while at college was as a photographer for comedian Jimmy Durante.[2][4]


Bradley left his studies to join the Los Angeles Police Department in 1940. He became one of the "just 400 blacks" among the department's 4,000 officers. He recalled "the downtown department store that refused him credit, although he was a police officer, and the restaurants that would not serve blacks."[5] He told a Times reporter:

When I came on the department, there were literally two assignments for black officers. You either worked Newton Street Division, which has a predominantly black community, or you worked traffic downtown. You could not work with a white officer, and that continued until 1964.[5]

Bradley and Ethel Arnold met at the New Hope Baptist Church and were married May 4, 1941. They had three daughters, Lorraine, Phyllis and a baby who died on the day she was born. He and his wife "needed a white intermediary to buy their first house in Leimert Park, then a virtually all-white section of the city's Crenshaw district."[2][5]

Bradley was attending Southwestern University Law School while a police officer and began his practice as a lawyer when he retired from the police department.[2][6] Upon his leaving the office of mayor in 1993, he joined the law offices of Brobeck, Phleger & Harrison, specializing in international trade issues.[7]

Entering politics

His entry into politics came when he decided to become the president of the United Club. The club was part of the Adlai E. Stevenson's presidential campaigns. It was predominantly white and had many Jewish members, thus marking the beginnings of the coalition, which along with Latinos, that would carry him to electoral victory so many times.

He choice of a Democratic circle also put him at odds with another political force in the African American community, representatives of poor, all-black areas who were associated with the political organization of Jesse M. Unruh, then an up-and-coming state assemblyman. The early stage of Bradley's political career was marked by clashes with African American leaders like onetime California Lieutenant Governor and former U.S. Representative Mervyn Dymally, an Unruh ally.

City Council

Bradley applied for the 10th District seat in June 1961, when he was still a police lieutenant living at 3397 Welland Avenue; the post had been vacated by Charles Navarro when he was elected city controller.[8] The City Council, which had the power to fill a vacancy, instead appointed Joe E. Hollingsworth.[9]

He ran against Hollingsworth in April 1963. There were only two candidates, Hollingsworth and Bradley, and also two elections — one for the unexpired term left by Controller Navarro, ending June 30, and one for a full four-year term starting July 1. Bradley won by 17,760 votes to 10,540 in the first election and by 17,552 votes to 10,400 in the second.[10] By then he had retired from the police force, and he was sworn in as a councilman at the age of 45 on April 15, 1963, "the first Negro ever elected to the council."[11]

One of the first votes he made on a controversial subject was his opposition to a proposed study by City Attorney Roger Arnebergh and Police Chief William H. Parker of the Dictionary of American Slang,[12] ordered in an 11-4 vote by the council. Councilman Tom Shepard's motion said the book was "saturated not only with phrases of sexual filth, but wordage defamatory of minority ethnic groups and definitions insulting religions and races."[13]

Bradley told Los Angeles Times reporter Richard Bergholz the next month that he "has been asked why he doesn't participate in public demonstrations. His answer: His power as a councilman can best be used in trying to bring groups together, and that's where his time and energy should be spent." He said he would work to establish a human relations commission in the city.[14]

Campaign for mayor

Tom Bradley speaking at AIDS Walk LA at the Paramount Studios lot in 1988.

In 1969, Bradley first challenged incumbent Mayor Sam Yorty, a conservative Democrat (later Republican) though the election was nonpartisan. Armed with key endorsements (including the Los Angeles Times), Bradley held a substantial lead over Yorty in the primary, but was a few percentage points shy of winning the race outright. However, in the runoff, to the dismay of supporters such as Abigail Folger and Los Angeles area Congressman Alphonzo Bell, Yorty pulled an amazing come from behind victory to win reelection primarily because he played racial politics. Yorty questioned Bradley's credibility in fighting crime and painted a picture of Bradley, his fellow Democrat, as a threat to Los Angeles because he would supposedly open up the city to feared Black Nationalists. Bradley did not use his record as a police officer in the election. With the racial factor, even many liberal white voters became hesitant to support Bradley.

It would be another four years, in 1973, before Bradley would unseat Yorty.

Mayor of Los Angeles

Powerful downtown business interests at first opposed him. But with passage of the 1974 redevelopment plan and the inclusion of business leaders on influential committees, corporate chiefs moved comfortably in behind him. A significant feature of this plan was the development and building of numerous skyscrapers in the Bunker Hill financial district.

During Bradley's tenure as mayor, Los Angeles saw the end of Edward M. Davis' career as Los Angeles Police Department's controversial, outspoken police chief and, after Assistant Chief Robert F. Rock's brief interim term, the rise of Daryl Gates as their longer-lasting-and also controversial-successor in 1978, Bradley's signing of the city's first homosexual rights bill in 1979, the city's bicentennial and the discovery of symptoms of what would later be called AIDS in 1981, the hosting of the 1984 Summer Olympic Games, Los Angeles surpassing Chicago as the second most populous city in the country, Bradley's signing of the city's-and maybe U.S.'-first anti-AIDS-discrimination bill in 1985, increased homelessness, crack cocaine and related gangs during the later 1980s and welcoming of Pope John Paul II in 1987. The Rodney King videotaped incident in 1991 and 1992 Los Angeles riots — in which some critics said Bradley might have "actually made the already tense situation that much worse"[15] — and the formation of the Christopher Commission also occurred on his watch.

Bradley helped contribute to the financial success of the city by helping develop the satellite business hubs at Century City and Warner Center. Bradley was a driving force behind the construction of Los Angeles' light rail network. He also pushed for expansion of Los Angeles International Airport and development of the terminals which are in use today. The Tom Bradley International Terminal is named in his honor.

Bradley served for twenty years as mayor of Los Angeles, surpassing Fletcher Bowron with the longest tenure in that office. Bradley was offered a cabinet-level position in the administration of President Jimmy Carter, which he turned down. In 1984, Democratic presidential candidate Walter Mondale considered Bradley as a finalist for the vice presidential nomination, which eventually went to U.S. Representative Geraldine Ferraro of Queens, New York.[16]

Although Bradley was a political liberal, he believed that business prosperity was good for the entire city and would generate jobs, an outlook not unlike that of his successor, Riordan. For most of Bradley's long administration, the city appeared to agree with him. But in his fourth term, with traffic congestion, air pollution and the condition of Santa Monica Bay worsening, and with residential neighborhoods threatened by commercial development, the tide began to turn. In 1989, he was elected to a fifth term, but the ability of opponent Nate Holden to attract one-third of the vote,[17] despite being a neophyte to the Los Angeles City Council and a very late entrant to the mayoral race, signaled that Bradley's era was drawing to a close.

Other factors in the waning of his political strength were his decision to reverse himself and support a controversial oil drilling project near the Pacific Palisades and his reluctance to condemn Louis Farrakhan, the Black Muslim minister who made speeches in Los Angeles and elsewhere that many considered anti-Semitic. Further, some key Bradley supporters lost their City Council reelection bids, among them veteran Westside Councilwoman Pat Russell. Bradley chose to leave office, rather than seek election to a sixth term in 1993.

Gubernatorial campaigns

Bradley ran for California.

In 1982,

Political offices
Preceded by
Joe E. Hollingsworth
Los Angeles City Council
10th District

Succeeded by
David S. Cunningham, Jr.
Preceded by
Sam Yorty
Mayor of Los Angeles
Succeeded by
Richard Riordan
Party political offices
Preceded by
Jerry Brown
Democratic Party nominee for Governor of California
1982, 1986
Succeeded by
Dianne Feinstein

  • Tribute to Bradley by Dianne Feinstein, with biographical information
  • Tom Bradley on the Internet Movie Database
  • The Bradley Effect by Raphael Sonenshein
  • Bridging the Divide: Tom Bradley and the Politics of Race documentary

External links

  1. ^ NAACP Spingarn Medal
  2. ^ a b c d e September 30, 1998New York Times,Jane Fritsch, "Tom Bradley, Mayor in Era of Los Angeles Growth, Dies,"
  3. ^ September 30, 1998, screen 5Los Angeles Times,Jean Merl and Bill Boyarsky, "Mayor Who Reshaped L.A. Dies,"
  4. ^ September 30, 1998, screen 6Los Angeles Times,
  5. ^ a b c September 30, 1998, screen 7Los Angeles Times,
  6. ^ September 30, 1998, screen 8Los Angeles Times,
  7. ^ September 30, 1998, screen 10Los Angeles Times,
  8. ^ June 6, 1961, page 21Los Angeles Times,"12 Apply for Navarro City Council seat," Library card required
  9. ^ August 26, 1961, page 13Los Angeles Times,"New Councilman," Library card required
  10. ^ April 4, 1963, page 2Los Angeles Times,"Complete Returns," Library card required
  11. ^ April 16, 1963, page A-2Los Angeles Times,"First Negro Elected to City Council Sworn In," Library card required
  12. ^ Library of Congress reference
  13. ^ June 21, 1963, page A-1Los Angeles Times,"Council Asks Dictionary of Slang Study," Library card required
  14. ^ July 15, 1963, page A-4Los Angeles Times,Richard Bergholz, "Tough Job Confronts Negro Councilman," Library card required
  15. ^,28804,1614117_1614084_1614509,00.html
  16. ^ Trying to Win the Peace
  17. ^ Rick Orlov, "L.A.'S `GENTLE GIANT' REMEMBERED." Daily News, found at The Free Library website. Accessed September 15, 2009.
  18. ^ Fighting the Last War - TIME
  19. ^ September 30, 1998, screen 11Los Angeles Times,
  20. ^
  21. ^ Gray, David (2012). The History of the Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Ohio F&AM 1971 – 2011: The Fabric of Freemasonry. Columbus, Ohio: Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Ohio F&AM. p. 414.  


See also

Bradley was stricken with a heart attack while driving his car in March 1996 and endured a triple bypass operation. Later he suffered a stroke "that left him unable to speak clearly." He died on September 29, 1998, and his body lay at the Los Angeles Convention Center for public viewing. He was buried in Inglewood Park Cemetery.[2][19][20] Bradley was a Prince Hall Freemason.[21]


These circumstances gave rise to the term the "Bradley effect" which refers to a tendency of voters to tell interviewers or pollsters that they are undecided or likely to vote for a black candidate, but then actually vote for his white opponent. In 1986, Bradley lost the governorship to Deukmejian by a margin of 61-37 percent.

Ultimately, Bradley lost the election by about 100,000 votes, about 1.2% of the 7.5 million votes cast. [18]

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