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Title: Zoara  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Battle of Siddim, Bible/Featured chapter/Genesis, Zoar, Bala, Bela
Collection: Catholic Titular Sees in Asia, Hebrew Bible Places
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Possible location of Zoara.

Zoara, the biblical Zoar, previously called Bela (Genesis 14:8), was one of five cities of the plain of Jordan[1] in the Genesis which made up the Pentapolis. It was spared the "brimstone and fire" which destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah in order to provide a refuge for Lot and his daughters.[2] It is mentioned by Josephus;[3] Ptolemy (V, xvi, 4); and by Eusebius and Saint Jerome in the Onomasticon.[4][5]

Owing to its tropical climate and to the waters coming down from the mountains of Moab, Zoara is a flourishing oasis where the balsam, indigo, and date trees bloom luxuriantly.[6]


  • In the Bible 1
  • Other ancient references 2
  • Bishopric 3
  • Other references to Zoara 4
  • Archaeology 5
  • References 6

In the Bible

Zoara-, meaning "small" or "insignificance" in Hebrew (a "little one" as Lot called it), was a city east of Jordan in the vale of Siddim, which later became the Dead Sea. Along with Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim, Zoar was one of the 5 cities slated for destruction by God; but Zoar was spared at Lot's plea as his place of refuge. (Genesis 19:20-23) Segor is the Septuagint form of "Zoar".

Other ancient references

Egeria the pilgrim tells of a bishop of Zoara that accompanied her in the area, in the early 380s. Antoninus of Piacenza in the 6th century describes its monks, and extols its palm trees.[6]


  1. ^ Genesis 14:2-8
  2. ^ Genesis 19:22-30
  3. ^ Ant. Jud., XIII, xv, 4; Bell. Jud., IV, viii, 4
  4. ^  
  5. ^  
  6. ^ a b c Guy Le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems, 289
  7. ^ Description of the Roman World
  8. ^ a b (New York 1912)Catholic EncyclopediaSiméon Vailhé, "Zoara" in
  9. ^ The Madaba Mosaic Map, Balak also Segor, now Zoara
  10. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 1013
  11. ^ , Tomus III, coll. 737-746Oriens christianusMichel Lequien,


Several excavation surveys have been conducted in this area in the years 1986-1996. Ruins of a basilical church that were discovered in the site of Deir 'Ain 'Abata ("monastery at the Abata Spring" in Arabic), were identified as the Sanctuary of Agios (Saint) Lot. An adjacent cave is ascribed as the location where Lot and his daughters took refuge during the overthrow of Sodom. About 300 engraved funerary steles in the Khirbet Sheikh 'Isa area in Ghor al-Safy were found in 1995. Most gravestones were inscribed in Greek and thus attributed to Christian burials, while several stones were inscribed in Aramaic, suggesting that they belong to Jewish burials. These gravestones were therefore traced back to the fourth-fifth centuries AD, when Zoara was an important Jewish center.

Prior to the major archaeological excavations in the 1980s and 1990s that took place in Zoara, scholars proposed that several sites in the area of Khirbet Sheikh 'Isa and al-Naq' offered further evidence of Zoara's location and history. Further information regarding Zoara in different historical epochs were obtained through the descriptions of Arabian geographers, suggesting that Zoara served as an important station in the Akkabah-to-Jericho trade route, and through Eusebius's statement that the Dead Sea was situated between Zoar and Jericho. Researchers who have studied ancient texts portray Zoara as a town erected in the middle of a flourishing oasis, watered by rivers flowing down from the high Moab Mountains in the east. The sweet dates that grew abundantly on the palm trees surrounding Zoara are also mentioned in some historical texts.


The Syriac Chronicles of Michael the Syrian (12th century) and of Bar Hebraeus (thirteenth century) contain some obscure traditions regarding the founding of some of the "cities of the plain". According to these accounts, during the lifetime of Nahor (Abraham's grandfather), a certain Canaanite named Armonius had two sons named Sodom and Gomorrah, for whom he named two newly built towns, naming a third (Zoara) after their mother.

Other references to Zoara

Le Quien gives the names of three of its bishops;[11]

It became a bishopric and is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.[10]

Zoara was part of the late Roman province of Palaestina Tertia.


During the Crusader period it took the name of Palmer, or of Paumier. William of Tyre (XXII, 30) and Foulcher of Chartres (Hist. hierosol., V) have left beautiful descriptions of it, as well as the Arabian geographers, who highly praise the sweetness of its dates.[6] It is not known when the city disappeared;[8]

In the Madaba Map, of the sixth century, it is represented in the midst of a grove of palm trees under the names of Balac or Segor.[9]

[8] both mention it.[7]

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