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Transleithania

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Transleithania

Transleithania (Hungarian: Lajtántúl, German: Transleithanien, Polish: Zalitawia) was an unofficial term for a large part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual monarchy created in 1867 and dissolved in 1918. It comprised the Kingdom of Hungary proper with Transylvania incorporated into it, Croatia-Slavonia, and the city of Fiume.

The Transleithanian lands were officially known as the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or of the Holy Crown of Hungary.

The Latin name Transleithania referred to the parts of the Empire "beyond" (trans) the Leitha (or Lajta) River, as most of its area lay to the east of that river Template:Mdash or "beyond" it, from an Austrian perspective. Cisleithania, i.e. the Habsburg lands of the Dual Monarchy that formerly were part of the Holy Roman Empire with Galicia and Dalmatia, lay to the westTemplate:Mdashon this sideTemplate:Mdashof the Leitha river. The Croatian part of Transleithania (Croatia and Slavonia) was very important part, specialy in war against The Ottoman Empire. One of the important town in Transleithania was Hrvatska Kostajnica which was the residence of the Commander of Hrvatska Kostajnica, Duke Luke Novosel of Transleithania (Croatia and Slavonia part) (House of Novosel) during the war with The Ottoman Empire.

The territory reached from the arc of the Carpathian Mountains in present-day Slovakia to the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea. The capital of Transleithania was Budapest.[1]

Extent

After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Transleithania consisted of the Kingdom of Hungary (including the former Principality of Transylvania (Erdélyi Fejedelemség) as well as the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar), the internally self-governed Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia with the Military Frontier, and the free port of Fiume.[2]

Crown lands of Transleithania
State Hungarian name Capital
Kingdom of Hungary Magyar Királyság Buda
Budapest from 1873
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia Horvát-Szlavónia Királyság Zagreb (Zágráb)
City of Fiume with territory Fiume város és területe Rijeka (Fiume)

Politics

The Transleithanian lands were under the rule of the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I as Apostolic King of Hungary and King of Croatia and Slavonia. He was succeeded by his grand-nephew Emperor Charles I (King Charles IV) in 1916.

On 18 February 1867 the Hungarian Minister-President Count Gyula Andrássy convened the diet. According to the Croatian–Hungarian Agreement of 1868, the Sabor assembly of the former Kingdom of Croatia gained partial sovereignty to legislate in the areas of justice, education and religious matters, and interior affairs.

The existence of Transleithania came to an end, when the Croatian Sabor assembly at Zagreb decided to join the National Council of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs on 29 October 1918. The diet at Budapest repealed the Austro-Hungarian Compromise as of 31 October 1918, after which the Hungarian Democratic Republic was proclaimed on November 16. King Charles IV however never abdicated and from 1920 until 1944 the restored Kingdom of Hungary was governed by Miklós Horthy as a regent.

See also

Austria-Hungary portal

References

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