World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Trace amine-associated receptor

Article Id: WHEBN0005778797
Reproduction Date:

Title: Trace amine-associated receptor  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: TAAR1, Thyronamine, Tyramine, Thyroid hormone, Olfactory receptor
Collection: G Protein Coupled Receptors
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Trace amine-associated receptor

Trace amine-associated receptors, abbreviated TAAR and otherwise known as trace amine receptors, abbreviated TAR or TA, are a class of G protein-coupled receptors identified in 2001.[1][2][3]

TAAR1 has gained considerable interest in academic and pharmaceutical industry research as endogenous receptors for trace amines, which are non-classical metabolic derivatives of phenylalanine and tryptophan and the psychostimulants amphetamine and methamphetamine.[3][4][5][6][7][8]

In 2004 it was shown that in mammals TAAR1 is probably also a receptor for thyronamines, decarboxylated and deiodinated metabolites of the thyroid hormones,[4] while the mouse mTAAR2 – mTAAR9 receptors are most probably olfactory receptors for volatile amines.[9][10]

Contents

  • Animal TAAR complement 1
  • Receptor function and ligands 2
  • See also 3
  • External links 4
  • References 5

Animal TAAR complement

The following is a list of the TAARs contained in selected animal genomes:[1][11]

Receptor function and ligands

HumanTAARs and their ligands
Group Naming
convention
Prior names Known or putative function in humans[13] Known ligands References
Group 1 TAAR1 TA1  • Neuromodulation of biogenic amines in the CNS
 • Chemotaxis of leukocytes
 • Chemoreceptor for volatile odorants
 • Trace amines (e.g., phenethylamine, N-methylphenethylamine)
 • Classical monoamines (e.g., dopamine, serotonin, histamine)
 • Substituted amphetamines (e.g., amphetamine)
[14][15][16]
Group 1 TAAR2 GPR58  • Chemotaxis of leukocytes
 • Chemoreceptor for volatile odorants
phenethylamine, tyramine, 3-iodothyronamine [15][16]
Group 1 TAAR3 GPR57, GPR57P Probably a pseudogene [12][15]
Group 1 TAAR4 Not present in humans [15][17]
Group 2 TAAR5 PNR Chemoreceptor for volatile and foul odorants trimethylamine, N,N-dimethylethylamine (agonists)
3-iodothyronamine (inverse agonist)
[15][17][18][19][20]
Group 3 TAAR6 Chemoreceptor for volatile odorants [15][17]
Group 3 TAAR7 Not present in humans [15][17]
Group 3 TAAR8 TA5, TRAR5,
TAR5, GPR102
Chemoreceptor for volatile odorants
(Note: only known Gi/o-coupled TAAR)
[15][17][21]
Group 3 TAAR9 TA3, TRAR3,
TAR3
Chemoreceptor for volatile odorants [15][17]
TAAR1 is not expressed in the human olfactory epithelium, but certain volatile odorants have been identified as agonists of hTAAR1;[22] hence, it's not an olfactory receptor in spite of its capacity for odorant detection.[22]
TAAR2 is inactive in a subset of the human population, as there is a polymorphism with a premature stop codon in 10–15% of Asians.[12]
TAAR9 is a functional receptor in most of the population, but has a polymorphism with a premature stop codon in 10–30%, depending on the population subgroup.[12]

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ a b
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ a b c d
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i
  16. ^ a b
  17. ^ a b c d e f
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^ a b
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.