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Two-year college

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Two-year college

The term junior college refers to different educational institutions in different countries.

India

In India, most states provide schooling through 12th grade. Maharashtra, Odisha, Assam, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka however, have a system of junior colleges where, after taking the 10th grade board exams (see SSLC, SSC), students have to apply to junior colleges to complete their 11th and 12th grades. Junior colleges are also referred to as Pre-University Colleges (PUC). Junior colleges are frequently co-located with degree colleges.

Prominent junior colleges in Mumbai include St. Xavier's, Kishinchand Chelaram, Jai Hind, Bhavan's, Ruparel, Mithibai & Ramnarain Ruia. Prominent junior colleges in Bangalore include Christ Junior College, St. Joseph's College, Vijaya College

Pakistan

Main article: Education in Pakistan

In Pakistan, all provinces provide schooling through 12th grade. The Junior college is known as Intermediate college in Pakistan. After successful completion of Secondary School Certificate the students apply for junior colleges. The students receive Higher Secondary School Certificate after completion of Intermediate college. Most Junior colleges in Pakistan are located close to degree colleges.

Japan

United States

In the United States, a junior college is a two-year post-secondary school whose main purpose is to provide academic, vocational and professional education. The highest certificate offered by such schools is usually an associate's degree, although junior college students may continue their education at a university or college, transferring some or all of the credit earned at the junior college toward the degree requirements of the four-year school.

The term junior college has historically referred to all non-bachelor's degree granting post-secondary schools, but over the last few decades many public junior colleges, which typically aim to serve a local community, have replaced "junior" with "community" in their names. This may give the impression that a junior college must be a private school, but only a small percentage of two-year institutions are private.[1] The first "successful and persistent" junior college in the United States was the Auburndale Female Seminary founded by Edward Lasell (now called Lasell College), which offered a two-year college education as early as 1852 (in 1989, however, it began offering four-year bachelor's degrees and no longer offers any two-year degrees).

Cultural connotations

Junior colleges in the United States have long had to contend with a reputation for low academic standards. The concept can be traced back 100 years to the original public junior college, Joliet Junior College, which was set up in a high school as the equivalent of thirteenth and fourteenth grades in order to prepare qualified students for the final two years of college.[2] To some extent, this is inherent in the junior college mission of providing practical education to students who for various reasons fall outside the typical profile of a four-year college student (for example, someone who has graduated from high school and spent several years working in a relatively unskilled job). Over the years, such colleges developed a reputation as schools of last resort.[3] According to federal statistics, 42% of public community college freshmen take remedial courses.[4] However this does not necessarily affect their future transfer prospects: a junior college graduate with good grades can generally transfer to a four-year school and go on to obtain a full bachelor's degree; and there is a growing movement of students who are attending junior colleges to save significant sums of money in the first two years of a four year education.[5]

Athletics

Certain junior colleges also serve as incubators for college athletes, particularly in basketball and football; in sports parlance, they are often referred to as "Jucos".[6] A talented player who would not meet the academic standards of a major college program may be able to play for two years in junior college, establishing an academic record in the process, and then transfer to a major college.[6] This process has occasionally resulted in scandals, often involving the academics of the student athletes.[6]

Military junior college

In the United States, a military junior college is a military-style junior college that allows cadets to become commissioned officers in the armed forces reserve in two years, instead of the usual four. The students must still go on to complete a bachelor's degree before serving as regular officers on active duty.

There are currently five military junior colleges:

Singapore

In Singapore, a Junior College (JC) is equivalent to a sixth form college in the United Kingdom. After the GCE 'O' level examinations in Secondary 4 or 5, students may apply for admission to either a JC or a polytechnic. The two years spent there culminate in a GCE 'A' level certificate which is the most common qualification used for university admission.

In the past, secondary schools offered both 'O' and 'A' Levels and students in classes studying for the 'A' Levels were known as the "Pre-University" class. During the 1980s and 1990s, the government began the process of transferring all 'A' Level courses to centralised junior colleges. At present students finish their 'O' Levels at a secondary school and may choose to take the 'A' Levels at a junior college or through an external provider.

Quebec, Canada

See also

References

External links

  • Where Have All the Private 2-Year Colleges Gone?
  • Los Angeles, California.
  • college.gov - U.S. Department of Education
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