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Via della Conciliazione

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Title: Via della Conciliazione  
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Subject: Borgo (rione of Rome), St. Peter's Basilica, Marcello Piacentini, Rome, Transport in Vatican City
Collection: Italian Fascist Architecture, Rome R. Xiv Borgo, Streets in Rome
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Via della Conciliazione

A view from ground level of the Via della Conciliazione. Note that the dome of the Basilica is not centered, as Piacentini chose instead to centre on the obelisk, which had been moved on the orders of Sixtus V.

Via della Conciliazione (Road of the Conciliation[1]) is a street in the Rome, Italy. Roughly 500 metres (1,600 ft) in length,[2] it connects Saint Peter's Square to the Castel Sant'Angelo on the western bank of the Tiber River. The road was constructed between 1936 and 1950, and it is the primary access route to the Square. In addition to shops, it is bordered by a number of historical and religious buildings – including the Palazzo Torlonia, the Palazzo dei Penitenzieri and the Palazzo dei Convertendi, and the churches of Santa Maria in Traspontina and Santo Spirito in Sassia.

Despite being one of the few major thoroughfares in Rome able to cope with a high volume of traffic without congestion,[3] it is the subject of much ire both within the Roman community and among historical scholars due to the circumstances under which it was constructed.[4][5] The area around the church was rebuilt several times following the various Sacks of Rome, and again after having deteriorated due to the loss of prosperity resulting from the Papacy's relocation to Avignon during the 14th century. Through all of these reconstructions, the area in front of the short courtyard of Saint Peter's Basilica remained a maze of densely packed structures overhanging narrow side-streets and alleyways.

Contents

  • Previous plans 1
  • Mussolini and Rome 2
  • Construction 3
  • Today 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
    • Notes 6.1
    • Sources 6.2
  • External links 7

Previous plans

A 1776 concept for an open V-shaped boulevard.

Plans were drawn up several times over the years for the construction of a major link between the [7]

A photograph of Saint Peter's Square and the area now occupied by the Via della Conciliazione, taken c. 1900.
The view down Via della Conciliazione from Saint Peter's Basilica in 1946.
The view down Via della Conciliazione from Saint Peter's Basilica, as it appears today.
View from Via della Conciliazione to Saint Peter's Basilica, as it appears today.

Further momentum was lost when medieval buildings to obscure any view of the Vatican structures from any significant distance. In this way, pilgrims emerged from the relative darkness of the city into the vast open space and grandeur of the Square and its surrounding buildings – a sight calculated to inspire awe in first-time visitors to the Holy See's seat of power.[5] Bernini had originally planned to demolish a square roughly 100 m to a side directly in front of the square, filling the space with a third colonnade (or "terzo braccio") to match the two still standing today. This would afford a longer vantage point to allow visitors a better viewing angle of the new Basilica. The death of his patron, Pope Alexander VII, put a halt to Bernini's work. The third set of columns was abandoned, and Bernini's piazza remained open-ended and incomplete.[10]

From the final major reconstruction of Borgo in the 15th century, the site which the Via della Conciliazione now covers remained occupied by residential, religious, and historical buildings for nearly 500 years. The final impetus behind the road's construction was primarily political. Borgo, along with the rest of the Papal States outside of the Vatican itself, was taken by the Kingdom of Italy during the Italian unification in the 19th Century – leading to Pope Pius IX's declaration that he had become a prisoner in the Vatican and the formation of the Roman Question. For the next 59 years, the Popes refused to leave the Vatican, in order to avoid any appearance of accepting the authority wielded by the Italian government over Rome as a whole. Initially, parts of the Italian government welcomed this, expecting the influence of the Papacy to fade to the point that enough political support could be gained to abolish it altogether.[11] However, this failed to come to pass, and eventually a compromise acceptable to both states was reached in the Lateran treaty of 1929.

Mussolini and Rome

Prime Minister facades of the buildings lining this space did not align perfectly, in order to create the illusion of a perfectly straight causeway traffic islands would be erected along both sides, with rows of obelisks leading towards the Square, doubling as lampposts. These were also intended to reduce the effect that the funnel-shaped design would have on perspective when facing the Basilica. The wings of those buildings closest to the square would be preserved to form a propylaea, blocking the greater portion of the Vatican City from approaching visitors and framing the Square and Basilica at the head of a grand open space that would allow for easy vehicular access.[12][13]

Construction

Demolition of the spina of Borgo began with Mussolini's symbolic strike of the first building with a San Giacomo Scossacavalli and Sant'Angelo al Corridore, were destroyed. Facing into the cleared area are five other historical buildings, the Palazzo Giraud Torlonia, the church of Santa Maria in Traspontina, the Palazzo dei Penitenzieri, Palazzo Serristori, and Palazzo Cesi (which was mutilated).[15]

The construction of the road was only a small feature in the reconstruction of Rome ordered by Mussolini, which ranged from the restoration of the Castel Sant'Angelo, the clearance of the Mausoleum of Augustus, to the vastly more complicated site of the Via dell'Impero through Rome's ancient imperial remains. His plan was to transform Rome into a monument to Italian fascism.[16]

Crowds spilling into the Via della Conciliazione during the funeral of Pope John Paul II.
In five years, Rome must appear marvellous to all the peoples of the world; vast, orderly, powerful, as it was in the time of the first empire of Augustus.
Benito Mussolini[17]

Construction of the road continued long after Mussolini's death and the abolition of Italian Fascism. The obelisks along the road were installed in time for the Jubilee of 1950.[4]

Today

Via della conciliazione at night.

Since its completion, the road has acted as the primary access point to St. Peter's Square, and by extension to the Vatican City itself. At times, such as during the funeral of Pope John Paul II, it has acted as an extension to the square itself, allowing a greater number of visitors to attend functions conducted there.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ The name finally settled upon for the project was chosen by journalist Franco Franchi after World War II; Delli, Sergio (1975). Le strade di Roma. Rome: Newton & Compton. p. sub vocem. 
  2. ^  
  3. ^ McClendon, p. 34.
  4. ^ a b Cutler, Teresa. "Via Della Conciliazione". LifeInItaly.com. Retrieved February 10, 2007. 
  5. ^ a b Kirk, p. 1.
  6. ^ McClendon, p. 36.
  7. ^ a b Kirk, p. 2
  8. ^ McClendon, pp. 36, 42
  9. ^ McClendon, pp. 37, 44
  10. ^ Kitao, T.; Kitao, Timothy K. (October 1976). "Circle and Oval in the Square of Saint Peter's: Bernini's Art of Planning". The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 35 (3): pp. 234–235.  
  11. ^ Guerzoni, Giuseppe (1882). Garibaldi: con documenti editi e inediti 11. Florence. p. 485. 
  12. ^ McClendon, pp. 38–39
  13. ^ Baxa, P. (February 2004). "Piacentini's Window: The Modernism of the Fascist Master Plan of Rome". Contemporary European History 13 (1): pp. 1–20.  
  14. ^ Kirk, p. 9.
  15. ^ Kirk, p. 16.
  16. ^ Agnew, J. "The impossible capital: Monumental Rome under liberal and fascist regimes, 1870-1943".  
  17. ^ Scritti e discorsi di Benito Mussolini 5. Milan: Hoepli. 1934. pp. 243–45. 

Sources

  • Kirk, T (December 2006). "Framing St. Peter's: urban planning in Fascist Rome". The Art Bulletin: 1–16. 
  • McClendon, Charles B. (1989). "The History of the Site of St. Peter's Basilica, Rome". Perspecta 25: 34–65.  

External links

  • Media related to at Wikimedia Commons

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