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The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Cell and Biology

By Martini, Albert, Dr.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003760743
Format Type: PDF (eBook)
File Size: 217.51 MB
Reproduction Date: 5/27/2015

Title: The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Cell and Biology  
Author: Martini, Albert, Dr.
Volume: Revised Edition
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Science, Biology and Microbiology
Collection: Authors Community
Subcollection: Science
Historic
Publication Date:
2015
Publisher: Self-publish
Member Page: Albert Martini

Description
The concept of science and the sciences. Fundamental and historical development in the sciences. Great ideas that revolutionize our scientific world. The story of the cell and Biology. The birth of modern Biology. The rise of the modern University and experimental stations. The cell as the basic building block of life. The origin of life. The development of microbiology and microscopy. The germ theory of diseases, vaccines, and antibiotics. The vector insects and infectious diseases. The virus, viral diseases, and vaccines. The principle of vegetation and the basic requirements of plants. William Harvey, the heart and the circulatory system. Carl Linneaus and the development of modern taxonomy in biology. Charles Darwin and the development of evolution in biology. Gregor Mendel and the development of genetics and the laws of heredity.

Summary
A science book in the area of Biology and Microbiology. It discusses the lives of over 200 scientists. Their accomplishments are illustrated with over 250 pictures and diagrams. The accomplishments of these scientists are presented chronologically and are related to each other in order to illustrate the evolution of knowledge about biology and microbiology from the Classic Greek era to the present.

Excerpt
THE GREATEST FUNDAMENTAL INVENTIONS CREATED BY MOTHER NATURE THE ATOM AND ITS CAPACITY TO STORE AND RELEASE UNIVERSAL ENERGY BY MEANS OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES THE CELL AND ITS CAPACITY TO SUSTAIN INDEPENDENT LIFE BY MEANS OF UNIQUE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES THE PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ITS CAPACITY TO TRANSFORM SOLAR (LIGHT) ENERGY INTO CHEMICAL AND FOOD ENERGY BY MEANS OF BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES LIGHT AND ITS CAPACITY TO TRANSPORT ENERGY AND CHANGE OUR UNIVERSE BY TRANSFORMING DARKNESS INTO LIGHTNESS BY THE MIRACLE OF ILLUMINATION THE PHENOMENON OF ELECTROMAGNETISM AND ITS CAPACITY TO PRODUCE THE DYNAMIC ELECTRIC CURRENT THAT ENERGIZES AND POWERS OUR UNIVERSE AND THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL OF ALL OF NATURE’S INTUITIVE CREATIONS IS THE PROCESS OF UNIVERSAL TRANSFORMATION, WHERE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION TRANSFORM MATTER, ENERGY, SPACE, TIME AND LIFE ITSELF

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION 1 ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF PERSPECTIVE AND SENSE OF DUTY 4 THE CONCEPT OF SCIENCE 5 FUNDAMENTAL AND HISTORIC DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SCIENCES 7 ABSTRACT ON THE ATOM AND ITS ENERGY 11 GREAT IDEAS THAT REVOLUTIONIZED OUR SCIENTIFIC WORLD 16 DEMOCRITUS (470 - 380 BC) Greek Philosopher 16 NICHOLAS COPERNICUS (1473 - 1543) Polish Astronomer 17 GALILEO GALILEI (1564 - 1642) Italian Mathematician and Astronomer 18 RENE DESCARTES (1596 - 1650) French Mathematician and Philosopher. 19 ISAAC NEWTON (1642 - 1727) English Scientist and Mathematician 20 ANTOINE LAVOISIER (1743 - 1794) French Chemist 23 JOHN DALTON (1766 - 1844) English Chemist 24 JONS J. BERZELIUS (1779 - 1848) Swedish Chemist 25 HUMPHRY DAVY (1778 - 1829) English Chemist 25 AMEDEO AVOGADRO (1776 - 1856) Italian Physicist 26 DMITRI MENDELEEV (1834 - 1907) Russian Chemist 26 FRIEDRICH A. KEKULE (1829 - 1896) German Organic Chemist 27 JACOBUS VAN’T HOFF (1852 - 1911) Dutch Physical Chemist 28 WILLIAM H. WOLLASTON (1766 - 1828) English Chemist and Physicist 28 EDWARD FRANKLAND (1825 - 1899) English Chemist 29 SVANTE A. ARRHENIUS (1859 - 1927) Swedish Chemist 29 FREDERICK SODDY (1877 - 1956) English Chemist 30 FRANCIS W. ASTON (1877 - 1945) English Chemist and Physicist 30 HENRY MOSELEY (1887 - 1915) English Physicist 31 HENRI BECQUEREL (1852 - 1906) French Physicist 31 WILHELM K. ROENTGEN (1845 - 1923) German Physicist 32 MARIE CURIE (1867 - 1934) French Chemist 32 PIERRE CURIE (1859 - 1906) French Chemist 32 ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF THE QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL 33 JOSEPH J. THOMSON (1856 - 1940) English Physicist 46 ERNEST RUTHERFORD (1871 - 1937) British Physicist 47 NIELS H. BOHR (1885 - 1962) Danish Physicist 48 MAX K. PLANCK (1858 - 1947) German Physicist 49 JAMES CHADWICK (1891 - 1974) English Physicist 49 ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879 - 1955) German Physicist 51 ALESSANDRO VOLTA (1745 - 1827) Italian Physicist 53 MICHAEL FARADAY (1791 - 1867) English Physicist 53 JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831 - 1879) Scottish Mathematician and Physicist 54 JOSEPH HENRY (1797 - 1878) American Physicist 54 THOMAS ALVA EDISON (1847 - 1931) American Inventor 54 NIKOLA TESLA (1856 -1943) American Electrical Engineer 55 SAMUEL MORSE (1791 - 1872) American Inventor 55 ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL (1847 - 1922) Scottish-American Inventor 55 MARCHESE MARCONI (1874 - 1937) Italian Electrical Engineer 55 ERNST A. RUSKA (1906 - 1988) German Electrical Engineer 56 JAMES HILLIER (1915 - 2007) Canadian-American Physicist 56 VLADIMIR ZWORYKIN (1889 - 1982) Russian-American Physicist 56 CHARLES G. BARKLA (1877 - 1944) English Physicist 56 MAX VON LAUE (1879 - 1960) German Physicist 56 WILLIAM H. BRAGG (1862 - 1942) English Physicist 56 WILLIAM L. BRAGG (1890 - 1971) English Physicist 56 HENRY MOSELEY (1887 - 1915) American Physicist 56 GYORGY HEVESY (1885 - 1966) Hungarian Chemist 57 RUDOLF SCHOENHEIMER (1898 - 1941) German-American Biochemist 57 MIKHAIL TSVETT (1872 - 1919) Russian-Italian Chemist 57 RICHARD WILLSTATTER (1872 - 1942) German Chemist 57 FRANK H. SPEDDING (1902 - 1984) American Chemist 57 ARCHER J. MARTIN (1910 - 2002) English Biochemist 57 RICHARD L. SYNGE (1914 - 1994) English Biochemist 57 THOMAS GRAHAM (1805 - 1869) Scottish Physical Chemist 57 ALBERT CLAUDE (1898 - 1983) Belgian-American Cytologist 57 GEORGE E. PALADE (1912 - 2008) Canadian-American Physiologist 57 CHRISTIAN De DUVE (1917 - 2013) Belgian Cytologist 57 EMIL H. FISCHER (1852 - 1919) German Chemist 58 HANS FISCHER (1881 - 1945) German Chemist 58 MELVIN CALVIN (1911 - 1997) American Biochemist 60 FREDERICK G. HOPKINS (1861 - 1947) English Biochemist 60 WILLIAM C. ROSE (1887 - 1985) American Biochemist 60 HANS A. KREBS (1900 - 1981) German-British Biochemist 61 PHOEBUS A. LEVENE (1869 - 1940) Russian-American Chemist 61 PETER D. MITCHELL (1920 - 1992) English Chemist 61 FREDERICK SANGER (1918 - 2013) English Biochemist 61 ERWIN CHARGAFF (1905 - 2002) Austrian-American Biochemist 62 MAURICE H. WILKINS (1916 - 2004) New Zealand-British Physicist 62 FRANCIS H. CRICK (1916 - 2004) English Biochemist 63 JAMES D. WATSON (1928 -) American Biochemist 63 CLOSING STATEMENTS 64 THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 67 WHERE MUCH OF THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE STARTED WITH THE GREAT MEN AND WOMEN OF SCIENCE ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF AN ORDERLY AND SYSTEMATIC UNIVERSE 68 THE STORY OF THE CELL AND BIOLOGY 73 BIOLOGY AS A SCIENCE 73 BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION, HIERARCHY OF LIFE 73 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 74 THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES OF THE FUTURE 76 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY 77 ABSTRACT ON OUR BEAUTIFUL GREEN PLANET EARTH 80 THE EARLY HISTORY OF BIOLOGY 81 THE BIOLOGY OF ANTIQUITY 81 THE BIOLOGY OF THE GREEK AND ROMAN ERA 83 THALES (624 - 546 BC) Greek Philosopher 84 PYTHAGORAS (560 - 480 BC) Greek Philosopher 84 DEMOCRITUS (470 - 380 BC) Greek Philosopher 84 EMPEDOCLES (492 - 432 BC) Greek Philosopher 84 EUCLID (325 - 270 BC) Greek Mathematician 85 ARCHIMEDES (287 - 212 BC) Greek Mathematician and Engineer 85 ERATOSTHENES (276 - 196 BC) Greek Astronomer 85 HIPPOCRATES (460 - 370 BC) Greek Physician 87 ARISTOTLE (384 - 322 BC) Greek Philosopher and Naturalist 87 THEOPHRASTUS (372 - 287 BC) Greek Philosopher and Naturalist 88 AULUS CORNELIUS CELSUS (25 BC - 50 AD) Roman Encyclopedist 89 GAIUS PLINIUS SECUNDUS (23 - 79) Roman Scholar 89 GALEN (130 - 200) Greek Physician 90 THE BIOLOGY AND SCIENCES OF THE MEDIEVAL ERA 90 AVICENNA (980 - 1037) Persian Physician and Biologist 91 THE BIRTH OF MODERN BIOLOGY 93 THE RISE OF UNIVERSITIES DURING THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 93 JOHANN GUTENBERG (1398 - 1468) German Inventor 94 THE INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN HUMAN ANATOMY 95 A NEW SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION 95 HUMAN ANATOMY DURING THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 96 MONDINO De LUZZI (1275 - 1326) Italian Anatomist 96 LEONARDO Da VINCI (1452 - 1519) Italian Artist and Scientist 97 ANDREAS VESALIUS (1514 - 1564) Flemish-Italian Anatomist 99 GABRIELLO FALLOPIUS (1523 - 1562) Italian Anatomist 100 REALDO COLOMBO (1510 - 1559) Italian Anatomist 101 BARTOLOMEO EUSTACHIO (1510 - 1574) Italian Anatomist 102 FABRICIUS AQUAPENDENTE (1537 - 1619) Italian Physician 102 THE CELL AS THE BASIC BUILDING BLOCK OF LIFE 103 THE CELL THEORY 105 MATTHIAS J. SCHLEIDEN (1804 - 1881) German Botanist 106 THEODOR SCHWANN (1810 - 1882) German Physiologist 107 THE CELL THEORY AND CELL DIVISION 109 CELL DIVISION AND THE CELL NUCLEUS 111 WALTHER FLEMMING (1843 - 1905) German Anatomist 112 CELL CLASSIFICATION, ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 115 CELL CLASSIFICATION 115 CELL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 119 THE ORIGIN OF LIFE BY SPONTANEOUS GENERATION VS VITALISM 124 FRANCESCO REDI (1626 - 1699) Italian Physician 125 LAZZARO SPALLANZANI (1729 - 1799) Italian Microbiologist 126 LOUIS PASTEUR (1822 - 1895) French Chemist and Microbiologist 127 AN ABSTRACT ON THE ORIGIN OF OUR UNIVERSE AND LIFE ITSELF 129 THE BIG BANG THEORY 129 THE INCREDIBLE MYSTERY OF OUR COSMOS 131 THE ORIGIN OF LIFE AT THE CELLULAR LEVEL 133 SVANTE ARRHENIUS (1859 - 1927) Swedish Chemist 134 ALEXANDER I. OPARIN (1894 - 1980) Soviet Biochemist 135 STANLEY L. MILLER (1930 - 2007) American Chemist 136 THE ORIGIN OF THE FIRST CELL 137 SIDNEY W. FOX (1912 - 1998) American Biochemist 137 EMBRYOLOGY AND THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANISMS 139 THE PREFORMATION THEORY VS THE THEORY OF EPIGENESIS 139 THE PREFORMATION THEORY 139 THE THEORY OF EPIGENESIS 139 KASPAR FRIEDRICH WOLFF (1733 - 1794) German Physiologist 141 KARL ERNST VON BAER (1792 - 1876) German-Russian Embryologist 143 MICROBIOLOGY AND THE FANTASTIC WORLD OF THE VERY SMALL 146 DISEASES PREDOMINANT DURING THE RENAISSANCE ERA 146 SOME OF THE MOST COMMON DISEASES 147 SOME OF THE MOST DEVASTATING EPIDEMICS IN EUROPE 149 THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY AND MICROSCOPY 151 THE INVENTION OF THE MICROSCOPE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSCOPY 152 THE INVENTION OF THE EARLY MICROSCOPES 154 HANS LIPPERSHEY (1570 - 1619) German-Dutch Optician 154 ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK (1632 - 1723) Dutch Microscopist 155 ROBERT HOOKE (1635 - 1703) English Physicist 157 JOSEPH J. LISTER (1786 - 1869) English Optician 158 GIOVANNI B. AMICI (1786 - 1868) Italian Physicist 159 EARLY DISCOVERIES IN MICROSCOPY AND MICROBIOLOGY 160 MARCELLO MALPIGHI (1628 - 1694) Italian Microscopist and Physiologist. 161 ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK (1632 - 1723) Dutch Microscopist 162 ROBERT HOOKE (1635 - 1703) English Physicist 164 JAN SWAMMERDAM (1637 - 1680) Dutch Naturalist 166 NEHEMIAH GREW (1641 - 1712) English Botanist 167 REGNIER De GRAAF (1641 - 1673) Dutch Anatomist 168 OTTO FRIEDRICH MULLER (1730 - 1784) Danish Biologist 169 JAN E. PURKINJE (1787 - 1869) Czech Physiologist 170 FRIEDRICH GUSTAV HENLE (1809 - 1885) German Anatomist and Pathologist 171 FERDINAND JULIUS COHN (1828 - 1898) German Botanist 172 THE GOLDEN AGE OF MICROBIOLOGY 174 THE GERM THEORY OF DISEASES 174 LOUIS PASTEUR (1822 - 1895) French Microbiologist and Chemist 176 LOUIS PASTEUR AND THE GERM THEORY OF DISEASES 177 THE SOURING OF WINE AND BEER DURING FERMENTATION 178 THE KILLING OF THE SILKWORMS IN FARMERS FIELDS 178 THE DEATH OF MOTHERS BY THE CHILDBED FEVER 179 PASTEUR AND THE ANTHRAX DISEASE IN SHEEP 180 PASTEUR AND THE RABIES DISEASE (HYDROPHOBIA) 182 ILYA ILICH MECHNIKOV (1845 - 1916) Russian-French Bacteriologist 185 FRIEDRICH AUGUST LOFFLER (1852 - 1915) German Bacteriologist 186 ROBERT HEINRICH KOCH (1843 - 1910) German Bacteriologist 189 THE PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUE AND THE SOLID MEDIUM 189 THE LIFE CYCLE OF A PATHOGENIC ORGANISM 190 KOCH’S FOUR POSTULATES 191 KOCH AND THE ANTHRAX DISEASE 192 KOCH AND TUBERCULOSIS 193 PAUL EHRLICH (1854 - 1915) German Bacteriologist 195 EHRLICH, VON BEHRING and DIPTHERIA in CHILDREN 195 PAUL EHRLICH, SYPHILIS & CHEMOTHERAPY-THE MAGIC BULLET 197 EMIL ADOLF VON BEHRING (1854 - 1917) German Bacteriologist 200 THE ERA OF VECTOR INSECTS AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES 201 VECTOR INSECTS AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN THE AMERICAS 202 THEOBALD SMITH (1859 - 1934) German-American Pathologist 203 PATRICK MANSON (1844 - 1922) Scottish Physician 205 CHARLES LEWIS LAVERAN (1845 - 1922) French Physician 206 RONALD ROSS (1857 - 1932) English Physician 207 HOWARD TAILOR RICKETTS (1871 - 1910) American Pathologist 209 YELLOW FEVER AND MALARIA IN THE HOT AND WET TROPICS 211 WALTER REED (1851 - 1902) American Military Surgeon and Bacteriologist 212 THE PANAMA CANAL, YELLOW FEVER AND MALARIA 214 WILLIAM CRAWFORD GORGAS (1854 - 1920) American Army Surgeon 215 INSECTICIDES, VECTOR INSECTS AND AGRICULTURE 217 PAUL HERMANN MULLER (1899 - 1965) Swiss Chemist 217 RACHEL CARSON (1907-1964) Marine Biologist 221 RACHEL CARSON AND HER BOOK SILENT SPRING 221 THE ERA OF WONDER DRUGS, SULFA DRUGS AND ANTIBIOTICS 223 GERHARD DOMAGK (1895 - 1964) German Biochemist and Bacteriologist 224 DANIELE BOVET (1907 - 1992) Swiss-Italian Pharmacologist 226 THE NEW ERA OF THE TRUE ANTIBIOTICS 228 THE REAL WONDER DRUGS OF THE 20TH CENTURY 228 ALEXANDER FLEMING (1881 - 1955) Scottish Bacteriologist 229 HOWARD WALTER FLOREY (1898 - 1968) Australian-English Pathologist 233 ERNST BORIS CHAIN (1906 - 1979) German-English Biochemist 235 SELMAN A. WAKSMAN (1888 - 1973) Russian-American Microbiologist 236 RENE JULES DUBOS (1901 - 1982) French-American Microbiologist 238 BENJAMIN MINGE DUGGAR (1872 - 1956) American Botanist 239 VIRUSES, VIRAL DISEASES AND VIRUS VACCINES 240 HOW SMALL IS A VIRUS? 241 LIFE ATTRIBUTES OF BACTERIA AND VIRUSES 242 EDWARD JENNER, LOUIS PASTEUR & THE VIRUS VACCINES 244 EDWARD JENNER (1749 - 1823) English Physician 245 LOUIS PASTEUR AND THE RABIES VACCINE 246 CHARLES CHAMBERLAND (1851 - 1908) French Bacteriologist 249 THE TOBACCO MOSAIC DISEASE AND THE DISCOVERY OF VIRUSES 249 DMITRI I. IVANOVSKY (1864 - 1920) Russian Botanist 250 MARTINUS WILLEM BEIJERINCK (1851 - 1931) Dutch Botanist 251 THE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE VIRUS 254 WENDELL MEREDITH STANLEY (1904 - 1971) American Biochemist 256 FREDERICK WILLIAM TWORT (1877 - 1950) English Bacteriologist 259 FREDERICK CHARLES BAWDEN (1908 - 1972) English Plant Pathologist 260 HEINZ FRAENKEL-CONRAT (1910 - 1999) German-American Biochemist. 261 ROBLEY COOK WILLIAMS (1908 - 1995) American Biophysicist 264 CULTURING THE VIRUS AND THE VIRUS VACCINES 265 ERNEST WILLIAM GOODPASTURE (1886 - 1960) American Pathologist 268 MAX THEILER (1899 - 1972) South African-American Virologist 270 CULTURING THE POLIO VIRUS AND THE POLIO VACCINES 271 JOHN FRANKLIN ENDERS (1897 - 1985) American Microbiologist 272 POLIO EPIDEMICS IN THE USA AND THE POLIO VACCINE 274 JONAS EDWARD SALK (1914 - 1995) American Microbiologist 275 ALBERT BRUCE SABIN (1906 - 1993) Polish-American Microbiologist 278 THE STORY OF THE PRINCIPLE OF VEGETATION 281 JAN B. VAN HELMONT (1580 - 1644) Flemish Chemist and Physiologist 283 VAN HELMONT’S WILLOW TREE EXPERIMENT 284 JOHN WOODWARD (1665 - 1728) English Scholar and Naturalist 286 JOHANN RUDOLF GLAUBER (1604 - 1670) German Chemist 288 JOHN MAYOW (1641 - 1679) English Physiologist 289 JETHRO TULL (1674 - 1741) English Scholar 290 HUMPHRY DAVY (1778 - 1829) English Chemist 291 ARTHUR YOUNG (1741 - 1820) English Agriculturist 293 THE NEW CHEMISTRY & THE PRINCIPLE OF VEGETATION 294 ANTOINE LAVOISIER (1743 - 1794) French Chemist 295 JOHN DALTON (1766 - 1844) English Chemist 295 JONS J. BERZELIUS (1779 - 1848) Swedish Chemist 295 JOSEPH BLACK (1728 - 1799) Scottish Chemist 295 HENRY CAVENDISH (1731 - 1810) English Chemist and Physicist 296 JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733 - 1804) English Chemist 296 KARL W. SCHEELE (1742 - 1786) Swedish Chemist 296 DANIEL RUTHERFORD (1749 - 1819) Scottish Chemist 296 DMITRI I. MENDELEEV (1834 - 1907) Russian Chemist 296 THE PRINCIPLE OF VEGETATION, PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION 297 STEPHEN HALES (1677 - 1761) English Botanist and Chemist 297 JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733 - 1804) English Chemist 298 JAN INGENHOUSZ (1730 - 1799) Dutch Physician and Plant Physiologist 299 JULIUS VON SACHS (1832 - 1897) German Botanist 301 THE PRINCIPLE OF VEGETATION, PLANT NUTRITION AND SOIL CHEMISTRY 303 JEAN SENEBIER (1742 - 1809) Swiss Scholar and Plant Physiologist 304 THEODORE De SAUSSURE (1767 - 1845) Swiss Chemist and Plant Physiologist 306 JEAN BAPTISTE BOUSSINGAULT (1801 - 1887) French Chemist 307 THE NEW ERA OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY 309 JUSTUS VON LIEBIG (1803 - 1873) German Chemist 310 THE ROTHAMSTED AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 314 JOHN BENNET LAWES (1814 - 1900) Agricultural Scientist 316 THE CONCEPT OF SOIL pH AND SOIL ACIDITY-ALKALINITY 318 SOREN P. SORENSEN (1868 -1939) Danish Chemist 318 THE ESSENTIAL PLANT NUTRIENTS AND SOIL FERTILITY 318 THE MACRONUTRIENTS AND THE MICRONUTRIENTS 318 AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATES 320 THE STORY OF WILLIAM HARVEY AND THE HEART, BLOOD & CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 321 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 321 PRELIMINARY NOTES ON THE ORIGIN OF OUR CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 322 WILLIAM HARVEY (1578 - 1657) English Physician and Anatomist 324 JAN SWAMMERDAM (1637 - 1680) Dutch Naturalist 326 RICHARD LOWER (1631 - 1691) English Physician 327 KARL LANDSTEINER (1868 - 1943) Austrian-American Biologist 328 ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION 331 THE STORY OF CARL LINNAEUS AND MODERN TAXONOMY IN BIOLOGY 333 THE TAXONOMIC UNITS OR LEVELS OF CLASSIFICATION 335 THE GREEK AND ROMAN TAXONOMY 336 ARISTOTLE (384 - 322 B.C.) Greek Philosopher and Naturalist 336 THEOPHRASTUS (372 - 287 B.C.) Greek Philosopher and Naturalist 337 PLINY (23 - 79) Roman Scholar 337 THE ROLE OF HERBALISTS IN EUROPEAN PLANT ANATOMY 337 THE EARLY TAXONOMISTS 338 LUCA GHINI (1490 - 1556) Italian Physician and Botanist 339 ANDREA CESALPINO (1519 - 1603) Italian Taxonomist 340 JEAN BAUHIN (1541 - 1631) French-Swiss Naturalist 341 CASPAR BAUHIN (1560 - 1624) French-Swiss Naturalist 341 JOHN RAY (1627 - 1705) British Botanist and Naturalist 342 JOSEPH P. De TOURNEFORT (1656 - 1708) French Botanist 344 CARL LINNAEUS AND MODERN TAXONOMY IN BIOLOGY 346 CARL LINNAEUS (1707 - 1778) Swedish Botanist and Zoologist 347 LINNAEUS’ EXPEDITION TO LAPLAND 349 LINNAEUS’ ACCOMPLISHMENTS 349 LINNAEUS PUBLICATIONS 352 SYSTEMA NATURAE, PUBLISHED IN 1735 AND 1758 353 SPECIES PLANTARUM, PUBLISHED IN 1753 354 FLORA LAPPONICA, PUBLISHED IN 1737 354 CRITICA BOTANICA, PUBLISHED IN 1735 354 GENERA PLANTARUM, PUBLISHED IN 1735 354 FUNDAMENTA BOTANICA, PUBLISHED IN 1736 354 CLASSES PLANTARUM, PUBLISHED IN 1737 354 PHILOSOPHIA BOTANICA, PUBLISHED IN 1751 354 THE POST LINNAEAN TAXONOMY 357 JEAN LAMARCK (1744 - 1829) French Naturalist 358 ANTOINE LAURENT De JUSSIEU (1748 - 1836) French Botanist 362 GEORGES L. CUVIER (1769 - 1832) French Anatomist and Naturalist 364 AUGUSTIN P. De CANDOLLE (1778 - 1841) Swiss-French Botanist 369 ROBERT BROWN (1773 - 1858) Scottish Botanist 373 RICHARD OWEN (1804 - 1892) English Anatomist and Paleontologist 376 JEAN LOUIS AGASSIZ (1807 - 1873) Swiss-American Naturalist 379 THE STORY OF CHARLES DARWIN AND THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION IN BIOLOGY 383 EARLY IDEAS ON EVOLUTION 384 (BIOLOGICAL, GEOLOGIC AND COSMIC) EMPEDOCLES (490 - 430 B.C.) Greek Philosopher 385 EPICURUS (341 - 270 B.C.) Greek Philosopher 385 THOMAS AQUINAS (1225 - 1274) Italian Philosopher and Theologian 386 ALFRED WEGENER (1880 - 1930) German Geologist 387 PIERRE S. La PLACE (1749 - 1827) French Mathematician and Astronomer 388 PRE-DARWIN IDEAS ON BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION 389 JEAN BAPTISTE LAMARCK (1744 - 1829) French Naturalist 391 GEORGES L. BUFFON (1707 - 1788) French Naturalist 394 THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS (1766 - 1834) English Economist 396 LORENZ OKEN (1779 - 1851) German Naturalist 398 CHARLES LYELL (1797 - 1875) Scottish Geologist 400 THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY (1825 - 1895) English Biologist 403 ASA GRAY (1810 - 1888) American Botanist 406 HERBERT SPENCER (1820 - 1903) English Sociologist 407 ERNST H. HAECKEL (1834 - 1919) German Naturalist 408 RONALD A. FISHER (1890 - 1962) English Biologist 409 ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE (1823 - 1913) English Naturalist 411 ERASMUS DARWIN (1731 - 1802) English Physician and Naturalist 415 CHARLES DARWIN AND THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION 417 CHARLES R. DARWIN (1809 - 1882) English Naturalist and Geologist 417 THE FAMOUS VOYAGE OF THE BEAGLE TO SOUTH AMERICA 418 DARWIN’S RETURN TO ENGLAND FROM HIS FAMOUS VOYAGE 423 PREPARATIONS FOR DARWIN’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION 424 SOME OF DARWIN’S INITIAL IDEAS ON EVOLUTION 426 THE PUBLICATION OF DARWIN’S GREAT BOOK ON EVOLUTION 427 EVALUATION OF THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION 432 AN ABSTRACT ON THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION 434 THREE FUNDAMENTAL NATURAL LAWS DERIVED AND DEDUCED FROM DARWIN’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION 434 THE EVOLUTIONARY TRINITY 436 EVOLUTIONISM VS CREATIONISM 437 A GREAT DILEMMA IN OUR BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION AND HISTORY 437 THE STORY OF GREGOR MENDEL, GENETICS AND THE LAWS OF HEREDITY 439 SOME EARLY IDEAS ON GENETICS AND HYBRIDIZATION 440 GENETICS & HYBRIDIZATION DURING THE 18TH CENTURY 441 RUDOLF J. CAMERARIUS (1665 - 1721) German Botanist and Physician 442 EARLY STUDIES ON HYBRIDIZATION DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE 18TH CENTURY 443 JOSEPH G. KOLREUTER (1733 - 1806) German Botanist and Naturalist 445 KARL FRIEDRICH VON GAERTNER (1772 - 1850) German Botanist 448 CHARLES VICTOR NAUDIN (1815 - 1899) French Botanist and Naturalist 450 FRANCIS GALTON (1822 - 1911) English Anthropologist 452 THE ERA OF GREGOR MENDEL’S GENETICS - 19TH CENTURY 456 GREGOR JOHANN MENDEL (1822 - 1884) Austrian Monk and Botanist 456 RESULTS FROM MENDEL’S BREEDING EXPERIMENTS WITH PEA PLANTS 458 GENETICS AFTER GREGOR MENDEL 461 KARL WILHELM VON NAGELI (1817 - 1891) Swiss Botanist 462 HUGO MARIE De VRIES (1848 - 1935) Dutch Botanist and Geneticist 464 THE CONCEPT OF THE GENES 465 REDISCOVERY OF GREGOR MENDEL’S PAPERS IN THE LATE 1890’S 465 THE MUTATION THEORY 466 KARL ERICH CORRENS (1864 - 1933) German Botanist and Geneticist 468 ERICH VON TSCHERMAK (1871 - 1962) Austrian Botanist and Agronomist 469 WILLIAM JASPER SPILLMAN (1863 - 1931) American Agronomist 470 WILHELM L. JOHANNSEN (1857 - 1927) Danish Botanist and Geneticist 474 WALTER S. SUTTON (1877 - 1916) American Geneticist and Physician 476 WILLIAM BATESON (1861 - 1926) English Geneticist and Biologist 479 THOMAS HUNT MORGAN (1866 - 1945) American Geneticist, Embryologist and Evolutionary Biologist 482 HERMANN JOSEPH MULLER (1890 - 1967) American Geneticist 488 ALBERT F. BLAKESLEE (1874 - 1954) American Botanist and Geneticist 490 THE MODERN GENETICS OF THE 20TH CENTURY 491 THE GREEN REVOLUTION 494 DR. NORMAN BORLAUG (1914 - 2009) American Geneticist and Agriculturist 495 THE STORY OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION IN THE 20TH CENTURY 495 ABOUT THE AUTHOR 499 PUBLICATIONS WRITTEN BY THE AUTHOR 501 RECOMMENDED LITERATURE 509

 

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