World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Zipser German

Article Id: WHEBN0047846336
Reproduction Date:

Title: Zipser German  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Languages of Ukraine, Zipser Germans, Languages of Slovakia, West Germanic languages, Languages of Romania
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Zipser German

Zipser German (German: Zipserisch, Zipserdeutsch, Hungarian: szepességi szász nyelv or cipszer nyelv) is a Germanic lect which developed in the Upper Zips region of what is now Slovakia among people who settled there from central Germany beginning in the 13th century.[1] The Lower Zips was inhabited by other Central Germans who spoke a similar dialect called "Gründlerisch" which is considered to be the same language.[1] Beginning in at least the 18th century, many Zipsers migrated to northern Romania, including to southern Bukovina,[2][3] where several other Germanic lects were also spoken.[4] Over time, the speech of the Zipsers in Romania was heavily influenced by that of people from Upper Austria who settled among them and were ultimately assimilated into the Zipser ethnic community.[5][6] During and after the Second World War, most Zipsers evacuated or were expelled to Germany, but a community of speakers remains in Hopgarten; their distinctive dialect is called "Outzäpsersch" (German: "Altzipserisch", literally "Old Zipserish").[7]

Dialectal differences

The dialect spoken in Bukovina, Gründlerisch in origin, was characterized by the shift of original (Middle High German) /v/ to /b/ and of original /b/ to /p/.[3][8] The dialect of Hopgarten distinctively shifts Middle High German /l/, in all positions, to 'u'.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c Karl Julius Schröer, Die deutschen Mundarten des ungrischen Berglandes (1864)
  2. ^ Oskar Hadbawnik, Die Zipser in der Bukowina (1968) discusses the Zipserfest held in Jakobeny in 1936 to commemorate 150 years since the Zipsers migrated to Jakobeny in 1786.
  3. ^ a b І. Я. Яцюк, Тернопільський національний педагогічний університет ім. Володимира Гнатюка, Наукові записки. Серія “Філологічна”, УДК 81’282.4:811.112.2(477): Lexikalische Besonderheiten Deutscher Dialekte in Galizien- und der Bukowina: “Die Siedler in den ursprünglichen Bergwerksgemeinden im Südwesten der Bukowina sprachen Zipserisch und zwar Gründlerisch, wie es in der Unterzips gesprochen wurde. Dabei wurde [v] im Anlaut wie [b] ausgesprochen: Werke – berka, weh – be, Schwester – schbesta. Anlautendes [b] wurde zu [p]: Brot – prot, Brücke – prik.”
  4. ^ Willi Kosiul, Die Bukowina und ihre Buchenlanddeutschen, 2012, ISBN 3942867095, volume 2
  5. ^ Anton-Joseph Ilk, Zipser Volksgut aus dem Wassertal (1990): "Die Tatsache, daß es sich bei den Deutschen in Oberwischau - heute, wie gesagt, allgemein Zipser genannt - um eine Bevölkerungsgruppe handelt, die aus der Verschmelzung verschiedener Einwandererwellen hervorgegangen ist, widerspiegelt sich auch in der Mundart. Beim Wischauer Deutsch, dem 'Zipserischen', handelt es sich eigentlich um einen interessanten Apsekt von Sprachfusion: Der altzipserische Gründler Dialekt wurde in einer Zeitspanne von etwa hundert Jahren durch die Mundart der Oberösterreicher, so sogenannten 'Teitschn', beinahe ganz verdrängt; die Oberösterreicher, hingegen wurden als Volksgruppe von den Zipser Einwanderern - hauptsächlich durch Heirat - 'assimiliert'. Ihre Mundart setzte sich jedoch durch und entwickelte sich schließlich zum Idiom der Wischaudeutschen, der 'Zipser Sachsen'."
    "The fact that the Germans in Oberwischau - today, as noted, generally called Zipsers - are a group of people who developed out of an amalgamation of different waves of immigrants, is reflected also in their dialect. With Wischauer German, 'Zipser', one is dealing with an interesting aspect of language fusion: the Old Zipser Gründler dialect was over the course of a hundred years almost completely replaced by the dialect of the Upper Austrians, the so-called 'Germans'; the Upper Austrians however were 'assimilated' by the Zipser migrants, primarily through marriage. Their [Austrian] dialect established itself however, and developed ultimately to the idiom of the Wischau Germans, the 'Zipser Saxons'."
  6. ^ Flucht und Vertreibung: 50 Jahre danach (Johannes-Künzig-Institut für Ostdeutsche Volkskunde, 1996): Herr F. aus Oberwischau im Sathmarer Gebiet, wo das ursprüngliche Altzipserische zur Jahrhundertwende durch eine bairische Mundart der Einwanderer aus Böhmen, Gmunden und Bad Ischl umgeformt worden war, ...
  7. ^ Somewhat confusingly, literature on the language also uses "Altzipserisch" in two other ways: to refer to the dialect of the Upper Zips as contrasted with "Gründlerisch", and to refer to the original Central German (Gründlerisch) lect of the speakers who migrated to Romania, as contrasted with the Upper-Austrian-influenced lect they now speak. For example, Claus Stephani in Zipser Mära und Kasska (1989) writes that the later settlers "sprachen Oberösterreichisch, die anderen eine Gründler Mundart: Altzipserisch" (spoke Upper Austrian, [while] the others [spoke] a Gründler dialect: Old Zipserish).
  8. ^ Oskar Hadbawnik, Die Zipser in der Bukowina (1968): “Prof. Lang führt dazu aus: «Die Zipser sprechen noch gründlerisch, die Mundart der unteren Zips. Statt w sagen sie b und statt b sagen sie p. «Berka» heißt Werke, «Basa» heißt Wasser und «Perg» heißt Berg.»”
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.