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When Power and Piety Collide : A Critical Analysis of Early Caliphate in Islam

By al-Qazwini, Moustafa, Sayed

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Book Id: WPLBN0004023690
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Reproduction Date: 11/7/2013

Title: When Power and Piety Collide : A Critical Analysis of Early Caliphate in Islam  
Author: al-Qazwini, Moustafa, Sayed
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Religion, Debates
Collections: Islam, Islamic Sociology, Religion, Innovation Management, Business Management, Marketing Management, Authors Community, Leadership, Social Psychology, Management, Education, Political Sociology, Finance, Literature, Sociology, Government, Social Sciences, History, Political Science
Historic
Publication Date:
2013
Publisher: The Holy Shrine of Imam Hussain (AS), Division of Intellectual and Cultural Affairs
Member Page: safwan

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Al-Qazwini, S. M. (2013). When Power and Piety Collide : A Critical Analysis of Early Caliphate in Islam. Retrieved from http://self.gutenberg.org/


Description
In our present era, it is most disturbing for many Muslims and non- Muslims alike to witness the escalating rise in sectarian violence between the Shia and Sunni followers of Islam, particularly in places such as Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Some people, including Muslims, ask why the Shia and Sunni are violently murdering each other; is there something in the history of the Muslims that continues to spark such hatred and violence today; why does one sect accuse the other of heresy; and why is one sect of the Muslims considered as “mainstream,” while the other wing is branded unconventional and literally pacified? Unquestionably, seeded in the history of Islam is the answer - in particular, the political course that was taken following the death of the Prologue ii Holy Prophet and the way in which the early history of Islam was written. They say that history is bound to repeat itself and this is much more apparent today because the remnants and unconsciousness of Muslims in regards to their own history is affecting Muslims today. The account of the Muslims is not the classical historical case of not knowing their past, but rather, it is of not knowing the truth of its past. Thus, a closer examination into the past political and historical accounts of Islam is needed. As a Muslim scholar, I get numerous questions from Muslims, both of the Shia and Sunni following (but mainly from Sunni parishioners), as to the differences between the Shia and Sunni communities. The answer does not lie in a simple stated sentence or two, but rather, it requires an honest, detailed account and interpretive explanation of the past. Hence, a truthful and comprehensive contemporary account must be told in order for sincere seekers to understand what happened to the Muslims, and why, in particular, some refer to themselves as being Shia. Over fourteen hundred years have passed since Prophet Muhammad bonded rival tribes, united neighbors, and partnered others to form one community - the Muslim ummah. However, from the moment that Prophet Muhammad publicly declared his prophethood and message until now, the internal relationship of the Muslim ummah has yet to synthesize fully because of the Shia-Sunni division. This is not to say that there is an internal rift within Islam, far from that! Muslims are united in the same God, they recite the same Holy Qur’an, face the same qiblah (direction of prayer), fast the same month (of Ramadhan), and perform the pilgrimage to the same House (Ka’abah). Nonetheless, there is a domestic struggle and this strain is embedded in the historical and political account of Islam; in particular, the caliphates1 of Abu Bakr,2 Umar b. al-Khattab,3 and Uthman b. al-Affan.4 For many Muslims, the first three caliphs are highly revered and the unquestioning belief in the righteousness of them as the “rightly guided” caliphs lies at the heart of many Muslims’ faith. Nonetheless, the stark realization that these caliphs made severe misjudgments may surprise some, perhaps even bewilder or shatter their belief. Uncovering the truthful facts of the first three caliphs may seem disrespectful for some; however, this is actually a respectful attempt to restore Islam to its pristine, original form brought by Prophet Muhammad. As difficult as it may be, we (Muslims) must be able to objectively examine the history of these three caliphs, re-examine and filter out our hadith sources, and then make sound judgment based on facts. Since the “split” of the Muslims (Shia and Sunni) can be summoned to have intensified during the administration of the first three caliphs, and much of today’s estrangement of the Muslims can be traced back to their government, consequently, this book will outline the character, actions, qualifications, and consequences of these three individuals. The reports are based solely on the historical accounts of Sunni sources, such as the respected texts: Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih al-Muslim, and other renowned Sunni scholars. Thus, no claim can be argued that the author is vindictively judging the three caliphs from outside sources. Furthermore, the readings will also cover the view of the Shia and shed some light as to why the Shia have been marginalized throughout the Muslim history. As a scholar of Islam and a member of the Muslim ummah, this writing is not intended to be derogatory, or as an attempt to maliciously blame some, or as a means to jostle the past of the Muslims; nor is it an opportunity by the author to insult or expose the weaknesses of some companions. Rather this work is an attempt to shed light and present an unbiased account of their actions and the subsequent results on the ummah, such as their plans to dominate the Muslim leadership, the need to develop the science of Hadith (Prophetic traditions), discordant ideological interpretations, and the emergence of the schools of thought. Furthermore, this work is not meant to stir sectarian conflict or to cause a deeper fissure amongst the schools either. I am well aware and sensitive to the fact that this is a delicate issue and I take to practice every means possible to express my sentiments and academic knowledge respectfully and rationally. Throughout the years of humbly serving my faith, I have maintained an open venue to foster intrafaith engagements and reconciliation. The time has come for Muslim scholars to set aside their differences and rise to the occasion and challenges by addressing their internal division in an honest, academic, and composed fashion. All provocations and polemics must desist on both fronts and a deep knowledge of being acquainted first-hand about each other’s history, ideology, and stance are critical ingredients for any plausible discussions or solutions to arise. For many years, it has been rumored that the Shia do not favor the companions of the Prophet; however, the reality is that the Shia have always revered, respected, and acknowledged many of the companions. Over 100,000 companions lived during the time of the Prophet - most were sincere, but not all of them and even the Holy Qur’an attest to this (al-Qur’an, c. 635 & c. 9:1016). We recognize and pay tribute to those who sincerely serviced, sacrificed, and gave their lives for the sake of Islam and the Prophet.7 The Shia are highly recognized for paying their respect to many companions of the Prophet who were martyred to advance Islam. We make yearly pilgrimages to their places of burial - their mausoleums and even to the battlegrounds where they lost their lives. Despite the love we have for the faithful martyrs of Islam, still we are continuously branded as those who dislike the companions. The Shia have primarily been the most misunderstood of the Muslim schools of thought. It has been the case throughout Muslim history and until now that the Shia ideology and its followers are persecuted and ridiculed. In recent times, it is been more accelerated politically after the invasion of Iraq in 2003. The Muslim world then witnessed an increasing attack against Shia Islam and its followers. A tsunami effect of ignorance and prejudice batters the Shia. Unsubstantially described as “interpreting their own form of Islam,” the Shia have been hammered with radical accusations as being “renegades” and “rebellious” by those who believe that the Shia doctrine is some form of a “cult” or that it is at “odds” with mainstream Muslims. Some known and well-respected Sunni scholars, from the past until the present, have from time to time labeled the Shia followers as “innovators,” some even going as far as calling them “heretics.” Such labeled biases spread doubt and fear amongst the ummah, and even worse, mistrust. What is more is that intellectual and moderate Muslim leaders have largely ignored the incredulous accusations and labeling. The silence by those religious leaders has engendered more ignorance and division amongst the Shia-Sunni schools and their followers. The fallacy about Shia Islam needs to end and this is where my duty and obligation lies, for Allah says in the Holy Qur’an, “To make it known and clear to mankind and not to hide it.” (c. 3:187) I stand to defend any dehumanizing portrayal of the Shia by adversaries, and it is my duty to expunge the rumors that have beleaguered us (Shia) for many centuries. An honest and unabashed work is far overdue on this subject. I have no secret agenda, nor the need to practice the license of taqiyyah,8 and I stand free of any association to proselytize the Shia school of thought. These are far from my objective; rather, my aim is to put forward the historical truth objectively about what some of the companions did systematically during the life of the Prophet and following his death, and to allow the reader to make his or her own sound conclusion. Every Muslim, in fact, every human being bears the moral responsibility of seeking out the truth. For those who are sincerely searching for the truth, they must put aside any personal opinion and approach this work without pretense or prejudice views. Although the history of Islam has hitherto led a tenuous path, the damage is not irreparable, for Allah says in the Noble Qur’an (c. 13:11), “Allah does not change the condition of the people until they change what is within them.” The Muslims have freedom of choice and the Muslims still have the opportunity to liberate themselves and go forward as an ummah, united in submission to Allah.

Excerpt
Understanding that the historical and political aspects covered throughout this book may be delicate for some; nonetheless, never is it meant to be as a means to jostle sectarian division - this is far from my intention. I have maintained judicious care in the manner of presenting this work, but it is my belief that in order for Islam and Muslims to go forward in harmony and solidarity, we have to have the courage to recognize the truth of our past and rationally discuss the matter in a dignified and scholarly fashion. When an injustice is done in the past against others, then it becomes incumbent upon the people of the present to acknowledge it and make amends. This needs to happen so that the Muslims can truly practice what Allah has intended for them - a religion of brotherhood, peace, and justice. Until the end of time, even the most sincere Muslims will disagree upon what they truly believe is the most correct path. However, while accepting that there will be disagreement, it is important to represent each school of thought accurately - as it represents itself, and as reliable and mutually agreed-upon historical sources represents it, rather than continue to propagate confusion. I do not believe that the divisions amongst the Muslims are an irreparable part of our history. If Muslims and non-Muslims can sit side by side, have intellectual and scholarly discussions, engage in a deeper understanding about each other’s faith, and then publish their findings, then what prevents responsible and respected Shia and Sunni Muslim scholars from doing the same? The time has come to hold such dialogue. I continue to uphold and encourage an open and rational discussion policy with my colleagues. The invitation to hold such roundtable discussions remains open and is welcomed.

Table of Contents
Contents PROLOGUE ........................................................................................................................... I DEDICATION ..................................................................................................................... XI CHAPTER 1 SMASHING THE IDOLS OF TRIBALISM ............................................ 1 CHAPTER 2 QURAYSH GROUP ................................................................................... 5 Development of the Quraysh Group............................................................................................................... 5 Objective of the Quraysh Group ....................................................................................................................... 6 Emergence of the Quraysh Group .................................................................................................................... 7 Quraysh Group Appears on the Scene .........................................................................................................10 “Calamity of Thursday” .....................................................................................................................................10 CHAPTER 3 THE SAQIFAH UNION ........................................................................... 13 Chronicles of Saqifah ........................................................................................................................................... 14 CHAPTER 4 POLITICAL POLICIES OF QURAYSH .............................................. 25 Political Practices of the Quraysh Group ............................................................................................... 25 Selection of the First Six Caliphs .................................................................................................................. 27 Dialogue between Abdullah b. al-Abbas and Umar b. al-Khattab ............................................ 31 CHAPTER 5 BACKLASH ................................................................................................ 35 Attempt to Burn the House of Fatima al-Zahra .................................................................................. 35 Regret for the Actions Taken Against Fatima ...................................................................................... 39 Usurping the Land of Fadak ............................................................................................................................ 41 Story of Fadak ........................................................................................................................................................ 43 Stand Against Imam Ali .................................................................................................................................... 52 CHAPTER 6 TRANSITION OF THE GROUP .......................................................... 55 The Cursed Tree ..................................................................................................................................................... 55 CHAPTER 7 PROHIBITION OF TRANSCRIBING THE HADITH .................... 59 CHAPTER 8 LEGACY OF THE QURAYSH ON THE HADITH .......................... 69 Hadith of the “Ten People Guaranteed Paradise” ................................................................................ 71 Umar b. al-Khattab ............................................................................................................................................. 72 Fabrications Involving the Qur’an .............................................................................................................. 80 Hadith of the Twelve Successors .................................................................................................................... 81 Where Did the Hadith Fictions Come From? ........................................................................................ 83 CHAPTER 9 ARDUOUS TRUTH................................................................................. 85 Defining Sahabah .................................................................................................................................................. 86 How the Sahabahs Define “Companionship” ......................................................................................... 87 (1) Al-Firqa al-Kamiliyah and the Ghulat ............................................................................................. 87 (2) Adalat al-Sahabah – Integrity of the Companions .................................................................... 87 (3) The Qur’an, the Prophet, and the Ahlul Bayt .................................................................................. 88 Hadith of “the Stars” ........................................................................................................................................... 89 Flaws found in the Companions in the Established Hadith .......................................................... 90 Participation of the Companions in the Battles ................................................................................... 90 Battle of Uhud .......................................................................................................................................................... 91 Battle of Badr .......................................................................................................................................................... 93 Battle of Khaybar ................................................................................................................................................. 94 Battle of Hunayn .................................................................................................................................................... 94 Conquests of the First Three Caliphs ......................................................................................................... 95 A Brief Introduction to the Prophet’s Companions ............................................................................ 96 Abu Bakr (b. Abi Quhafah) ............................................................................................................................. 96 Umar b. al-Khattab b. Nafeel b. Uday b. Ka’ab .................................................................................. 97 Qur’an as a “Book” ............................................................................................................................................. 103 Uthman b. al-Affan ............................................................................................................................................ 108 Innovations of Umar b. al-Khattab .......................................................................................................... 109 Changes During Umar’s Reign .................................................................................................................... 110 Adhan (Call to Prayer) .................................................................................................................................... 110 History of the Adhan ......................................................................................................................................... 110 Prayer without Taharah (Ritual Purity) ............................................................................................... 111 Tarawih Prayers ................................................................................................................................................... 112 Prayers for the Deceased .................................................................................................................................. 112 Three Divorces in One Session ...................................................................................................................... 113 Other Actions performed by Umar ............................................................................................................ 113 Uthman b. al-Affan .............................................................................................................................................114 Al-Waleed b. Uqbah ........................................................................................................................................... 117 Uthman’s Innovations ....................................................................................................................................... 118 Third Call to Prayer (Adhan) ....................................................................................................................... 118 Complete Prayers in Mina ............................................................................................................................. 119 Khutbah before the Eid Prayer .................................................................................................................... 120 Land of Fadak and Marwan b. al-Hakam ............................................................................................. 120 Reactions of Some Prominent Companions .......................................................................................... 120 An Analysis of Uthman’s Motivations ................................................................................................... 123 CHAPTER 10 THE UMMAH FRACTURES ............................................................ 125 When did Shiaism Come About? ................................................................................................................. 125 Why the Focus on Ahlul Bayt? ..................................................................................................................... 129 Qur’anic Verse on those who Possess Knowledge .............................................................................. 129 The Verse of Purity (Ayat al-Tatheerah) .............................................................................................. 129 The Verse of Malediction (Ayat al-Mubahilah) ................................................................................ 132 Status of the Ahlul Bayt ....................................................................................................................................133 Sanctity of the Ahlul Bayt ...............................................................................................................................133 Ahlul Bayt - According to the Prophet .................................................................................................... 134 Rafidah (The Rejecters) ................................................................................................................................... 134 How “Shia Islam” Originated ....................................................................................................................... 135 Abdullah b. Saba: Myth or Reality? .......................................................................................................... 135 Four Schools of Thought ................................................................................................................................. 139 Hanafi School (al-Madhab al-Hanafi) ................................................................................................... 139 Maliki School of Thought (Al-Madhab al-Maliki) ...........................................................................141 Shafi’i School of Thought (Madhab al-Shafi’i) ................................................................................... 143 Hanbali School of Thought (al-Madhab al-Hanbali) ..................................................................... 144 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................. 147 GLOSSARY ........................................................................................................................ 153 INDEX ................................................................................................................................. 157


 

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