World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Valine

Article Id: WHEBN0000063554
Reproduction Date:

Title: Valine  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Essential amino acid, Amino acid, Leucine, Alanine, Peptide
Collection: Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Essential Amino Acids, Glucogenic Amino Acids, Proteinogenic Amino Acids
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Valine

Valine
Identifiers
CAS number  YesY,  (L-isomer) YesY,  (D-isomer) YesY
PubChem
ChemSpider  YesY
UNII  YesY
EC-number
DrugBank
KEGG  YesY
ChEBI  YesY
ChEMBL  YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties[1]
Molecular formula C5H11NO2
Molar mass 117.15 g mol−1
Density 1.316 g/cm3
Melting point 298 °C (decomposition)
Solubility in water soluble
Acidity (pKa) 2.32 (carboxyl), 9.62 (amino)[2]
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY   YesY/N?)

Valine (abbreviated as Val or V)[3] is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH(CH3)2. L-Valine is one of 20 proteinogenic amino acids. Its codons are GUU, GUC, GUA, and GUG. This essential amino acid is classified as nonpolar. Human dietary sources are any proteinaceous foods such as meats, dairy products, soy products, beans and legumes.

Along with leucine and isoleucine, valine is a branched-chain amino acid. It is named after the plant valerian. In sickle-cell disease, valine substitutes for the hydrophilic amino acid glutamic acid in hemoglobin. Because valine is hydrophobic, the hemoglobin is prone to abnormal aggregation.

Contents

  • Nomenclature 1
  • Biosynthesis 2
  • Synthesis 3
  • References 4
  • See also 5
  • External links 6

Nomenclature

According to IUPAC, carbon atoms forming valine are numbered sequentially starting from 1 denoting the carboxyl carbon, whereas 4 and 4' denote the two terminal methyl carbons.[4]

Biosynthesis

Valine is an essential amino acid, hence it must be ingested, usually as a component of proteins. It is synthesized in plants via several steps starting from pyruvic acid. The initial part of the pathway also leads to leucine. The intermediate α-ketoisovalerate undergoes reductive amination with glutamate. Enzymes involved in this biosynthesis include:[5]

  1. Acetolactate synthase (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase)
  2. Acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase
  3. Dihydroxyacid dehydratase
  4. Valine aminotransferase

Synthesis

Racemic valine can be synthesized by bromination of isovaleric acid followed by amination of the α-bromo derivative[6]

HO2CCH2CH(CH3)2 + Br2 → HO2CCHBrCH(CH3)2 + HBr
HO2CCHBrCH(CH3)2 + 2 NH3 → HO2CCH(NH2)CH(CH3)2 + NH4Br

References

  1. ^ Weast, Robert C., ed. (1981). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (62nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. C-569.  
  2. ^ Dawson, R.M.C., et al., Data for Biochemical Research, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1959.
  3. ^ "Nomenclature and symbolism for amino acids and peptides (IUPAC-IUB Recommendations 1983)", Pure Appl. Chem. 56 (5), 1984: 595–624,  .
  4. ^ Jones, J. H., ed. (1985). Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins. Specialist Periodical Reports 16. London:  
  5. ^ Lehninger, Albert L.; Nelson, David L.; Cox, Michael M. (2000), Principles of Biochemistry (3rd ed.), New York: W. H. Freeman,  .
  6. ^ Marvel, C. S. (1940), -Valine"dl",  .

See also

External links

  • Valine MS Spectrum
  • Isoleucine and valine biosynthesis


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.