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The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Atom and Chemistry

By Martini, Albert, Ph.D.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003466796
Format Type: PDF (eBook)
File Size: 57.51 MB
Reproduction Date: 9/14/2014

Title: The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Atom and Chemistry  
Author: Martini, Albert, Ph.D.
Volume: Revised Edition
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Science, Chemistry
Collection: Authors Community
Subcollection: Science
Historic
Publication Date:
2014
Publisher: Albert Martini
Member Page: Albert Martini

Description
The 2000 year history of the atom and chemistry, from the Classic Greek Era to the present, is described in 800 pages, depicted with some 300 pictures and illustrations. This history of the atom and chemistry discusses the lives of about 180 chemists and physicists, through the evolution of several stages of development, representing the most important scientific accomplishments. The most significant discoveries in chemistry and physics are presented chronologically to illustrate their contributions to the creation of the chemical sciences during the last 21 centuries.

Summary
The Renaissance of Science. The story of the Atom and Chemistry. The Magnificent Scientists and their Fabulous Accomplishments. A Fantastic Dream and Journey into the Past, Present and Future in the World of Chemistry.

Excerpt
INTRODUCTION It is a genuine pleasure and challenge for me to try to express the full extent of my emotions and reasons for writing this book on the STORY OF THE ATOM AND THE SCIENCES, with special reference to the CHEMICAL SCIENCES. In one sentence, I can distill the essence of the purpose for this study by simply stating that it has been a labor of love that transcended the written word because sentiments and ideas belong in the realm of the ethereal and the philosophical as well as in the domain of LITERATURE and SCIENCE. Ever since a young and impressionable student attending a country school in a community of a few hundred people, began to be introduced to the world of knowledge over 65 years ago, the sciences became to me what water is to fish, air is to birds and earth is to humanity. The introduction to the mathematical, physical, chemical and biological sciences felt like reading a beautiful poem or listening to a romantic melody. In essence, it was truly a joyful experience, full of the enigmatic, the mysterious and the fantastic, beyond my wildest imagination. The words used in the title of this book, were carefully chosen to represent its content and purpose. The word RENAISSANCE signifies the rebirth of the glorious world of science as we enter the 21st Century. The word STORY, instead of HISTORY, was selected to allow the literary, philosophical and scientific licenses, which gave us the freedom to explore the domain of CHEMISTRY without becoming dull, oblivious and obtuse, but with a sense of joyfulness, fascination and adventure. The word ATOM was chosen to celebrate the existence of a majestic and enigmatic entity, which transcends human intelligence and imagination, and enters the QUANTUM REALM of the supernatural with lucid integrity and harmony. The word SCIENTIST was used to bring to the forefront the magnificent SCIENTISTS, to whom we pay tribute and dedicate this book with admiration, gratitude and respect, for their fabulous accomplishments. The words DREAM and JOURNEY were selected because this book represents exactly that, a DREAM and a JOURNEY into the past, present and future of the CHEMICAL SCIENCES with the hope to fulfill the origin, evolution and destiny of the scientific community and humanity. Chemistry and the sciences in general, have an innate beauty and a prodigious force that guides us with their fantastic order, symmetry and cycles, to attain the truth. A truth that constitutes the structures and functions of our existence! Science has a built in wisdom and intuitiveness, which compels us to find the inherited order of our world, in terms of NATURAL LAWS and MATHEMATICAL FORMULATIONS with great strength, uniformity and significance. Each new discovery and invention, although modest in itself, always adds to solving, one step at a time, the complex and apparent puzzle of nature. The light from each scientific truth, contributes to the glorious unveiling of the MASTER PLAN that guides our path to a greater understanding of our UNIVERSE. It is our divine obligation to create our own light of truth, until there are enough scientific candles to make our lives shine with lasting joy, peace and hope! Every age has its own dreams, but we must leave behind the dreams of yesterday and take the torch of knowledge to find our own dreams and the dreams of tomorrow, which will create the beautiful world of the future! Notwithstanding, let us remember that the BONE YARD of HUMAN HISTORY is rich in abandoned and forgotten SCIENTIFIC TREASURES that await our sense of loyalty to guide us back to their origin, evolution and destiny! The famous Irish essayist, GEORGE BERNARD SHAW said, and I paraphrase: What a pity that we must waste YOUTH on the YOUNG! This exquisitely true statement brought to mind the conviction that we must never give up on the young, for they are our future! It also made me reevaluate my ideas and sentiments on age, in that age is not a matter of years, but more significantly, age is a matter of zest, commitment, imagination, hope, faith and love in the treatment of life and humanity. It is also wise to remember that we do not tell our GENES who we are, instead it is our GENES who tell us who we are! The writing of this book was guided by the gentle hand of our little and fascinating friend, the ATOM, through the exalting world of PHILOSOPHY (the love of learning) and of SCIENCE (the love of truth). In this fantastic journey, I had the privilege and pleasure of re-learning an old lesson of life, that man’s struggle to learn and to better himself and the world around him, was, is and always will be a worthy and noble cause and endeavor! Preparing this book was truly a labor of love that helped me to survive the pain of losing a loved one! It was actually very easy, ha ha ha! The secret was, just to follow our little friend, the ATOM, who led the way with great virtuosity, imagination, intuitiveness, kindness and a great deal of patience. While writing, a question appeared from time to time, why take a journey into the past, when the present and the future are radiant with new and fantastic promising ideas? The answer was always multifaceted and full of wisdom: The past helps to recreate perspective. The past points to old-fashioned wisdom. The past keeps us from repeating obvious mistakes. The past may help to understand the present and the future ahead. The past may contain hidden and forgotten treasures that we shall not abstain from exploring and evaluating. Finally, I feel compelled once again to make us aware of the fact that we owe much gratitude, admiration and respect to those scientists of the past, who built the prodigious foundation that supports the magnificent scientific development that we enjoy today! As I recall, from a very early and pre-school age, my curiosity and desire to observe and learn was self-evident. Now, at an advanced and post-school age, I took a look at my library of books on the life of scientists and the history of the sciences, and soon came to the realization that there, in front of me, was 2000 years of scientific history, just waiting to show me the knowledge and wisdom of the ages past! The result was, spending four years to write a 5000-page manuscript about the 2000-year history of ASTRONOMY, MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY and MICROBIOLOGY/MEDICINE. Each science represents, in itself, a book. Because my University training was mainly in CHEMISTRY, this is the first book in the series. The writing of a 5000-page manuscript was indeed a labor of love that afforded me the magnificent opportunity to interview and interact, through my library, with over 600 of the most brilliant scientists, including some of the most intuitive and creative NOBEL LAUREATES! This 2000-year study covers: The CLASSIC GREEK/ROMAN ERA. The ALCHEMY of ANTIQUITY and the MIDDLE AGES The RENAISSANCE ERA and the AGE OF REASON. THE MODERN ERA and the various SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS. The AGE of COPERNICUS, KEPLER and GALILEO on ASTRONOMY. The AGE of NEWTON, LEIBNIZ, DESCARTES and LAPLACE on ASTRONOMY and MATHEMATICS The AGE of the BERNOULLIS, DESCARTES, FERMAT, EULER and GAUSS on MATHEMATICS. The AGE of VOLTA, OERSTED, DAVY, FARADAY and MAXWELL on ELECTROMAGNETISM. The AGE of MORSE, BELL, EDISON, HERTZ and MARCONI on COMMUNICATION. The AGE of MALPIGHI, VAN LEEUWENHOEK, VESALIUS, MONDINO, HARVEY and HOOKE on MICROSCOPY and ANATOMY. The AGE of LINNAEUS, CANDOLLE, CUVIER, OWEN and AGASSIZ on TAXONOMY and classification at large. The AGE of DARWIN, WALLACE, LAMARCK, SPENSER and MALTHUS on EVOLUTION. The AGE of MENDEL, De VRIES, SCHLEIDEN, SCHWANN and FLEMMING on GENETICS and BIOLOGY. The AGE of PASTEUR, KOCH, EHRLICH, LISTER, WAKSMAN, SALK and SABIN on MICROBIOLOGY and VACCINES. The AGE of CROOKES, BECQUEREL, the CURIES and RONTGEN on RADIOACTIVITY, RADIATIONS and RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS. The AGE of RUTHERFORD, THOMSON, BOHR, SODDY, ASTON, CHADWICK and SOMMERFELD on MODERN ATOMIC PHYSICS. The AGE of PLANCK, HEISENBERG, LORENTZ, FERMI, OPPENHEIMER and EINSTEIN on ATOMIC PHYSICS, QUANTUM THEORY and RELATIVITY. The AGE of BOYLE, CAVENDISH, PRIESTLEY, BLACK, SCHEELE, STAHL and RUTHERFORD on ELEMENTAL CHEMISTRY. The AGE of LAVOISIER, DALTON, BERZELIUS and MENDELEEV on MODERN CHEMISTRY, ATOMIC THEORY and the PERIODIC TABLE. The AGE of KEKULE, LIEBIG, WOHLER, GAY-LUSSAC, BERTHELOT, LAURENT, DUMAS, PASTEUR, VAN’T HOFF and HAWORTH on ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. The AGE of AVOGADRO, WOLLASTON, FRANKLAND, ARRHENIUS and MOSELEY on MODERN CHEMISTRY. The AGE of the FISCHERS, CALVIN, PERUTZ, KENDREW, HOPKINS, KREBS, LIPMANN, TODD, SANGER, PAULING, CHARGAFF, WILKINS, WATSON and CRICK on PHOTOSYNTHESIS, AMINO ACIDS, PROTEINS, the DOUBLE HELIX DNA MOLECULE and BIOCHEMISTRY AT LARGE. It took four years to write about the 2000-YEAR HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY and the various sciences. However, it actually required my entire professional life to develop the knowledge base, experience, wisdom and idiosyncrasy on which this study of the sciences has its foundations. The STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY was written in two parts, which should complement and justify each other. The first part, tells the STORY of the CHEMICAL SCIENCES from its ALCHEMY beginnings, through its magnificent evolution and fabulous accomplishments, and to its destiny, as an intuitive, creative and fantastic science. The second part is an attempt to recreate the prodigious lives of the most outstanding and brilliant chemists of the last 20 centuries. The author has created THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY with the sincere hope that this labor of love translates in the reader’s mind into a love for learning and into some degree of joy, satisfaction and inspiration. The most basic and sincere intention of this study is to motivate the scientific community into a genuine life of learning, teaching and research. A life, which is truly exemplary and rewarding to all of humanity, particularly to the dedicated CHEMISTS who give their lives to SCIENCE with unconditional COMMITMENT and NOBILITY.

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY 7 THE CAVE MAN 7 ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF PERSPECTIVE AND SENSE OF DUTY 8 THE MIGRATORY AND THE SEDENTARY MAN 9 ABSTRACT ON THE ATOM AND ITS ENERGY 11 THE CLASSIC GREEK AND ROMAN PHILOSOPHERS 17 EMPEDOCLES (492-432 BC) Greek Philosopher 20 Proposed the four basic elements: earth, water, air and fire. DEMOCRITUS (470-380 BC) Greek Philosopher 22 The founder of the atomic theory of antiquity. CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (100-170) Greek Astronomer 24 Proponent of the geocentric theory of our solar system with the Earth and not the Sun at its center. ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF AN ORDERLY AND SYSTEMATIC UNIVERSE 25 THE ALCHEMY OF ANTIQUITY AND THE MIDDLE AGES 32 THE METAL INDUSTRY OF ANTIQUITY 33 Mercury, Copper, Bronze, Iron and Steel. GEBER (721-815) Arabian Alchemist 38 One of the first scholars and alchemists of the Islamic world. OMAR KHAYYAM (12th Century). Persian Scientist and Astronomer 38 Brilliant astronomer and alchemist of the 12th Century. BERNARDO TREVISAN (1406 -1490) Italian Alchemist 39 One of the most famous alchemists of the middle ages. PHILIPPUS A. PARACELSUS (1493-1541) Swiss Physician and Alchemist 41 Contributed to modernize chemistry and medicine. MORE ABOUT THE PSEUDOSCIENCE OF ALCHEMY 43   THE BIRTH OF MODERN SCIENCE 46 THE ADVENT OF THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION DURING THE AGE OF REASON 46 THE PHILOSOPHERS OF SCIENCE AND THE EVOLUTION OF KNOWLEDGE 47 FRANCIS BACON, RENE DESCARTES, BENEDICTUS SPINOZA, GOTTFRIED LEIBNIZ and FRANCOIS MARIE VOLTAIRE. FUNDAMENTAL EVENTS IN THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN SCIENCE 49 THE FIRST GENERATION IN SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT 50 NICOLAS COPERNICUS (1473-1543) Polish Astronomer 50 Proponent of the heliocentric theory of our solar system with the Sun and not the Earth at its center. CHARLES R. DARWIN (1809-1882) English Naturalist 51 Proponent of the theory of evolution. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. THE SECOND GENERATION IN SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT 53 IN THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES 53 GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642) Italian Astronomer and Physicist 53 One of the Founders of Modern Science and the Scientific Method. Proposed the Laws of Falling Bodies. Supporter of Copernicus’ Heliocentric Theory. JOHANN KEPLER (1571-1630) German Astronomer and Mathematician 53 Developed the Laws of Planetary Motion and the elliptical orbits. Supporter of Copernicus’ Heliocentric Theory. ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727) English Physicist and Mathematician 53 Published his scientific masterpiece, Pricipia Mathematica. Proposed the Laws of Motion and the Concept of Gravity. Presented our solar system as a mechanical universe. RENE DESCARTES (1596-1650) French Philosopher and Mathematician 53 Created his Cartesian Coordinates and Analytic Geometry. ROBERT BOYLE (1627-1691) Irish Physicist and Chemist 53 Proposed his corpuscular theory, revived Democritus’ theory. Published The Sceptical Chemist and initiated modern chemistry.   WILLIAM GILBERT (1544-1603) English Physician and Physicist 54 Published De Magnete and started the great revolution, of electromagnetism. MICHAEL FARADAY (1791-1867) English Physicist and Chemist 54 Developed the theory of electromagnetism. Proposed light as an electromagnetic wave. JAMES C. MAXWELL (1831-1879) Scottish Mathematician and Physicist 54 Developed the mathematics to explain electromagnetism. IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 55 MARCELLO MALPIGHI (1628-1694) Italian Physiologist and Microscopist 55 One of founders of the science of microscopy. Unveiled the nature of human anatomy and physiology. MONDINO De LUZZI (1275-1326) Italian Anatomist 55 One of the greatest human anatomists of the Renaissance. ANDREAS VESALIUS (1514-1564) Flemish-Italian Anatomist 55 Wrote his masterpiece on The Structure of the Human Body. WILLIAM HARVEY (1578-1657) English Physician 55 Published his book On the Motions of the Heart and Blood. Proposed the circulatory system of the blood and heart. ROBERT HOOKE (1635-1703) English Physicist 55 One of the great microscopists. Published his Micrographia. MATTHIAS J. SCHLEIDEN (1804-1881) German Botanist 58 Proposed his cell theory in plants and the cell as the building unit. THEODOR SCHWANN (1810-1882) German Physiologist 58 Proposed his cell theory in animals. WALTHER FLEMMING (1843-1905) German Anatomist 58 Characterized the entire process of cell division in animal cells. GREGOR J. MENDEL (1822-1884) Austrian Monk and Botanist 58 Developed his Laws of Heredity and segregation-hybridization. LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895) French Chemist and Microbiologist 58 Proposed his Germ Theory of Diseases. Developed the method of vaccination. THE BIRTH OF MODERN CHEMISTRY 60 EARLY SCENARIO IN THE WORLD OF CHEMISTRY 60 SOME FUNDAMENTAL IMPEDIMENTS 61 SOME ESSENTIAL NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS 62 THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN CHEMISTRY 64 ROBERT BOYLE (1627-1691) Irish Chemist and Physicist 65 One of the founders of modern chemistry. Published The Sceptic Chemist and his Corpuscular theory. SOME IMPORTANT EVENTS IN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 68 JAN B. VAN HELMONT (1580-1644) Flemish Physician and Alchemist 68 Performed the famous willow tree experiment. Regarded water as the Principle of Vegetation. JOHN MAYOW (1641-1679) English Chemist 70 Proposed the Combustible Principle. GEORG STAHL (1660-1734) German Chemist and Physician 70 Proposed the Phlogiston Theory. STEPHEN HALES (1677-1761) English Botanist and Chemist 71 Founder of Modern Plant Physiology. JAN INGENHOUSZ (1730-1799) Dutch Physician and Plant Physiologist 71 Characterized the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. SOME IMPORTANT EVENTS IN MODERN CHEMISTRY 75 JOSEPH BLACK (1728-1799) Scottish Chemist 77 Discovered the fixed air or carbon dioxide. HENRY CAVENDISH (1731-1810) English Chemist and Physicist 79 Discovered the inflammable gas (hydrogen) and synthesized water. JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733-1804) English Chemist 84 Discovered the dephlogisticated air or oxygen. KARL W. SCHEELE (1742-1786) Swedish Chemist 87 Discovered the fire air or oxygen. DANIEL RUTHERFORD (1749-1819) Scottish Chemist 88 Discovered nitrogen. THE ERA OF ANTOINE LAVOISIER, JOHN DALTON AND J. J. BERZELIUS 90 THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY 90 ANTOINE L. LAVOISIER (1743-1794) French Chemist 92 The Father of Modern Chemistry. Founder of the quantitative chemical analysis. Proposed The Law Of Conservation Of Matter. JOHN DALTON (1766-1844) English Chemist 98 Proponent of the Modern Atomic Theory. Created the atomic symbols and a table of atomic weights. JONS J. BERZELIUS (1779-1848) Swedish Chemist 103 Supported Dalton’s Atomic Theory. Created the modern atomic symbols and chemical formulas. Proposed the Theory of the Chemical Radicals. PENDING ISSUES IN CHEMISTRY 109 ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION 111 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 19TH CENTURY 114 PERIOD OF TRANSITION BETWEEN THE 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES 114 THE BEGINNING OF CHEMISTRY IN THE 19th CENTURY 118 MARTIN KLAPROTH (1743-1817) German Chemist 118 Discovered the first radioactive element, Uranium. WILLIAM H. WOLLASTON (1766-1828) English Chemist and Physicist 120 Proposed the concept of the equivalent weights. WILLIAM NICHOLSON (1753-1815) English Chemist 122 Electrolyzed the water molecule for the first time. JOHANN W. RITTER (1776–1810) German Physicist 123 Discovered the ultraviolet radiations. WILLIAM HERSCHEL (1738-1822) German-English Astronomer 125 Discovered the infrared radiations. HUMPHRY DAVY (1778-1829) English Chemist 127 Created the science of electrochemistry. Discovered potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and others. Proved that hydrogen was the essential component of acids.   JOSEPH L. GAY-LUSSAC (1778-1850) French Chemist 132 Postulated the Law of Combining Volumes. Introduced the analytical method of titration. AMEDEO AVOGADRO (1776-1856) Italian Physicist 136 Introduced the Avogadro’s Hypothesis and Number. JUSTUS VON LIEBIG (1803-1873) German Chemist 139 Founder of Modern Agricultural Chemistry. Established the first Teaching Laboratory in Chemistry classes. Discovered the Isomers with Friedrich Wohler. ROBERT W. BUNSEN (1811-1899) German Chemist 143 Developed Spectroscopy with Gustav Kirchhoff. Created the Bunsen Burner. EDWARD FRANKLAND (1825-1899) English Chemist 146 Postulated the Theory of the Valence of chemical Elements. Started Environmental Protection and Pollution Control. STANISLAO CANNIZZARO (1826-1910) Italian Chemist 149 Reintroduced the use of Avogadro’s Hypothesis and Number. Organized the First International Chemical Congress with F. Kekule. THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL CONGRESS of 1860 149 Leading European Chemists met to unify the New Chemistry. WILLIAM PROUT (1785-1850) English Chemist 152 Introduced the PROUT’S Hypothesis on the Hydrogen Atom. PERIODICITY OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND THE LAW OF TRIADS 156 JOHANN W. DOBEREINER (1780-1849) German Chemist 156 The Law of Triads and the Periodicity of Properties of the chemical Elements. THE PERIODIC TABLE OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS 159 DMITRI I. MENDELEEV (1834-1907) Russian Chemist 159 Creator of the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements. MENDELEEV AND HIS PERIODIC TABLE 162 MORE ABOUT THE PERIODIC TABLE 168 WILLIAM RAMSAY (1852-1916) Scottish Chemist 169   THE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY OF THE 19th CENTURY 171 PIERRE J. PELLETIER (1788-1842) French Chemist 173 JOSEPH B. CAVENTOU (1795-1877) French Chemist 173 Pelletier and Caventou isolated the pigment, Chlorophyll. JOSEPH KIDD (1775-1851) British Chemist and Physician 174 Isolated Naphthalene from Coal Tar. SAMUEL GUTHRIE (1782-1848) American Chemist and Physician 175 Discovered Chloroform and its anesthetic properties. A NEW REVOLUTION IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 177 FRIEDRICH WOHLER (1800-1882) German Chemist 177 A pioneer in Organic Chemistry. Synthesized the organic compound Urea from an inorganic substance. JEAN BAPTISTE DUMAS (1800 -1884) French Chemist 181 Proposed the concept of Functional groups with A. Laurent. JOHANN G. KJELDAHL (1849-1900) Danish Chemist 183 Developed Method to determine Nitrogen in Organic Compounds. AUGUSTE LAURENT (1807-1853) French Chemist 184 Proposed the concept of Functional groups with Jean Dumas. Introduced the Nomenclature to name Organic Compounds. ADOLPH W. KOLBE (1818-1884) German Chemist 185 One of the early synthesizers of Organic Compounds. PIERRE E. BERTHELOT (1827-1907) French Chemist 188 A pioneer in Organic Chemistry. Synthesized Organic Substances that did not exist in nature. LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895) French Chemist and Microbiologist 191 Introduced the Process of Pasteurization. Helped develop the new science of Polarimetry. WILHELM KUHNE (1837-1900) German Physiologist 196 Introduces the Concept of Enzymes as Catalysts in Biochemistry. EDUARD BUCHNER (1860-1917) German Chemist 198 Showed that Fermentation was essentially a Chemical Process.   EILHARDT MITSCHERLICH (1794-1863) German Chemist 199 Discovered the Phenomenon of Isomorphism. ARCHIBALD S. COUPER (1831-1892) Scottish Chemist 200 Suggested the use of dashes to represent Chemical Bonds. RICHARD A. ERLENMEYER (1825-1909) German Chemist 200 Supported Kekule’s Structural Formula and Couper’s dashes. THE NEW SCIENCE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 202 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE CARBON ATOM 202 Friedrich Kekule redefined organic chemistry as the chemistry of the carbon atom. FRIEDRICH A. KEKULE (1829-1896) German Organic Chemist 206 One of the Founders of Modern Organic Chemistry. Proposed the Structural Formula and the Benzene Ring. Proposed the Carbon to Carbon bonds and Multiple Bonds. KEKULE’S STRUCTURAL FORMULA 207 KEKULE’S BENZENE RING 213 JACOBUS H. VAN’T HOFF (1852-1911) Dutch Physical Chemist 216 Proposed the Concept of the three dimensional Carbon Tetrahedron. WILLIAM J. POPE (1870-1939) English Chemist 219 Proposed the Concept of the Asymmetric Nitrogen Atom. UNRAVELING THE MYSTERIOUS WORLD OF THE CARBON ATOM 220 DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL TECHNIQUES IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 220 THE PERKIN REACTION. THE HOFMANN DEGRADATION REACTION. THE FRIEDEL-CRAFTS REACTION. THE GRIGNARD REACTIONS. THE SABATIER- SENDERENS REACTION. THE DIELS- ALDER REACTION. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTIC POLYMERS 225   THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION OF THE 19TH and 20TH CENTURIES 226 JAMES WATT (1736-1819) Scottish Engineer 227 Developed the Steam Engine. ALESSANDRO VOLTA (1745-1827) Italian Physicist 228 Invented the Electric Battery and created the Electric Current. MICHAEL FARADAY (1791-1867) English Physicist and Chemist 229 Creator of the Theory of Electromagnetism. Inventor of the First Electric Motor and Electric Generator. JOSEPH HENRY (1797-1878) American Physicist 229 Developed the Electric Motor and the Electromagnets. SAMUEL F. MORSE (1791-1872) American Inventor 230 Inventor of the Telegraph and the Morse Code. ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL (1847-1922) Scottish-American Inventor 231 Invented the talking wire or telephone. MARCHESE MARCONI (1874-1937) – Italian Electrical Engineer 231 Inventor of the wireless radio communication. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY 232 ALFRED B. NOBEL (1833-1896) Swedish Inventor 233 The inventor of Dynamite and creator of the Nobel Prize. CHARLES GOODYEAR (1800-1860) American Inventor 233 The inventor of the Vulcanized Rubber. WILLIAM H. PERKIN (1838-1907) English Chemist 234 Pioneered the Synthesis of Dyes and Perfumes. JOHANN F. BAEYER (1835-1917) German Chemist 236 Synthesized the dye Indigo Blue. KARL J. GRAEBE (1841-1927) German Chemist 236 Determined the Chemical Structure of Aromatic Compounds. AUGUST W. VON HOFMANN (1818-1892) German Chemist 237 Synthesized the dye Red-Purple or Magenta. OTTO WALLACH (1847-1931) German Organic Chemist 237 Characterized the Chemical Structure of terpenes. LEOPOLD S. RUZICKA (1887-1976) Croatian-Swiss Chemist 237 Synthesized the perfume Musk. GEORGE EASTMAN (1854-1932) American Inventor 238 Creator of the Photographic Film and the Kodak Camera. DEVELOPMENTS IN CHEMISTRY AT THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY 240 SVANTE A. ARRHENIUS (1859-1927) Swedish Chemist 242 Proponent of the Ionization Theory. Proponent of the Theory of Catalysis. ALFRED WERNER (1866-1919) German-Swiss Chemist 248 Proponent of the Coordination Theory of Bonds. FRIEDRICH W. OSTWALD (1853-1932) Russian-German Physical Chemist 250 One of the founders of Modern Physical Chemistry. JOSIAH W. GIBBS (1839-1903) American Physicist and Mathematician 252 A pioneer in Chemical Thermodynamics. ERNST MACH (1838-1916) Austrian Physicist 253 Proponent of the Mach’s Principle. SOREN P. SORENSEN (1868-1939) DANISH CHEMIST 257 Proponent of the pH Concept, pH = - log (H+) concentration. FRITZ HABER (1868-1934) German Chemist 261 Created the Method to capture the Atmospheric Nitrogen. HERMANN STAUDINGER (1881-1965) German Chemist 263 Characterized the Chemical Structure of Plastic Polymers. FRITZ PREGL (1869-1930) Austrian Chemist 264 Developed the Science of Microchemical Analysis. THEODORE W. RICHARDS (1868-1928) American Chemist 265 Revised the Atomic Weights of the Chemical Elements. FREDERICK SODDY (1877-1956) English Chemist 267 Proponent of the Concept of Isotopes. The Laws of Radioactive Decay and the Radioactive Series.   FRANCIS W. ASTON (1877-1945) English Chemist and Physicist 271 Inventor of the Mass Spectrograph. Confirmed the Isotope Theory. Discovered many of the Stable Isotopes. WILLIAM D. HARKINS (1873-1951) American Chemist 274 Proponent of the Concept of the Packing Fraction. Proposed the Hydrogen to Helium conversion. ARTHUR J. DEMPSTER (1886-1950) Canadian- American Physicist 275 Discovered the Rare Radioisotope, Uranium-235. THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 20TH CENTURY 277 THE LEGACY FROM THE 18th and 19TH CENTURIES 277 DEVELOPMENTS IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY 277 DEVELOPMENTS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 279 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE CARBON ATOM 280 ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF THE QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL 282 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS IN THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 20TH CENTURY 295 THE NEW ATOMIC MODEL FROM THE PHYSICS POINT OF VIEW 297 THE FOUNDERS OF ATOMIC PHYSICS 299 ERNEST RUTHERFORD (1871-1937) British Physicist 300 One of the Founders of Modern Atomic Physics. Discovered the Alpha and Beta Particles. Discovered the Nucleus and the Protons in the Atom. Proposed the First Atomic Model from the Physics point of view. JOSEPH J. THOMSON (1856-1940) English Physicist 300 Discovered the Electron. NIELS H. BOHR (1885-1962) Danish Physicist 306 One of the Founders of Modern Atomic Physics. Proposed the Quantized Atomic Model from the Physics point of view. MAX K. PLANCK (1858-1947) German Physicist 307 Proposed the Quantum Theory. ARNOLD J. SOMMERFELD (1868-1951) German Physicist 312 Proposed the Elliptical Orbits for BOHR’S Electrons.   THE FIVE GREAT SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS OF THE 20TH CENTURY 315 FIVE GREAT SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS THAT NURTURED THE MAGNIFICENT GROWTH OF THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES 315 THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE AND THE SUBMICROSCOPIC WORLD 317 ERNST A. RUSKA (1906 - 1988) German Electrical Engineer 318 Built the first Electron Microscope. JAMES HILLIER (1915 - 2007) Canadian-American Physicist 318 Built the first Practical Electron Microscope. VLADIMIR K. ZWORYKIN (1889 - 1982) Russian-American Physicist 319 Built an improved Electron Microscope and the first TV Camera. THE DISCOVERY OF X-RAYS AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION 320 THE DISCOVERY OF X-RAYS BY WILHELM K. ROENTGEN 320 X-RAY DIFFRACTION AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE 323 CHARLES G. BARKLA (1877-1944) English Physicist 324 Characterized the nature of X-Rays. MAX T. VON LAUE (1879-1960) German Physicist 324 Proposed X-Ray Diffraction as an Analytical Technique. WILLIAM H. BRAGG (1862 - 1942) English Physicist 325 WILLIAM L. BRAGG (1890 - 1971) English Physicist 325 Developed the Mathematics for X-Ray Diffraction. HENRY MOSELEY (1887-1915) English Physicist 328 Proponent of the Concept of the Atomic Number. THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIOISOTOPES 332 THE PHENOMENON OF RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIOISOTOPES 332 WILLIAM CROOKES (1832-1919) English Physicist 333 Inventor of the Vacuum Tube or the Cathode Ray Tube. WILHELM K. ROENTGEN (1845-1923) German Physicist 335 Discovered the X-Rays. ANTOINE HENRI BECQUEREL (1852-1908) French Physicist 336 Discovered the Phenomenon of Radioactivity. PIERRE CURIE (1859-1906) French Chemist 337 MARIE CURIE (1867-1934) French Chemist 337 Discovered the Radioactive Elements, Radium and Polonium. REVISITING THE ATOM 339 ERNEST RUTHERFORD (1871-1937) British Physicist 339 Discovered the Nucleus and the Proton in the Atom. NIELS H. BOHR (1885-1962) Danish Physicist 343 Proposed the New Atomic Model from the Physics point of view. JAMES CHADWICK (1891-1974) English Physicist 345 Discovered the Neutron. RADIOISOTOPES AND THE RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE 349 GILBERT N. LEWIS (1875-1946) American Chemist 349 Helped to develop the new science of Thermodynamics. First to prepare Heavy Water with Deuterium. HAROLD C. UREY (1893-1981) American Chemist 351 Discovered the Heavy Hydrogen Isotope, Deuterium. Prepared important Radioisotopes to be used in Biochemistry. STANLEY L. MILLER (1930- 2007) American Chemist 354 Conducted the Famous Experiment to simulate the Origin of Life. THE RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE 355 GYORGY HEVESY (1885-1966) Hungarian Chemist 355 Introduced the radioisotope tracing technique in Chemistry. RUDOLF SCHOENHEIMER (1898-1941) German-American Biochemist 357 Pioneered the use of the radioisotope tracing technique. Characterized the biochemistry of fat metabolism. CHROMATOGRAPHY AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE 359 MIKHAIL S. TSVETT (TSWETT) (1872-1919) Russian-Italian Chemist 359 Introduced chromatography as an analytical technique. RICHARD WILLSTATTER (1872-1942) German Chemist 360 Pioneered chromatography as an analytical technique. Characterized the structure of heme and chlorophyll. FRANK H. SPEDDING (1902- 1984) American Chemist 361 Introduced chromatography using an ion exchange resin. ARCHER J. MARTIN (1910- 2002 ) English Biochemist 363 Introduced paper chromatography as an analytical method. Introduced the new process of gas chromatography. Characterized the amino acid composition of proteins. RICHARD L. SYNGE (1914- 1994) English Biochemist 364 Introduced paper chromatography with Archer J. Martin. DIFFUSION, DIALYSIS AND OSMOSIS AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE 366 THOMAS GRAHAM (1805-1869) Scottish Physical Chemist 367 One of the founders of colloidal chemistry and physical chemistry. Pioneered diffusion, dialysis and osmosis as an analytical method. Identified the difference between crystalloids and colloids. WILHELM PFEFFER (1845-1920) German Botanist 371 Pioneered studies on osmosis and osmotic pressure. ARTHUR HARDEN (1865-1940) English Biochemist 373 Differentiated between enzymes and coenzymes. Established the importance of intermediate metabolism. HANS K. EULER-CHELPIN (1873-1964) German-Swedish Chemist 374 Characterized the chemical nature of coenzymes. THEODOR H. SVEDBERG (1884-1971) Swedish Chemist 376 Developed the supercentrifuge to study colloidal materials. Created a system of classification for colloidal materials. Developed new methods in electrophoresis. ARNE W. TISELIUS (1902-1971) Swedish Chemist 378 Developed new methods in electrophoresis to study proteins. BIOCHEMISTRY, THE NEW CHEMISTRY OF THE 20THCENTURY 380 THE LEGACY FROM INORGANIC, ORGANIC AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 380 THE APPLICATION OF THE FIVE GREAT SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS 384 THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE 386 ALBERT CLAUDE (1898- 1983) Belgian-American Cytologist 389 Created the first submicroscopic studies on cell anatomy. GEORGE E. PALADE (1912- 2008) Canadian-American Physiologist 389 Made submicroscopic studies of the cell organelles. Identified the mitochondria as the powerhouse of the cell. CHRISTIAN R. De DUVE (1917- 2013) Belgian Cytologist 389 Discovered the lysozymes using the electron microscope. THE X-RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERN AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE 391 THE RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE 391 CHROMATOGRAPHY AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE 392 DIFFUSION, DIALYSIS AND OSMOSIS AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE 393 ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE 20TH CENTURY 395 EMIL H. FISCHER (1852-1919) German Chemist 398 Characterized the chemical structure of sugars and purines. Characterized the chemical structure of amino acids and proteins. HANS FISCHER (1881-1945) German Chemist 402 Characterized the chemical structure of the heme molecule. Characterized the chemical structure of chlorophyll. MELVIN CALVIN (1911- 1997) American Biochemist 406 Characterized the entire process of photosynthesis. MAX F. PERUTZ (1914- 2002) Austrian-British Biochemist 409 Determined the chemical structure of the protein hemoglobin. JOHN C. KENDREW (1917- 1997) English Biochemist 410 Determined the chemical structure of the protein myoglobin. FREDERICK G. HOPKINS (1861-1947) English Biochemist 412 Developed the concept of essential amino acids and vitamins. Discovered the amino acid tryptophan. WILLIAM C. ROSE (1887- 1985) American Biochemist 413 Confirmed and expanded the concept of essential amino acids. Identified that there were eight essential amino acids for humans. Calculated the minimum daily requirements for amino acids. PAUL KARRER (1889-1971) Swiss Chemist 415 Synthesized vitamin A, vitamin E and vitamin B-2. WALTER N. HAWORTH (1883-1950) English Chemist 417 Created the Haworth Formulas or sugar-ring structures. Synthesized vitamin C. RICHARD KUHN (1900-1967) Austrian-German Chemist 419 Synthesized vitamin B-6, vitamin A and vitamin B-2. HANS A. KREBS (1900-1981) German-British Biochemist 420 Characterized the urea cycle during deamination. Characterized the Krebs’ Cycle or citric acid cycle. FRITZ A. LIPMANN (1899- 1986) German-American Biochemist 423 Studied the role of phosphate radicals in carbohydrate metabolism. Discovered the function of coenzyme A in the Krebs’ Cycle. ALEXANDER R. TODD (1907- 1997) Scottish Chemist 425 Synthesized the phosphate esters, ADP and ATP. Synthesized various nucleotides in nucleic acids. PHOEBUS A. LEVENE (1869-1940) Russian-American Chemist 426 First to identify the nucleic acids, RNA and DNA. Identified the nucleotides as the building blocks in nucleic acids. PETER D. MITCHELL (1920- 1992) English Chemist 428 Identified the mitochondria as the energy factory in cells. Characterized the energy transfer mechanism in cells. FREDERICK SANGER (1918- 2013) English Biochemist 430 Characterized and synthesized the insulin molecule. Determined the amino acid sequence in protein molecules. Characterized the nucleotide sequence in the DNA molecule. FREDERICK G. BANTING (1891-1941) Canadian Physiologist 433 Isolated the protein molecule, insulin to control diabetes. VINCENT Du VIGNEAUD (1901-1978) American Biochemist 435 Characterized the two-ring structure of the vitamin biotin. Characterized and synthesized the protein oxytocin. LINUS C. PAULING (1901 - 1994) American Chemist 438 Proposed the theory of electron resonance. Published his classic book, The Nature of the Chemical Bond. ERWIN CHARGAFF (1905- 2002) Austrian- American Biochemist 441 Characterized the four nitrogenous bases in nucleic acids. MAURICE H. WILKINS (1916- 2004) New Zealand-British Physicist 442 Helped to characterize the chemical structure of the DNA molecule. FRANCIS HARRY CRICK (1916- 2004) English Biochemist 444 JAMES DEWEY WATSON (1928- ) American Biochemist 444 Crick and Watson developed the model of the DNA molecule THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY 450 THE MAGNIFICENT SCIENTISTS & THEIR FABULOUS ACCOMPLISHMENTS THE CHEMISTS AND THEIR LIVES 454 THE GREEK AND ROMAN ERA 454 EMPEDOCLES (492-432 B.C.) Greek Philosopher 454 DEMOCRITUS (470-380 B.C.) Greek Philosopher 458 CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (100-170) Greek Astronomer 463 THE ALCHEMY OF ANTIQUITY AND THE MIDDLE AGES 464 GEBER (721-815) Arabian Alchemist 466 OMAR KHAYYAM (1048-1131) Persian Astronomer and Mathematician 467 BERNARDO TREVISAN (1406-1490) Italian Alchemist 467 PHILIPPUS A. PARACELSUS (1493-1541) Swiss Physician and Alchemist 470 THE BIRTH OF MODERN SCIENCE 472 THE ADVENT OF THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION DURING THE AGE OF REASON 472 THE PHILOSOPHERS OF SCIENCE AND THE EVOLUTION OF KNOWLEDGE 472 FUNDAMENTAL EVENTS IN THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN SCIENCE 474 THE FIRST GENERATION IN SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT 474 NICOLAS COPERNICUS (1473-1543) Polish Astronomer 474 CHARLES R. DARWIN (1809-1882) English Naturalist 474 THE SECOND GENERATION IN SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT 475 IN THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES 475 GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642) Italian Astronomer 475 JOHANN KEPLER (1571-1630) German Astronomer 475 ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727) English Scientist 475 RENE DESCARTES (1596-1650) French Mathematician 476 ROBERT BOYLE (1627-1691) British Scientist 476 JOHN DALTON (1766-1844) English Chemist 476 ANTOINE LAVOISIER (1743-1794) French Chemist 476 WILLIAM GILBERT (1544-1603) English Scientist 477 MICHAEL FARADAY (1791-1867) English Physicist and Chemist 477 JAMES C. MAXWELL (1831-1879) Scottish Mathematician and Physicist 477 IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 477 MARCELLO MALPIGHI (1628-1694) Italian Microscopist and Anatomist 477 MONDINO De LUZZI (1275-1326) Italian Anatomist 477 ANDREAS VESALIUS (1514-1564) Flemish-Italian Anatomist 477 WILLIAM HARVEY (1578-1657) English Physician 478 ROBERT HOOKE (1635-1703) English Physicist 478 MATTHIAS SCHLEIDEN (1804-1881) German Botanist 478 THEODOR SCHWANN (1810-1882) German Physiologist 478 WALTHER FLEMMING (1843-1905) German Anatomist 478 GREGOR MENDEL (1822-1884) Austrian Botanist 479 LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895) French Microbiologist and Chemist 480 THE BIRTH OF MODERN CHEMISTRY 482 THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN CHEMISTRY 482 ROBERT BOYLE (1627-1691) Irish Chemist and Physicist 484 SOME IMPORTANT EVENTS IN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 487 PIERRE GASSENDI (1592-1655) French Philosopher and Scholar 488 JAN BAPTISTA VAN HELMONT (1580-1644) Flemish Chemist & Physician 489 JOHN MAYOW (1641-1679) English Physiologist 490 GEORG E. STAHL (1660-1734) German Chemist 491 STEPHEN HALES (1677-1761) English Botanist and Chemist 492 JAN INGENHOUSZ (1730-1799) Dutch Physician & Plant Physiologist 493 SOME IMPORTANT EVENTS IN MODERN CHEMISTRY 495 JOSEPH BLACK (1728-1799) Scottish Chemist 495 HENRY CAVENDISH (1731-1810) English Chemist and Physicist 497 JOSEPH PRIESTLEY(1733-1804) English Chemist 501 KARL W. SCHEELE (1742-1786) Swedish Chemist 504 DANIEL RUTHERFORD (1749-1819) Scottish Chemist 506 THE ERA OF ANTOINE LAVOISIER, JOHN DALTON AND J. J. BERZELIUS 508 THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY 508 ANTOINE LAURENT LAVOISIER (1743-1794) French Chemist 509 JOHN DALTON (1766-1844) English Chemist 512 JONS JAKOB BERZELIUS (1779 – 1848) Swedish Chemist 517 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 19TH CENTURY 522 THE BEGINNING OF CHEMISTRY IN THE 19TH CENTURY 527 MARTIN HEINRICH KLAPROTH (1743-1817) German Chemist 527 ANDREAS SIGISMUND MARGGRAF (1709-1782) German Chemist 528 WILLIAM H. WOLLASTON (1766-1828) English Chemist and Physicist 529 WILLIAM NICHOLSON (1753-1815) English Chemist 531 JOHANN WILHELM RITTER (1776-1810) German Physicist 532 WILLIAM HERSCHEL (1738-1822) German-English Astronomer 534 HUMPHRY DAVY (1778-1829) English Chemist 535 JOSEPH L. GAY-LUSSAC (1778-1850) French Chemist 540 AMEDEO AVOGADRO (1776-1856) Italian Physicist 542 JUSTUS VON LIEBIG (1803-1873) German Chemist 545 ROBERT W. BUNSEN (1811-1899) German Chemist 548 EDWARD FRANKLAND (1825-1899) English Chemist 550 STANISLAO CANNIZZARO (1826-1910) Italian Chemist 552 WILLIAM PROUT (1785-1850) English Chemist and Physiologist 554 ANTOINE JEROME BALARD (1802-1876) French Chemist 556 PERIODICITY OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND THE LAW OF TRIADS 557 JOHANN W. DOBEREINER (1780-1849) German Chemist 557 THE PERIODIC TABLE OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS 559 DMITRI IVANOVICH MENDELEEV (1834-1907) Russian Chemist 559 WILLIAM RAMSAY (1852-1916) Scottish Chemist 563 THE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY OF THE 19TH CENTURY 566 PIERRE JOSEPH PELLETIER (1788-1842) French Chemist 567 JOSEPH B. CAVENTOU (1795-1877) French Chemist 568 JOHN KIDD (1775-1851) British Chemist and Physician 568 SAMUEL GUTHRIE (1782-1848) American Chemist and Physician 569 A NEW REVOLUTION IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 570 FRIEDRICH WOHLER (1800-1882) German Chemist 570 JEAN BAPTISTE DUMAS (1800-1884) French Chemist 572 JOHANN G. KJELDAHL (1849-1900) Danish Chemist 573 AUGUSTE LAURENT (1807-1853) French Chemist 574 ADOLPH W. KOLBE (1818-1884) German Chemist 576 PIERRE E. BERTHELOT (1827-1907) French Chemist 577 LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895) French Chemist and Microbiologist 579 WILHELM KUHNE (1837-1900) German Physiologist 583 EDUARD BUCHNER (1860-1917) German Chemist 583 EILHARDT MITSCHERLICH (1794-1863) German Chemist 585 ARCHIBALD S. COUPER (1831-1892) Scottish Chemist 586 RICHARD A. ERLENMEYER (1825-1909) German Chemist 586 THE NEW SCIENCE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 588 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE CARBON ATOM 588 FRIEDRICH AUGUST KEKULE (1829-1896) German Organic Chemist 591 JACOBUS H. VAN’T HOFF (1852-1911) Dutch Physical Chemist 600 WILLIAM JACKSON POPE (1870-1939) English Chemist 604 VIKTOR MEYER (1848-1897) German Organic Chemist 605 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION OF THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES 607 THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY 607 ALFRED BERNHARD NOBEL (1833-1896) Swedish Inventor 607 CHARLES GOODYEAR (1800-1860) American Inventor 610 WILLIAM H. PERKIN (1838-1907) English Chemist 611 JOHANN F. BAEYER (1835-1917) German Chemist 613 KARL JAMES GRAEBE (1841-1927) German Chemist 614 AUGUST W. VON HOFMANN (1818-1892) German Chemist 614 OTTO WALLACH (1847-1931) German Organic Chemist 615 LEOPOLD S. RUZICKA (1887-1976) Croatian-Swiss Chemist 616 GEORGE EASTMAN (1854-1932) American Inventor 616 DEVELOPMENTS IN CHEMISTRY AT THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY 619 SVANTE A. ARRHENIUS (1859-1927) Swedish Chemist 619 ALFRED WERNER (1866-1919) German-Swiss Chemist 623 FRIEDRICH W. OSTWALD (1853-1932) Russian-German Physical Chemist 624 JOSIAH W. GIBBS (1839-1903) American Physicist and Mathematician 626 ERNST MACH (1838-1916) Austrian Physicist 627 SOREN P. SORENSEN (1868-1939) Danish Chemist 630 FRITZ HABER (1868-1934) German Chemist 631 HERMANN STAUDINGER (1881-1965) German Chemist 632 FRITZ PREGL (1869-1930) Austrian Chemist 633 THEODORE W. RICHARDS (1868-1928) American Chemist 634 FREDERICK SODDY (1877-1956) English Chemist 635 FRANCIS W. ASTON (1877-1945) English Chemist and Physicist 637 WILLIAM D. HARKINS (1873-1951) American Chemist 641 ARTHUR J. DEMPSTER (1886-1950) Canadian-American Physicist 642 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 20TH CENTURY 644 THE LEGACY FROM THE 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES 644 DEVELOPMENTS IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY 644 DEVELOPMENTS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 646 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE CARBON ATOM 647 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS IN THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 20TH CENTURY 650 THE NEW ATOMIC MODEL FROM THE PHYSICS POINT OF VIEW 664 ERNEST RUTHERFORD (1871-1937) British Physicist 664 NIELS HENRIK BOHR (1885-1962) Danish Physicist 669 JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON (1856-1940) English Physicist 673 MAX KARL PLANCK (1858-1947) German Physicist 676 MAX BORN (1882-1970) German-British Physicist 678 ARNOLD J. SOMMERFELD (1868-1951) German Physicist 679 JAMES CHADWICK (1891-1974) English Physicist 680 PAUL ULRICH VILLARD (1860-1934) French Physicist 682 THE FIVE GREAT SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS OF THE 20th CENTURY 684 THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE AND THE SUBMICROSCOPIC WORLD 684 ERNST A. RUSKA (1906 - 1988) German Electrical Engineer 684 JAMES HILLIER (1915 - 2007) Canadian-American Physicist 685 VLADIMIR K. ZWORYKIN (1889 - 1982) Russian-American Physicist 686 ALBERT CLAUDE (1898 - 1983) Belgian-American Cytologist 687 GEORGE EMIL PALADE (1912 - 2008) Romanian-American Physiologist 687 CHRISTIAN RENE De DUVE (1917 - 2013) Belgian Cytologist 688 X-RAY DIFFRACTION AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE 689 CHARLES G. BARKLA (1877-1944) English Physicist 689 MAX THEODOR VON LAUE (1879-1960) German Physicist 691 WILLIAM HENRY BRAGG (1862-1942) English Physicist 692 WILLIAM LAWRENCE BRAGG (1890-1971) English Physicist 694 HENRY MOSELEY (1887 - 1915) English Physicist 695 RADIOISOTOPES AND THE RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE 697 IRENE JOLIOT – CURIE (1897 – 1956) French Physicist 697 FREDERIC JOLIOT – CURIE (1900 – 1958) French Physicist 697 GILBERT NEWTON LEWIS (1875 – 1946) American Chemist 697 HAROLD CLAYTON UREY (1893 – 1981) American Chemist 699 STANLEY LLOYD MILLER (1930 - 2007) American Chemist 702 THE RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE 703 GYORGY HEVESY (1885-1966) Hungarian Chemist 703 RUDOLF SCHOENHEIMER (1898-1941) German-American Biochemist 705 CHROMATOGRAPHY AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE 706 MIKHAIL SEMENOVICH TSVETT (1872-1919) Russian-Italian Botanist 706 RICHARD WILLSTATTER (1872-1942) German Chemist 707 FRANK HAROLD SPEDDING (1902- 1984) American Chemist 708 ARCHER J. MARTIN (1910-2002 ) English Biochemist 709 RICHARD L. SYNGE (1914 - 1994) English Biochemist 711 DIFFUSION, DIALYSIS AND OSMOSIS AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE 712 THOMAS GRAHAM (1805-1869) Scottish Physical Chemist 712 WILHELM PFEFFER (1845-1920) German Botanist 716 ARTHUR HARDEN (1865-1940) English Biochemist 717 HANS K. VON EULER-CHELPIN (1873-1964) German-Swedish Chemist 720 THEODOR H. SVEDBERG (1884-1971) Swedish Chemist 721 ARNE W. TISELIUS (1902-1971) Swedish Chemist 722 ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE 20TH CENTURY 725 EMIL HERMANN FISCHER (1852-1919) German Chemist 725 HANS FISCHER (1881-1945) German Chemist 727 MELVIN CALVIN (1911- 1997) American Biochemist 728 MAX F. PERUTZ (1914 - 2002) Austrian-British Biochemist 730 JOHN C. KENDREW (1917- 1997) English Biochemist 730 CHRISTIAAN EIJKMAN (1858-1930) Dutch Physician 732 FREDERICK G. HOPKINS (1861-1947) English Biochemist 733 WILLIAM C. ROSE (1887- 1985) American Biochemist 734 PAUL KARRER (1889-1971) Swiss Chemist 736 WALTER N. HAWORTH (1883- 1950) English Chemist 737 RICHARD KUHN (1900-1967) Austrian-German Chemist 738 HANS ADOLF KREBS (1900-1981) German-British Biochemist 739 FRITZ ALBERT LIPMANN (1899 - 1986) German-American Biochemist 741 ALEXANDER R. TODD (1907- 1997) Scottish Chemist 742 PHOEBUS A. LEVENE (1869-1940) Russian-American Chemist 743 PETER DENNIS MITCHELL (1920 - 1992) English Chemist 744 FREDERICK SANGER (1918 - 2013) English Biochemist 745 FREDERICK G. BANTING (1891-1941) Canadian Physiologist 747 VINCENT Du VIGNEAUD (1901-1978) American Biochemist 748 LINUS CARL PAULING (1901- 1994) American Chemist 750 ERWIN CHARGAFF (1905 - 2002) Austrian-American Biochemist 751 MAURICE HUGH WILKINS (1916 - 2004) New Zealand-British Physicist 752 JAMES DEWEY WATSON (1928- ) American Biochemist 753 FRANCIS HARRY CRICK (1916 - 2004) English Biochemist 754 ABOUT THE AUTHOR 760 RECOMMENDED LITERATURE 765

 

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