World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Uyoku dantai

Uyoku dantai
Uyoku dantai, demonstrating in Kyoto on Constitution Day. The large white characters read from the right (the front of the vehicle) as 敬愛倭塾 kei ai wa juku, literally translated as "respect ancient Japan school".

Uyoku dantai (右翼団体, literally "right wing groups") are Japanese nationalist right-wing groups.

In 1996 and 2013, the National Police Agency estimated that there are over 1,000 right wing groups in Japan with about 100,000 members in total.[1][2][3]

Contents

  • Philosophies and activities 1
  • Groups 2
    • Historical groups 2.1
    • Traditional groups 2.2
    • Groups affiliated with yakuza syndicates 2.3
    • Other groups 2.4
  • Gallery 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Philosophies and activities

Uyoku dantai are well known for their highly visible propaganda vehicles, known as Kimigayo, the national anthem. The Great Japan Patriots, supportive of the US-Japan-South Korea alliance against China and North Korea and against communism as a whole, would always have the US national flag flying side by side with the Japanese flag in the vehicles and US military marches played alongside their Japanese counterparts.

Political beliefs differ between the groups but the three philosophies they are often said to hold in common are the advocation of kokutai-Goji (retaining the fundamental character of the nation), hostility towards communism and marxism and hostility against the Japan Teachers Union (which opposes the display of Japanese national symbols and the performance of the national anthem). Traditionally, they viewed the Soviet Union, China and North Korea with hostility over issues such as communism, the Senkaku (Diaoyu) Islands and the Kurile Islands.

Most, but not all, seek to justify Japan's role in the Second World War to varying degrees, deny the war crimes committed by the military during the pre-1945 Shōwa period and are critical of what they see as "self-hate" bias in post-war historical education. Thus, they do not recognize the legality of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and other allied tribunals, consider the war-criminals enshrined in the Yasukuni shrine as "Martyrs of Shōwa" (昭和殉難者 Shōwa junnansha), support the censorship of history textbooks and historical revisionism.[4]

It is difficult to arrest Uyoku dantai members because freedom of ideology is protected by the Constitution of Japan. This is one of the reasons why Yakuza groups use Uyoku dantai as camouflage.[5][6][7]

Groups

Below is a list of some groups usually considered uyoku dantai.

Historical groups

  • Aikokusha (愛国社, "Society of Patriots") – Set up in 1928 by Ainosuke Iwata. (Not to be confused with an 1875-1880 Tomeo Sagoya, a member of the society shot Prime Minister Hamaguchi Osachi at Tokyo Station in an assassination attempt.
  • Black Dragon Society (黑龍會 kokuryūkai) – an influential paramilitary group set up in 1901, initially to support the effort to drive Russia out of east Asia. Ran anti-Russian espionage networks in Korea, China, Manchuria and Russia. Expanded its activities worldwide in the subsequent decades and became a small but significant ultranationalist force in mainstream politics. Forced to disband in 1946.

Traditional groups

  • Daitōjuku (大東塾, "Great Eastern School") - a cultural academy set up in 1939. Runs courses related to Shinto and traditional arts such as waka (poetry) and karate. Conducted several campaigns, such as the restoration of the National Foundation Day's original status of kigensetsu ("Empire Day") and of the legal designation of Japanese era names as Japan's official calendar.
  • Great Japan Patriotic Party (大日本愛国党 Dai-nippon aikokuto) – Set up in 1951 by, and centred around, Satoshi Akao, a former anti-war member of the pre-war National Diet who was well-known at the time for his daily speeches at Sukiyabashi crossing in Ginza, Tokyo. The party advocated state ownership of industries with the Emperor as the head decision maker. They emphasized the need for solidarity with the United States and South Korea in the fight against communism. Their propaganda vans were decorated with the Stars and Stripes alongside the Japanese flag, and Akao once stated that Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo/Takeshima) should be blown up as it represents an obstacle to friendship with South Korea. A former party member, Otoya Yamaguchi, was responsible for the 1960 assassination of Inejiro Asanuma, the head of the Japanese Socialist Party, at a televised rally.
  • Issuikai (一水会) – Formed in 1972 as part of what was then known as the "new right wing" movement which rejected the pro-American rhetoric of the traditional right wing. It sees the Japanese government as an American puppet state and demands "complete independence". Advocates the setting up of a new United Nations on the basis that the current UN structure is a relic of the Second World War. Fiercely critical of the Bush Administration over issues such as the Iraq War and the Kyoto Protocol.

Groups affiliated with yakuza syndicates

  • Nihon Seinensha (日本青年社, "Japan Youth Society") – one of the largest organizations with 2000 members. Set up by the Sumiyoshi-ikka syndicate in 1961. Since 1978, members have constructed two lighthouses and a Shinto shrine on the Senkaku Islands (Diaoyutai), a collection of uninhabited islets claimed by Japan, China and Taiwan.[8] In June 2000, two members of the society attacked the offices of a magazine which ran a headline which was allegedly disrespectful to Princess Masako.
  • Nihon Komintō (日本皇民党, "Japan Emperor's People Party") – affiliated to the Liberal Democratic Party.[9] In April 2004, a bus belonging to the group rammed the gate of the Chinese consulate in Osaka, damaging the gate.[10] Police arrested Nobuyuki Nakagama, the driver, and Ko Chong-Su, a Korean member of the group, for orchestrating the attack.
  • Taikōsha (大行社, "Great Enterprise Society") – a Tokyo-based organization with about 700 members, officially affiliated to the Inagawa-kai syndicate.
  • Seikijuku (正氣塾) – a group based in Nagasaki Prefecture set up in 1981. Responsible for a number of violent incidents, including the 1991 near-fatal shooting of the mayor of Nagasaki who stated that Emperor Hirohito was responsible for the war.
  • Yūkoku Dōshikai (憂国道志会) – an extreme nationalist party. The group set fire to Ichirō Kōno's house in 1963. The members were armed with guns and katana, took eight hostages, and barricaded themselves in Japan Business Federation's office in 1977. Its leader Shūsuke Nomura had admired Korean nationalist An Jung-geun as a patriot. on 37th election of assembly member of the House of Representatives (1983), a secretary of Shintarō Ishihara defamed his opposition candidate Shōkei Arai (Bak gyeong-jae/박경재) as a "Korean", the party protested hard against Shintarō Ishihara.

Other groups

  • National Socialist Japanese Workers' Party (国家社会主義日本労働者党 Kokka Shakaishugi Nippon Rōdōsha-Tō) – a small neo-Nazi party headed by Kazunari Yamada, who maintains a website and blog which includes praise for Adolf Hitler and the September 11 attacks.[11]Pictures of Yamada, a Holocaust-denier, posing with Cabinet minister Sanae Takaichi and LDP policy research chief Tomomi Inada were discovered on the website and became a source of controversy; both have denied support for the party.[11]
  • People's Republic of China. The group advocates a nuclear armed Japan and solidarity with United States and South Korea.
  • [17]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ http://ajw.asahi.com/article/behind_news/social_affairs/AJ201309230105
  2. ^ http://ajw.asahi.com/article/behind_news/social_affairs/AJ201312120046
  3. ^ http://ajw.asahi.com/article/behind_news/social_affairs/AJ201312130059
  4. ^ "Forgiving the culprits: Japanese historical revisionism in a post-cold war context published in the International Journal of Peace Studies
  5. ^ David E. Kaplan, Alec Dubro, "Yakuza:The Explosive Account of Japan's Criminal Underworld," Collier Books, August 1987
  6. ^ Hori Yukio, "Uyoku power in the Post-World War II" Keisoshobo, October 1993 (Japanese Book)
  7. ^ Manabu Yamazaki, "An affirmative theory of modern yakuza" Chikumashobo, June 2007(Japanese Book)
  8. ^ [4]
  9. ^ [5]
  10. ^ [6]
  11. ^ a b Bacchi, Umberto (September 8 2014). "Japanese Minister Sanae Takaichi in Neo-Nazi Photo Controversy". International Business Times. Retrieved 12 October 2015. 
  12. ^ Lee, Elaine. "Japan nationalists return after nearing islands disputed with China". MSN.News. Retrieved 19 October 2013. 
  13. ^ The Japan Times Conservatives rally against DPJ January 30, 2011 Retrieved on August 20, 2012
  14. ^ Reuters Japan nationalist dreams of new patriotic party July 27, 2012 Retrieved on August 20, 2012
  15. ^ The Daily Yomiuri Tokyo govt applies to land on Senkaku island / Police question Senkaku visitors August 21, 2012 Retrieved on August 21, 2012
  16. ^ Time magazine Activists Up Ante in China, Japan Isle Dispute August 19, 2012 Retrieved on August 20, 2012
  17. ^ Warnock, Eleanor (September 18, 2012). "Small Turnout for Anti-China Protest in Tokyo". The Wall Street Journal. 

External links

  • Media Intimidation in Japan article by David McNeill
  • Building 'crisis' mood article by Eric Prideaux
  • Uyoku: The Japanese Right Wing article by Mai Wakisaka (dead link)
  • The Uyoku Ronin Do article by Daiki Shibuichi
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.