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The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Atom and Chemistry : Revised Edition

By Martini, Albert, Dr.

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Book Id: WPLBN0100002503
Format Type: PDF (eBook)
File Size: 63.11 MB
Reproduction Date: 9/1/2014

Title: The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Atom and Chemistry : Revised Edition  
Author: Martini, Albert, Dr.
Volume: Revised 5th Edition
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Science
Collections: Authors Community, Science
Historic
Publication Date:
2014
Publisher: Self-published
Member Page: Albert Martini

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Martini, D. A. (2014). The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Atom and Chemistry : Revised Edition. Retrieved from http://self.gutenberg.org/


Description
The 2000 year history of the atom and chemistry, from the Classic Greek Era to the present, is described in 800 pages, depicted with some 300 pictures and illustrations. This history of the atom and chemistry discusses the lives of about 180 chemists and physicists, through the evolution of several stages of development, representing the most important scientific accomplishments. The most significant discoveries in chemistry and physics are presented chronologically to illustrate their contributions to the creation of the chemical sciences during the last 21 centuries.

Summary
The Renaissance of Science. The story of the Atom and Chemistry. The Magnificent Scientists and their Fabulous Accomplishments. A Fantastic Dream and Journey into the Past, Present and Future in the World of Chemistry.

Excerpt
INTRODUCTION It is a genuine pleasure and challenge for me to try to express the full extent of my emotions and reasons for writing this book on the STORY OF THE ATOM AND THE SCIENCES, with special reference to the CHEMICAL SCIENCES. In one sentence, I can distill the essence of the purpose for this study by simply stating that it has been a labor of love that transcended the written word because sentiments and ideas belong in the realm of the ethereal and the philosophical as well as in the domain of LITERATURE and SCIENCE. Ever since a young and impressionable student attending a country school in a community of a few hundred people, began to be introduced to the world of knowledge over 65 years ago, the sciences became to me what water is to fish, air is to birds and earth is to humanity. The introduction to the mathematical, physical, chemical and biological sciences felt like reading a beautiful poem or listening to a romantic melody. In essence, it was truly a joyful experience, full of the enigmatic, the mysterious and the fantastic, beyond my wildest imagination. The words used in the title of this book, were carefully chosen to represent its content and purpose. The word RENAISSANCE signifies the rebirth of the glorious world of science as we enter the 21st Century. The word STORY, instead of HISTORY, was selected to allow the literary, philosophical and scientific licenses, which gave us the freedom to explore the domain of CHEMISTRY without becoming dull, oblivious and obtuse, but with a sense of joyfulness, fascination and adventure. The word ATOM was chosen to celebrate the existence of a majestic and enigmatic entity, which transcends human intelligence and imagination, and enters the QUANTUM REALM of the supernatural with lucid integrity and harmony. The word SCIENTIST was used to bring to the forefront the magnificent SCIENTISTS, to whom we pay tribute and dedicate this book with admiration, gratitude and respect, for their fabulous accomplishments. The words DREAM and JOURNEY were selected because this book represents exactly that, a DREAM and a JOURNEY into the past, present and future of the CHEMICAL SCIENCES with the hope to fulfill the origin, evolution and destiny of the scientific community and humanity. Chemistry and the sciences in general, have an innate beauty and a prodigious force that guides us with their fantastic order, symmetry and cycles, to attain the truth. A truth that constitutes the structures and functions of our existence! Science has a built in wisdom and intuitiveness, which compels us to find the inherited order of our world, in terms of NATURAL LAWS and MATHEMATICAL FORMULATIONS with great strength, uniformity and significance. Each new discovery and invention, although modest in itself, always adds to solving, one step at a time, the complex and apparent puzzle of nature. The light from each scientific truth, contributes to the glorious unveiling of the MASTER PLAN that guides our path to a greater understanding of our UNIVERSE. It is our divine obligation to create our own light of truth, until there are enough scientific candles to make our lives shine with lasting joy, peace and hope! Every age has its own dreams, but we must leave behind the dreams of yesterday and take the torch of knowledge to find our own dreams and the dreams of tomorrow, which will create the beautiful world of the future! Notwithstanding, let us remember that the BONE YARD of HUMAN HISTORY is rich in abandoned and forgotten SCIENTIFIC TREASURES that await our sense of loyalty to guide us back to their origin, evolution and destiny! The famous Irish essayist, GEORGE BERNARD SHAW said, and I paraphrase: What a pity that we must waste YOUTH on the YOUNG! This exquisitely true statement brought to mind the conviction that we must never give up on the young, for they are our future! It also made me reevaluate my ideas and sentiments on age, in that age is not a matter of years, but more significantly, age is a matter of zest, commitment, imagination, hope, faith and love in the treatment of life and humanity. It is also wise to remember that we do not tell our GENES who we are, instead it is our GENES who tell us who we are! The writing of this book was guided by the gentle hand of our little and fascinating friend, the ATOM, through the exalting world of PHILOSOPHY (the love of learning) and of SCIENCE (the love of truth). In this fantastic journey, I had the privilege and pleasure of re-learning an old lesson of life, that man’s struggle to learn and to better himself and the world around him, was, is and always will be a worthy and noble cause and endeavor! Preparing this book was truly a labor of love that helped me to survive the pain of losing a loved one! It was actually very easy, ha ha ha! The secret was, just to follow our little friend, the ATOM, who led the way with great virtuosity, imagination, intuitiveness, kindness and a great deal of patience. While writing, a question appeared from time to time, why take a journey into the past, when the present and the future are radiant with new and fantastic promising ideas? The answer was always multifaceted and full of wisdom: The past helps to recreate perspective. The past points to old-fashioned wisdom. The past keeps us from repeating obvious mistakes. The past may help to understand the present and the future ahead. The past may contain hidden and forgotten treasures that we shall not abstain from exploring and evaluating. Finally, I feel compelled once again to make us aware of the fact that we owe much gratitude, admiration and respect to those scientists of the past, who built the prodigious foundation that supports the magnificent scientific development that we enjoy today! As I recall, from a very early and pre-school age, my curiosity and desire to observe and learn was self-evident. Now, at an advanced and post-school age, I took a look at my library of books on the life of scientists and the history of the sciences, and soon came to the realization that there, in front of me, was 2000 years of scientific history, just waiting to show me the knowledge and wisdom of the ages past! The result was, spending four years to write a 5000-page manuscript about the 2000-year history of ASTRONOMY, MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY and MICROBIOLOGY/MEDICINE. Each science represents, in itself, a book. Because my University training was mainly in CHEMISTRY, this is the first book in the series. The writing of a 5000-page manuscript was indeed a labor of love that afforded me the magnificent opportunity to interview and interact, through my library, with over 600 of the most brilliant scientists, including some of the most intuitive and creative NOBEL LAUREATES! This 2000-year study covers: The CLASSIC GREEK/ROMAN ERA. The ALCHEMY of ANTIQUITY and the MIDDLE AGES The RENAISSANCE ERA and the AGE OF REASON. THE MODERN ERA and the various SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS. The AGE of COPERNICUS, KEPLER and GALILEO on ASTRONOMY. The AGE of NEWTON, LEIBNIZ, DESCARTES and LAPLACE on ASTRONOMY and MATHEMATICS The AGE of the BERNOULLIS, DESCARTES, FERMAT, EULER and GAUSS on MATHEMATICS. The AGE of VOLTA, OERSTED, DAVY, FARADAY and MAXWELL on ELECTROMAGNETISM. The AGE of MORSE, BELL, EDISON, HERTZ and MARCONI on COMMUNICATION. The AGE of MALPIGHI, VAN LEEUWENHOEK, VESALIUS, MONDINO, HARVEY and HOOKE on MICROSCOPY and ANATOMY. The AGE of LINNAEUS, CANDOLLE, CUVIER, OWEN and AGASSIZ on TAXONOMY and classification at large. The AGE of DARWIN, WALLACE, LAMARCK, SPENSER and MALTHUS on EVOLUTION. The AGE of MENDEL, De VRIES, SCHLEIDEN, SCHWANN and FLEMMING on GENETICS and BIOLOGY. The AGE of PASTEUR, KOCH, EHRLICH, LISTER, WAKSMAN, SALK and SABIN on MICROBIOLOGY and VACCINES. The AGE of CROOKES, BECQUEREL, the CURIES and RONTGEN on RADIOACTIVITY, RADIATIONS and RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS. The AGE of RUTHERFORD, THOMSON, BOHR, SODDY, ASTON, CHADWICK and SOMMERFELD on MODERN ATOMIC PHYSICS. The AGE of PLANCK, HEISENBERG, LORENTZ, FERMI, OPPENHEIMER and EINSTEIN on ATOMIC PHYSICS, QUANTUM THEORY and RELATIVITY. The AGE of BOYLE, CAVENDISH, PRIESTLEY, BLACK, SCHEELE, STAHL and RUTHERFORD on ELEMENTAL CHEMISTRY. The AGE of LAVOISIER, DALTON, BERZELIUS and MENDELEEV on MODERN CHEMISTRY, ATOMIC THEORY and the PERIODIC TABLE. The AGE of KEKULE, LIEBIG, WOHLER, GAY-LUSSAC, BERTHELOT, LAURENT, DUMAS, PASTEUR, VAN’T HOFF and HAWORTH on ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. The AGE of AVOGADRO, WOLLASTON, FRANKLAND, ARRHENIUS and MOSELEY on MODERN CHEMISTRY. The AGE of the FISCHERS, CALVIN, PERUTZ, KENDREW, HOPKINS, KREBS, LIPMANN, TODD, SANGER, PAULING, CHARGAFF, WILKINS, WATSON and CRICK on PHOTOSYNTHESIS, AMINO ACIDS, PROTEINS, the DOUBLE HELIX DNA MOLECULE and BIOCHEMISTRY AT LARGE. It took four years to write about the 2000-YEAR HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY and the various sciences. However, it actually required my entire professional life to develop the knowledge base, experience, wisdom and idiosyncrasy on which this study of the sciences has its foundations. The STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY was written in two parts, which should complement and justify each other. The first part, tells the STORY of the CHEMICAL SCIENCES from its ALCHEMY beginnings, through its magnificent evolution and fabulous accomplishments, and to its destiny, as an intuitive, creative and fantastic science. The second part is an attempt to recreate the prodigious lives of the most outstanding and brilliant chemists of the last 20 centuries. The author has created THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY with the sincere hope that this labor of love translates in the reader’s mind into a love for learning and into some degree of joy, satisfaction and inspiration. The most basic and sincere intention of this study is to motivate the scientific community into a genuine life of learning, teaching and research. A life, which is truly exemplary and rewarding to all of humanity, particularly to the dedicated CHEMISTS who give their lives to SCIENCE with unconditional COMMITMENT and NOBILITY.

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS SOME IDEAS WITH UNIQUE SIGNIFICANCE THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY…………………………..1 INTRODUCTION 1 THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY 7 HISTORY IS THE ART OF RECREATING THE PAST TO DREAM AND CREATE THE FUTURE HISTORY IS THE ART OF DRAWING WITHOUT AN ERASER AND THEREFORE IT LASTS FOR EVER, AND ITS WISDOM IS ETERNAL AND CAPABLE OF TRANSCENDING THE VIRTUES OF HUMANITY AND TIME. THE CAVE MAN 7 THE MAN WHO HAD IN FRONT OF HIS EYES THE ENTIRE WORLD TO DREAM, WONDER, VENTURE AND CREATE HIS MAGNIFICENT FUTURE WITH UNIMAGINABLE EXPECTATIONS. ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF PERSPECTIVE AND SENSE OF DUTY 8 THE MIGRATORY AND THE SEDENTARY MAN 9 THE MAN IN HIS JOURNEY TO SEARCH FOR HOME AND HIS FUTURE. ABSTRACT ON THE ATOM AND ITS ENERGY 11 SOME FOOD FOR THOUGHT…………………………………………………………………….16 LET THE MIND BE & KNOWLEDGE WILL SHINE WITH DIVINE CREATIVITY. THE CLASSIC GREEK AND ROMAN PHILOSOPHERS 17 EMPEDOCLES (492-432 BC) Greek Philosopher 20 Proposed the four basic elements: EARTH, WATER, AIR and FIRE. DEMOCRITUS (470-380 BC) Greek Philosopher 22 The FOUNDER of the ATOMIC THEORY of ANTIQUITY. CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (100-170) Greek Astronomer 24 Proposed the GEOCENTRIC THEORY where the EARTH and not the SUN was the CENTER OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM. ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF AN ORDERLY & SYSTEMATIC UNIVERSE 25 THE ALCHEMY OF ANTIQUITY AND THE MIDDLE AGES 32 THE METAL INDUSTRY OF ANTIQUITY 33 Mercury, Copper, Bronze, Iron and Steel. GEBER (721-815) Arabian Alchemist 38 One of the first scholars and alchemists of the Islamic world. OMAR KHAYYAM (12th Century). Persian Scientist and Astronomer 38 Brilliant astronomer and alchemist of the 12th Century. BERNARDO TREVISAN (1406 -1490) Italian Alchemist 39 One of the most FAMOUS ALCHEMISTS of the MIDDLE AGES. PHILIPPUS A. PARACELSUS (1493-1541) Swiss Physician and Alchemist 41 - Helped to transform the pseudoscience of ALCHEMY into the new science of CHEMISTRY during the 16th century. MORE ABOUT THE PSEUDOSCIENCE OF ALCHEMY 43 THE BIRTH OF MODERN SCIENCE 46 A SCIENCE REPRESENTS A BODY OF KNOWLEDGE CHARACTERIZING A DISCIPLINE IN OUR NATURAL HISTORY. THE ADVENT OF THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE (15th-16th centuries) and THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION DURING THE AGE OF REASON 46 THE PHILOSOPHERS OF SCIENCE AND THE EVOLUTION OF KNOWLEDGE 47 FRANCIS BACON, RENE DESCARTES, BENEDICTUS SPINOZA, GOTTFRIED LEIBNIZ and FRANCOIS MARIE VOLTAIRE. FUNDAMENTAL EVENTS IN THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN SCIENCE 49 THE FIRST GENERATION IN SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT 50 NICOLAS COPERNICUS (1473-1543) Polish Astronomer 50 Proposed (1543) his HELIOCENTRIC THEORY of our PLANETARY SYSTEM where the SUN and not the EARTH was at its center. CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN (1809-1882) English Naturalist .51 Proposed(1859) his THEORY of EVOLUTION entitled THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION, which revolutionized the WORLD of GENETICS, BIOLOGY and the SCIENCES in general. THE SECOND GENERATION IN SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT 53 IN THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES 53 GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642) Italian Astronomer and Physicist 53 One of the Founders of Modern Science and the Scientific Method. Proposed his Laws of Falling Bodies, during the 16th century. Supported the Copernicus’ Heliocentric Theory. JOHANN KEPLER (1571-1630) German Astronomer and Mathematician 53 Developed (early 17th century) the Laws of Planetary Motion and proposed that the planets followed elliptical orbits around the sun. Supported the Copernicus’ Heliocentric Theory. SIR ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727) English Physicist & Mathematician 53 Published (1687) his scientific masterpiece, Pricipia Mathematica. Proposed (1665-1666) his Laws of Motion and his Concept of Gravity, and created his new mathematics of CALCULUS. RENE DESCARTES (1596-1650) French Philosopher and Mathematician 53 Created his CARTESIAN COORDINATES and ANALYTIC GEOMETRY, which appeared in his book published in 1637. ROBERT BOYLE (1627-1691) Irish Physicist and Chemist 53 Proposed in the 1600’s his CORPUSCULAR THEORY, reviving Democritus’ theory. Published (1661) The SCEPTICAL CHEMIST, which initiated MODERN CHEMISTRY. WILLIAM GILBERT (1544-1603) English Physician and Physicist 54 Published (1600) his book DE MAGNETE, which started the GREAT REVOLUTION, on ELECTROMAGNETISM. MICHAEL FARADAY (1791-1867) English Physicist and Chemist 54 Developed (early 1800’s) his THEORY of ELECTROMAGNETISM, which created a new SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION. Proposed that LIGHT was an ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE. JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831-1879) Scottish Mathematician & Physicist 54 Developed (1873) his famous FOUR EQUATIONS UNIFYING the phenomenon of electromagnetism. This was a brilliant accomplishment. Developed (1860’s) his KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 55 MARCELLO MALPIGHI (1628-1694) Italian Physiologist and Microscopist 55 One of FOUNDERS of the SCIENCE of MICROSCOPY in the 17th century. Unveiled the NATURE of HUMAN ANATOMY and PHYSIOLOGY. MONDINO De LUZZI (1275-1326) Italian Anatomist 55 One of the GREATEST HUMAN ANATOMISTS of the RENAISSANCE. ANDREAS VESALIUS (1514-1564) Flemish-Italian Anatomist 55 Published (1543) his MASTERPIECE on The STRUCTURE of the HUMAN BODY, which revolutionized the world of HUMAN ANATOMY. WILLIAM HARVEY (1578-1657) English Physician 55 Published (1628) his book, “On the Motions of the Heart and Blood”, where he proposed the existence of the CIRCULATORY SYSTEM of the BLOOD and HEART in the HUMAN BODY. ROBERT HOOKE (1635-1703) English Physicist 56 One of the GREAT MICROSCOPISTS. Published (1665) his book, Micrographia, where he reported finding the “CELL” in cork tissue. MATTHIAS JAKOB SCHLEIDEN (1804-1881) German Botanist 58 Proposed (1838) his CELL THEORY in plants and presented the CELL as the BASIC BUILDING UNIT of LIVING ORGANISMS. THEODOR SCHWANN (1810-1882) German Physiologist 58 Proposed (1839) his CELL THEORY in animals. WALTHER FLEMMING (1843-1905) German Anatomist 58 Characterized (1882) the ENTIRE PROCESS of CELL DIVISION in ANIMAL CELLS. GREGOR JOHANN MENDEL (1822-1884) Austrian Monk and Botanist 58 Proposed (1860’s) his LAWS of HEREDITY, which revolutionized The world of GENETICS and BIOLOGY. LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895) French Chemist and Microbiologist 58 Proposed (mid 1800’s) his Germ Theory of Diseases, which revolutionized the world of MICROBIOLOGY and MEDICINE. Developed methods of vaccination for various diseases. Proposed (1860’S) the PROCESS of PASTEURIZATION. THE BIRTH OF MODERN CHEMISTRY 60 EARLY SCENARIO IN THE WORLD OF CHEMISTRY 60 SOME FUNDAMENTAL IMPEDIMENTS 61 SOME ESSENTIAL NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS 62 THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN CHEMISTRY 64 ROBERT BOYLE (1627-1691) Irish Chemist and Physicist 65 One of the founders of modern chemistry. Published (1661) his book, The Sceptic Chemist, which represented the beginning of MODERN CHEMISTRY. Proposed (1600’S) his Corpuscular theory reintroducing DEMOCRITUS ’ATOMIC THEORY from the classic Greek Era. SOME IMPORTANT EVENTS IN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 68 JAN B. VAN HELMONT (1580-1644) Flemish Physician and Alchemist 68 Performed (1600’s) his famous WILLOW TREE EXPERIMENT. Regarded WATER as the PRINCIPLE of VEGETATION on which PLANTS LIVED. JOHN MAYOW (1641-1679) English Chemist 70 Proposed his COMBUSTIBLE PRINCIPLE(or OXYGEN) present in the BLOOD. GEORG STAHL (1660-1734) German Chemist and Physician 70 Proposed (1700’s) his confusing idea of the PHLOGISTON THEORY. STEPHEN HALES (1677-1761) English Botanist and Chemist 71 FOUNDER of MODERN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY in the 1700’s. JAN INGENHOUSZ (1730-1799) Dutch Physician and Plant Physiologist 72 Characterized (1779) the PROCESSES of PHOTOSYNTHESIS and RESPIRATION, which became very useful during the early development of plant physiology and biology. SOME IMPORTANT EVENTS IN MODERN CHEMISTRY 75 JOSEPH BLACK (1728-1799) Scottish Chemist 77 Discovered (1756) his FIXED AIR or CARBON DIOXIDE. HENRY CAVENDISH (1731-1810) English Chemist and Physicist 79 Discovered (1766) his INFLAMMABLE AIR ( or HYDROGEN). Synthesized (1784) WATER. JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733-1804) English Chemist 84 DISCOVERED(1774) his DEPHLOGISTICATED AIR ( or OXYGEN), a FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENT in the development of MODERN CHEMISTRY. KARL WILHELM SCHEELE (1742-1786) Swedish Chemist 86 DISCOVERED (1771-1772) his FIRE AIR ( or OXYGEN) DANIEL RUTHERFORD (1749-1819) Scottish Chemist 88 DISCOVERED (1772) NITROGEN, which LAVOISIER characterized later. THE ERA OF ANTOINE LAVOISIER, JOHN DALTON AND J. J. BERZELIUS 89 THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY 89 ANTOINE LAURENT LAVOISIER (1743-1794) French Chemist 92 The FOUNDER OF MODERN CHEMISTRY in the 18th century. Introduced the QUANTITATIVE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. Proposed (1770’S) his OXYGEN THEORY of COMBUSTION. Proposed (1789) his LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER. LAVOISIER published three FUNDAMENTAL CHEMISTRY BOOKS. JOHN DALTON (1766-1844) English Chemist …………………………………………..98 Proposed (1800-1808) his MODERN ATOMIC THEORY from the CHEMISTRY point of view. Created the ATOMIC SYMBOLS and a table of ATOMIC WEIGHTS. DALTON published (1808) his NEW SYSTEM OF CHEMICAL PHILOSOPHY. .JONS JAKOB BERZELIUS (1779-1848) Swedish Chemist……………………………..103 One of the FOUNDERS OF MODERN CHEMISTRY who supported DALTON’S ATOMIC THEORY and LAVOISIER’S CHEMISTRY. Proposed (1803) his THEORY of the CHEMICAL RADICALS. Published (1803) his TEXTBOOK in CHEMISTRY Created (1813) the MODERN ATOMIC SYMBOLS and the CHEMICAL FORMULAS. Prepared (1828) his new table of the RELATIVE ATOMIC WEIGHTS. . PENDING ISSUES IN CHEMISTRY ………………………………………………………………109 ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION 111 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 19TH CENTURY 114 PERIOD OF TRANSITION BETWEEN THE 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES 114 THE BEGINNING OF CHEMISTRY IN THE 19th CENTURY 118 MARTIN KLAPROTH (1743-1817) German Chemist 118 DISCOVERED (1789) the RADIOACTIVE ELEMENT, URANIUM, which was destined to become the most important RADIOISOTOPE in the history of NUCLEAR ENERGY, ATOMIC PHYSICS & HUMANITY. WILLIAM HYDE WOLLASTON (1766-1828) English Chemist and Physicist 120 Proposed (1790’s) his CONCEPT of the EQUIVALENT WEIGHTS. The first to characterize (1802) the ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT. Discovered (1810 ) the AMINO ACID CYSTEINE WILLIAM NICHOLSON (1753-1815) English Chemist 122 Electrolyzed for the first time (early 1800’s) WATER into HYDROGEN and OXYGEN using VOLTA’S NEW BATTERY. JOHANN WILHELM RITTER (1776–1810) German Physicist 123 Discovered (early 1800’S) the ultraviolet radiations. WILLIAM HERSCHEL (1738-1822) German-English Astronomer 125 Discovered (1800) the infrared radiations. HUMPHRY DAVY (1778-1829) English Chemist 127 The FOUNDER ( 1800’S) of the NEW SCIENCE of ELECTROCHEMISTRY. Discovered POTASSIUM, SODIUM, CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, BARIUM and other elements. Proved (1800’S) that HYDROGEN was the ESSENTIAL component of ACIDS and not OXYGEN as Lavoisier believed. This was a FUNDAMENTAL CONTRIBUTION to CHEMISTRY. JOSEPH LOUIS GAY-LUSSAC (1778-1850) French Chemist 132 Introduced (1800’s) the ANALYTIC METHOD OF TITRATION. Postulated (1809) his LAW of COMBINING VOLUMES. Determined (1800’s) that HYDROGEN (and not OXYGEN) was the ESSENTIAL ELEMENT in ACIDS. LAVOISIER believed the contrary and he was wrong. AMEDEO AVOGADRO (1776-1856) Italian Physicist 136 Proposed (1811) the AVOGADRO’S NUMBER (6.022 X 1023 ATOMS Per MOLE), which provided a solid scientific foundation for CHEMISTRY and PHYSICS. JUSTUS VON LIEBIG (1803-1873) German Chemist 139 The founder of MODERN AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. Discovered (1824) the ISOMERS with FRIEDRICH WOHLER. Developed (1930’S) new QUANTITATIVE METHODS of ANALYSIS in ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Postulated the MINERAL THEORY in SOIL CHEMISTRY. ROBERT WILHELM BUNSEN (1811-1899) German Chemist 143 Developed (1859) with GUSTAV KIRCHHOFF the first SPECTROSCOPE to characterize the LIGHT SPECTRUM. This was a FUNDAMENTAL ACCOMPLISHMENT of great scientific value in PHYSICS & CHEMISTRY. Created (1855-1857) the BUNSEN BURNER that we use in chemistry. EDWARD FRANKLAND (1825-1899) English Chemist 146 Proposed (1852) his NEW THEORY of the VALENCE of the chemical elements, a FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT in CHEMISTRY. Started (1868) the SCIENCE of ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION And POLLUTION CONTROL. STANISLAO CANNIZZARO (1826-1910) Italian Chemist 149 Reintroduced the use of AVOGADRO’S HYPOTHESIS and NUMBER. Organized the First International Chemical Congress with F. KEKULE. THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL CONGRESS of 1860 149 Leading European Chemists met to unify the New Chemistry. WILLIAM PROUT (1785-1850) English Chemist 152 PROPOSED (1815) the PROUT’S HYPOTHESIS, suggesting that all CHEMICAL ELEMENTS consisted of a CONGLOMERATE of HYDROGEN ATOMS, & that the ATOMIC WEIGHTS of the ELEMENTS were INTEGRAL MULTIPLES of the ATOMIC WEIGHT of HYDROGEN. PERIODICITY OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND THE LAW OF TRIADS 156 JOHANN WOLFGANG DOBEREINER (1780-1849) German Chemist 156 Introduced (1829) his LAW of TRIADS and the PERIODICITY of PROPERTIES of the ELEMENTS, which became the forerunner of MEDELEEV’S PERIODIC TABLE of the CHEMICAL ELEMENTS. THE PERIODIC TABLE OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS 159 DMITRI IVANOVICH MENDELEEV (1834-1907) Russian Chemist 159 Created (1869-1871) his PERIODIC TABLE of the CHEMICAL ELEMENTS, which became a FUNDAMENTAL SOURCE of INFORMATION in CHEMISTRY and PHYSICS. Published (1868-1870) his book, THE PRINCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY. MENDELEEV AND HIS PERIODIC TABLE 162 MORE ABOUT THE PERIODIC TABLE 168 WILLIAM RAMSAY (1852-1916) Scottish Chemist 169 Discovered the INERT GASES in the 1890’s. THE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY OF THE 19th CENTURY 171 PIERRE JOSEPH PELLETIER (1788-1842) French Chemist 173 JOSEPH BIENAIME CAVENTOU (1795-1877) French Chemist 173 CAVENTOU and PELLETIER isolated (1817) the GREEN PIGMENT in PLANTS, CHLOROPHYLL. CHLOROPHYLL was destined to become a very important chemical in the fundamental PROCESS of PHOTOSYNTHESIS JOSEPH KIDD (1775-1851) British Chemist and Physician 174 Isolated (1819) the flammable gas, NAPHTHALENE from COAL TAR. SAMUEL GUTHRIE (1782-1848) American Chemist and Physician 175 Discovered (1831) CHLOROFORM and its ANESTHETIC PROPERTIES. A NEW REVOLUTION IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 177 FRIEDRICH WOHLER (1800-1882) German Chemist 177 A pioneer in ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Created for the fist time (1828) an ORGANIC COMPOUND (UREA) from an INORGANIC SUBSTANCE (AMMONIUM CYANATE), a REVOLUTIONARY IDEA in the NEW SCIENCE of CHEMISTRY. JEAN BAPTISTE DUMAS (1800 -1884) French Chemist 181 PROPOSED (1830) with AUGUSTE LAURENT the THEORY of the FUNCTIONAL GROUPS, which led to the classification of organic compounds into ALCOHOLS, ALDEHYDES, KETONES and ACIDS. JOHANN GUSTAV KJELDAHL (1849-1900) Danish Chemist 183 DEVELOPED (1883) a method to determine TOTAL NITROGEN in ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. AUGUSTE LAURENT (1807-1853) French Chemist 184 Proposed (1830) the concept of Functional groups with Jean Dumas. Introduced a new NOMENCLATURE to name ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. ADOLPH WILHELM KOLBE (1818-1884) German Chemist 185 One of the early synthesizers of Organic Compounds. PIERRE EUGENE BERTHELOT (1827-1907) French Chemist 188 A PIONEER in ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Synthesized (1800’s) ORGANIC SUBSTANCES that did not exist in NATURE. LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895) French Chemist and Microbiologist 191 Proposed (mid 1800’s) his GERM THEORY of DISEASES, which revolutionized the new field of MICROBIOLOGY & MEDICINE. This was one of the most significant DISCOVERIES in SCIENCE, together with DARWIN’S THEORY of EVOLUTION, NEWTON’S THEORY of GRAVITY and EINSTEIN’S THEORY of RELATIVITY. Made significant contributions (1800’s) to the new science of POLARIMETRY and in characterizing OPTICAL ACTIVITY And the ASYMMETRY of CRYSTALS. Showed (1856) that FERMENTATION was a MICROBIAL PROCESS. Introduced (1860’s) the PROCESS of PASTEURIZATION. WILHELM KUHNE (1837-1900) German Physiologist 196 PROPOSED (1876) the CONCEPT of ENZYMES as CATALYSTS in BIOCHEMISTRY. A FUNDAMENTAL and REVOLUTIONARY IDEA. EDUARD BUCHNER (1860-1917) German Chemist 198 Showed (1896) that FERMENTATION was essentially a chemical process. This was incorrect, PASTEUR proved (1856) conclusively that FERMENTATION was a BIOCHEMICAL or MICROBIAL PROCESS. EILHARDT MITSCHERLICH (1794-1863) German Chemist 199 Discovered (1819) the PHENOMENON of ISOMORPHISM, which became useful in the development of chemical analysis. ARCHIBALD SCOTT COUPER (1831-1892) Scottish Chemist 200 Suggested the use of DASHES or DOTTED LINES to represent CHEMICAL BONDS. This idea was later popularized by RICHARD ERLENMEYER and FRIEDRICH KEKULE in his STRUCTURAL FORMULAS. RICHARD AUGUST ERLENMEYER (1825-1909) German Chemist 201 Supported KEKULE’S STRUCTURAL FORMULAS and COUPER’S idea of using DASHES to represent CHEMICAL BONDS. THE NEW SCIENCE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 203 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE CARBON ATOM 203 Friedrich Kekule redefined ORGANIC CHEMISTRY as the CHEMISTRY of the CARBON ATOM. FRIEDRICH AUGUST KEKULE (1829-1896) German Organic Chemist 207 One of the FOUNDERS of MODERN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Developed (1800’s) the NEW CHEMISTRY of the CARBON ATOM. Created (1858) the STRUCTURAL FORMULA, the CARBON TO CARBON BONDS in the HYDROCARBON CHAINS, the MULTIPLE BONDS And the BENZENE RING, which revolutionized ORGANIC CHEMISTRY KEKULE’S STRUCTURAL FORMULA 208 KEKULE’S CARBON TO CARBON BONDS in HYDROCARBONS………………………..211 KEKULE’S BENZENE RING 214 JACOBUS HENRICUS VAN’T HOFF (1852-1911) Dutch Physical Chemist 217 PROPOSED (1874) his THREE-DIMENSIONAL CARBON TETRAHEDRON, which helped to explain the MOLECULAR ASYMMETRY and the OPTICAL ACTIVITY observed in some organic compounds. This seemingly simple idea became one of the pillars of THEORETICAL CHEMISTRY. WILLIAM JACKSON POPE (1870-1939) English Chemist 220 PROPOSED (1899) the CONCEPT of the ASYMMETRIC NITROGEN ATOM. He also found (1902) ASYMMETRY in other elements like SULFUR, SELENIUM and TIN. UNRAVELING THE MYSTERIOUS WORLD OF THE CARBON ATOM 221 DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL TECHNIQUES IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 221 THE PERKIN REACTION. THE HOFMANN DEGRADATION REACTION. THE FRIEDEL-CRAFTS REACTION. THE GRIGNARD REACTIONS. THE SABATIER- SENDERENS REACTION. THE DIELS- ALDER REACTION. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTIC POLYMERS 226 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION OF THE 19TH and 20TH CENTURIES 227 JAMES WATT (1736-1819) Scottish Engineer 228 Developed the Steam Engine. ALESSANDRO VOLTA (1745-1827) Italian Physicist 229 Invented (1800) the Electric Battery and created the Electric Current MICHAEL FARADAY (1791-1867) English Physicist and Chemist 230 Creator of the Theory of Electromagnetism in the early 1800’s. Inventor of the First Electric Motor and Electric Generator. JOSEPH HENRY (1797-1878) American Physicist 230 Developed an Electric Motor and the Electromagnets. SAMUEL FINLEY MORSE (1791-1872) American Inventor 231 Inventor of the Telegraph and the Morse Code . Patented in 1840. ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL (1847-1922) Scottish-American Inventor 232 Invented the talking wire or telephone. Patented in 1876. GUGLIELMO MARCONI (1874-1937) – Italian Electrical Engineer 232 Inventor of the wireless radio communication. Patented in 1896. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY 233 ALFRED BERNHARD NOBEL (1833-1896) Swedish Inventor 234 The inventor of Dynamite (1866) and creator of the NOBEL PRIZE AWARD (1896) CHARLES GOODYEAR (1800-1860) American Inventor 234 Created (1844) the VULCANIZED RUBBER that was instrumental in putting the NEW AUTOMOBILES on the road with soft rubber tires during the 20TH century. WILLIAM HENRY PERKIN (1838-1907) English Chemist 235 Pioneered (mid 1800’s) the synthesis of DYES and PERFUMES, which made possible the staining of CELLS, CELL ORGANELLES, TISSUES and MICROORGANISMS for an adequate characterization. JOHANN FRIEDRICH BAEYER (1835-1917) German Chemist 237 Synthesized the dye Indigo Blue in 1879. KARL JAMES GRAEBE (1841-1927) German Chemist 237 Determined (mid 1800’s) the Chemical Structure of the Aromatic Compounds. AUGUST WILHELM VON HOFMANN (1818-1892) German Chemist 238 Synthesized (1858) the dye Red-Purple or Magenta. OTTO WALLACH (1847-1931) German Organic Chemist 238 Characterized the Chemical Structure of TERPENES. LEOPOLD STEPHEN RUZICKA (1887-1976) Croatian-Swiss Chemist 238 Synthesized the perfume Musk. GEORGE EASTMAN (1854-1932) American Inventor 239 Created (late 1800’s) the Photographic Film and the Kodak Camera. DEVELOPMENTS IN CHEMISTRY AT THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY 241 SVANTE AUGUST ARRHENIUS (1859-1927) Swedish Chemist 243 Proposed his Ionization Theory, 1884-1887. Proposed his Theory of Catalysis in 1889. Both of these theories revolutionized the SCIENCE of CHEMISTRY. ALFRED WERNER (1866-1919) German-Swiss Chemist 249 PROPOSED (1891) his theory of the COORDINATION BONDS. FRIEDRICH W. OSTWALD (1853-1932) Russian-German Physical Chemist 251 One of the FOUNDERS of PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. Supported (1894) the CONCEPT of CATALYSTS and other ideas of SVANTE ARRHENIUS, JOSIAH GIBBS and JACOBUS VAN’T HOFF. . JOSIAH WILLARD GIBBS (1839-1903) American Physicist & Mathematician 253 One of the FOUNDERS of THERMODYNAMICS in the 19th CENTURY. A BRILLIANT SCIENTIST who PIONEER the field of CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS. DEVELOPED (1870’S) the CONCEPTS of FREE ENERGY, CHEMICAL POTENTIAL, CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM and the PHASE RULE. ERNST MACH (1838-1916) Austrian Physicist 254 Proponent of the MACH’S PRINCIPLE indicating that SPACE had no properties of its own. SOREN PETER SORENSEN (1868-1939) DANISH CHEMIST 258 Proposed (1909) his FAMOUS pH CONCEPT ( pH= -log H+ ), which was FUNDAMENTAL in characterizing ACIDITY and ALKALINITY. FRITZ HABER (1868-1934) German Chemist 262 Developed (early 1900’s) a method to utilize the NITROGEN GAS in the ATMOSPHERE, which made a fantastic contribution to the CHEMICAL INDUSTRY. The atmosphere has 78 % NITROGEN GAS. HERMANN STAUDINGER (1881-1965) German Chemist 264 Characterized (1926) the STRUCTURE of PLASTIC POLYMERS. FRITZ PREGL (1869-1930) Austrian Chemist 265 Introduced (1909-1913) his MICRO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, which became very important in the characterization of the NUCLEIC ACIDS ( RNA and DNA) and other ESSENTIAL ORGANIC MOLECULES found in very limited quantities in the BIOCHEMICAL WORLD THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS (1868-1928) American Chemist 266 Revised the ATOMIC WEIGHTS of the CHEMICAL ELEMENTS. FREDERICK SODDY (1877-1956) English Chemist 268 Proposed (1910-1912) his CONCEPT of the CHEMICAL ISOTOPES within the CHEMICAL ELEMENTS, which was an extraordinary discovery in CHEMISTRY and PHYSICS.. Developed (early 1900’s) the LAWS of RADIOACTIVE DECAY and the RADIOACTIVE SERIES together with the brilliant physicist, ERNEST RUTHERFORD. FRANCIS WILLIAM ASTON (1877-1945) English Chemist and Physicist 272 Improved (1919) the MASS SPECTROGRAPH and the CHARACTERIZATION of the CONCEPT of the ISOTOPES proposed by FREDERICK SODDY in 1910- 1912. Discovered several important ISOTOPES and RADIOISOTOPES. Helped in the understanding of the CONCEPT of the RELATIVE ATOMIC WEIGHTS, which is a fundamental idea in CHEMISTRY and PHYSICS.. WILLIAM DRAPER HARKINS (1873-1951) American Chemist 275 PROPOSED the CONCEPT of the PACKING FRACTION and the HYDROGEN to HELIUM CONVERSION with the RELEASE of NUCLEAR ENERGY ( E=MC2 ). ARTHUR JEFFREY DEMPSTER (1886-1950) Canadian- American Physicist 277 Discovered (1935) the rare RADIOISOTOPE, URANIUM-325, which was to become the FAMOUS SOURCE of NUCLEAR ENERGY (E=MC2 ). THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 20TH CENTURY 278 THE LEGACY FROM THE 18th and 19TH CENTURIES 278 DEVELOPMENTS IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY 278 DEVELOPMENTS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 280 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE CARBON ATOM 281 ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF THE QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL 283 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS IN THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 20TH CENTURY 296 THE NEW ATOMIC MODEL FROM THE PHYSICS POINT OF VIEW 298 THE FOUNDERS OF ATOMIC PHYSICS 300 ERNEST RUTHERFORD (1871-1937) British Physicist 301 One of the founders of MODERN ATOMIC PHYSICS Discovered (early 1900’S) the NUCLEUS & the PROTONS of the ATOM. Discovered the ALPHA and BETA particles emitted by the ATOM, which revolutionizes the world of ATOMIC PHYSICS. Proposed (1911) his ATOMIC MODEL from the PHYSICS POINT of VIEW. JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON (1856-1940) English Physicist 301 Discovered (1897) the ELECTRONS of the ATOM. NIELS HENRIK BOHR (1885-1962) Danish Physicist 307 One of the FOUNDERS of MODERN ATOMIC PHYSICS Proposed (1913) his QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL from the PHYSICS point of view, which we use today as our CLASSIC REFERENCE. Contributed to the development of QUANTUM MECHANICS, the understanding of the QUANTUM LEAP of ELECTRONS and the SPECTRAL LINES produced by the various chemical elements. MAX KARL PLANCK (1858-1947) German Physicist 308 Proposed (1900) HIS QUANTUM THEORY, which revolutionized the WORLD of PHYSICS and gave birth to QUANTUM MECHANICS. ARNOLD JOHANNES SOMMERFELD (1868-1951) German Physicist 313 Proposed (1916) the ELLIPTICAL ORBITS of ELECTRONS in BOHR’S ATOM. THE FIVE GREAT SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS OF THE 20TH CENTURY 316 FIVE GREAT SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS THAT NURTURED THE MAGNIFICENT GROWTH OF THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES 316 THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE AND THE SUBMICROSCOPIC WORLD 318 ERNST AUGUST RUSKA (1906 - 1988) German Electrical Engineer 319 Built (1932) one of the first ELECTRON MICROSCOPES together with MAX KNOLL. JAMES HILLIER (1915 - 2007) Canadian-American Physicist 319 Built (1937) the first practical ELECTRON MICROSCOPE together with A. F. PREBUS. VLADIMIR KOSMA ZWORYKIN (1889 - 1982) Russian-American Physicist 320 Built (1939) an improved Electron Microscope & the first TV Camera. THE DISCOVERY OF X-RAYS AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION 321 THE DISCOVERY OF X-RAYS BY WILHELM K. ROENTGEN 321 X-RAY DIFFRACTION AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE 324 CHARLES GLOVER BARKLA (1877-1944) English Physicist 325 Characterized the nature of X-Rays in 1911. MAX THEODOR VON LAUE (1879-1960) German Physicist 325 Proposed X-Ray Diffraction as an Analytical Technique in 1912. WILLIAM HENRY BRAGG (1862 - 1942) English Physicist 326 WILLIAM LAWRENCE BRAGG (1890 - 1971) English Physicist 326 FATHER and SON, DEVELOPED the MATHEMATICS for X-RAY DIFFRACTION. HENRY MOSELEY (1887-1915) English Physicist 329 PROPOSED (1914) the CONCEPT of the ATOMIC NUMBER, which became a FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTY of the ATOM THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIOISOTOPES 333 THE PHENOMENON OF RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIOISOTOPES 333 WILLIAM CROOKES (1832-1919) English Physicist 334 Invented (1876) the VACUUM TUBE or CROOKES TUBE and discovered the CATHODE RAYS. WILHELM KONRAD ROENTGEN (1845-1923) German Physicist 336 Discovered (1895) the X-RAYS, which became extremely useful in SCIENCE and MEDICINE and started a revolution on the study of ATOMIC RADIATIONS. ANTOINE HENRI BECQUEREL (1852-1908) French Physicist 337 Discovered (1896) the PHENOMENON of RADIOACTIVITY, which started a new SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION in the fields of ATOMIC PHYSICS and ATOMIC CHEMISTRY. PIERRE CURIE (1859-1906) French Chemist 338 MARIE CURIE (1867-1934) French Chemist 338 The CURIES expanded the CHARACTERIZATION of the PHENOMENON of RADIOACTIVITY as a UNIQUE PROCESS in the ATOM. Discovered (1898) the Radioactive Elements, RADIUM & POLONIUM. REVISITING THE ATOM 340 ERNEST RUTHERFORD (1871-1937) British Physicist 340 Discovered the NUCLEUS and the PROTONS in the Atom. Proposed (1911) his ATOMIC MODEL from the PHYSICS point of view. NIELS HENRIK BOHR (1885-1962) Danish Physicist 344 Proposed (1913) his QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL from the Physics point of view, which we use today as our CLASSIC MODEL. JAMES CHADWICK (1891-1974) English Physicist 346 Discovered (1932) the LAST of the SUBATOMIC PARTICLE, the NEUTRON, which completed the STRUCTURE of the ATOM from the PHYSICS and CHEMISTRY points of view. This was a significant development in NUCLEAR and ATOMIC HISTORY. RADIOISOTOPES AND THE RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE …………350 GILBERT NEWTON LEWIS (1875-1946) American Chemist 351 Helped to develop the new science of Thermodynamics. First to prepare (1933) Heavy Water with Deuterium, which became an important NEUTRON MODERATOR during NUCLEAR FISSION. HAROLD CLAYTON UREY (1893-1981) American Chemist 353 UREY was the first to find (1931-1932) the elusive HEAVY HYDROGEN ISOTOPE, DEUTERIUM, which became important in preparing HEAVY WATER to be used as a NEUTRON MODERATOR in NUCLEAR CHAIN-REACTIONS. Prepared (1930’s) RADIOISOTOPES for CARBON, NITROGEN and OXYGEN, which became ESSENTIAL in BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH STANLEY LLOYD MILLER (1930- 2007) American Chemist 356 Conducted (1953) his famous laboratory experiment to simulate the ORIGIN of LIFE under controlled laboratory conditions. THE RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE 356 GYORGY HEVESY (1885-1966) Hungarian Chemist 356 Introduced (1918) the RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE in CHEMISTRY and BIOLOGY, which facilitated detailed research with LIVING ORGANISMS. RUDOLF SCHOENHEIMER (1898-1941) German-American Biochemist 359 Advanced (1930’S) the use of the RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE with LIVING ORGANISMS, using the RADIOISOTOPES Of CARBON, HYDROGEN, NITROGEN & OXYGEN. This facilitated detailed studies in various BIOCHEMICAL SYSTEMS. Characterized the BIOCHEMISTRY of FAT METABOLISM. CHROMATOGRAPHY AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE 361 MIKHAIL S. TSVETT (TSWETT) (1872-1919) Russian-Italian Chemist 361 Introduced (1903-1906) CHROMATOGRAPHY as an ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE to ISOLATE PLANT PIGMENTS using POWDERED ALUMINA as the SEPARATING MEDIUM. RICHARD WILLSTATTER (1872-1942) German Chemist 362 Pioneered the use of chromatography as an analytical technique. Characterized (1910’s) the structure of the heme and chlorophyll molecules. FRANK HAROLD SPEDDING (1902- 1984) American Chemist 363 Introduced CHROMATOGRAPHY using an ION EXCHANGE RESIN to ADSORB and ISOLATE RARE IONS in solution. ARCHER JOHN MARTIN (1910- 2002 ) English Biochemist 365 Introduced with RICHARD SYNGE (1944) PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY as an ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE, which became an instant success in BIOCHEMICAL RESEARCH. Introduced the new process of gas chromatography. Characterized the amino acid composition of proteins. RICHARD LAURENCE SYNGE (1914- 1994) English Biochemist 366 Introduced (1944) paper chromatography with Archer J. Martin. DIFFUSION, DIALYSIS AND OSMOSIS AS ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES 368 THOMAS GRAHAM (1805-1869) Scottish Physical Chemist 369 One of the founders of colloidal chemistry and physical chemistry. Pioneered (1800’s) the study of diffusion, dialysis and osmosis as analytical techniques. Characterized the difference between crystalloids and colloids. WILHELM PFEFFER (1845-1920) German Botanist 373 Pioneered (1800’s) studies on osmosis and osmotic pressure. ARTHUR HARDEN (1865-1940) English Biochemist 375 Differentiated (1904) the nature of enzymes and coenzymes. Established the importance of intermediate metabolism. HANS KARL EULER-CHELPIN (1873-1964) German-Swedish Chemist 376 Characterized the chemical nature of coenzymes. THEODOR H. SVEDBERG (1884-1971) Swedish Chemist 378 Developed the supercentrifuge to study colloidal materials. Created a system of classification for colloidal materials. Developed new methods in electrophoresis. ARNE WILHELM TISELIUS (1902-1971) Swedish Chemist 380 Developed (1937) new methods in electrophoresis to study proteins. BIOCHEMISTRY, THE NEW CHEMISTRY OF THE 20THCENTURY 382 THE LEGACY FROM INORGANIC, ORGANIC AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 382 THE APPLICATION OF THE FIVE GREAT SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS 386 THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE 388 ALBERT CLAUDE (1898- 1983) Belgian-American Cytologist 391 Created (1945) the first submicroscopic studies on cell anatomy. GEORGE EMIL PALADE (1912- 2008) Canadian-American Physiologist 391 Made submicroscopic studies of the cell organelles (1950’s) Identified the mitochondria as the powerhouse of the cell. CHRISTIAN RENE De DUVE (1917- 2013) Belgian Cytologist 392 Discovered the lysozymes using the electron microscope. THE X-RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERN AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE 393 THE RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE 394 CHROMATOGRAPHY AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE 395 DIFFUSION, DIALYSIS AND OSMOSIS AS ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES 396 ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE 20TH CENTURY 397 THIS WAS THE CENTURY OF FANTASTIC DISCOVERIES . EMIL HERMANN FISCHER (1852-1919) German Chemist 400 Characterized (1880’S) the chemical structure of sugars and purines. Characterized (1900’S) the structure of amino acids & proteins. HANS FISCHER (1881-1945) German Chemist 404 Characterized (1930’s) the chemical structure of the HEME MOLECULE and the CHLOROPHYLL MOLECULE. MELVIN CALVIN (1911- 1997) American Biochemist 408 Characterized (1957) the entire process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS, one of the most fundamental processes in plant physiology and biology. MAX FERDINAND PERUTZ (1914- 2002) Austrian-British Biochemist 411 Determined (1960) the chemical structure of the protein HEMOGLOBIN. JOHN COWDERY KENDREW (1917- 1997) English Biochemist 412 Determined (1960) the chemical structure of the protein MYOGLOBIN. FREDERICK GOWLAND HOPKINS (1861-1947) English Biochemist 414 Developed the concepts of ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS (1900) and VITAMINS (1906) WILLIAM CUMMING ROSE (1887- 1985) American Biochemist 415 Confirmed (1930’s) the CONCEPT of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS and determined (1940’s) that there were only 8 ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS in the HUMAN DIET. Calculated the minimum daily requirements for amino acids. PAUL KARRER (1889-1971) Swiss Chemist 417 Synthesized (1930’s) vitamin A, vitamin E and vitamin B-2. WALTER NORMAN HAWORTH (1883-1950) English Chemist 420 Created (1920’s-1930’s) the Haworth Formulas or sugar-ring structures. RICHARD KUHN (1900-1967) Austrian-German Chemist 422 Synthesized (1930’s) vitamin B-6, vitamin A and vitamin B-2. HANS ADOLF KREBS (1900-1981) German-British Biochemist 423 Characterized (1932) the UREA CYCLE during DEAMINATION. Characterized (1940 ) the KREBS’ CYCLE as the MAJOR ENERGY PRODUCING MECHANISM in the MITOCHONDRIA of CELLS. The MITOCHONDRIA became the POWER-HOUSE of the CELL. FRITZ ALBERT LIPMANN (1899- 1986) German-American Biochemist 426 Characterized (1940’S) the PHOSPHATE ESTERS (AMP, ADP & ATP) and their ENERGY BONDS. Helped in the characterization of the KREBS CYCLE with his Discovery of COENZYME A in 1947. ALEXANDER ROBERTUS TODD (1907- 1997) Scottish Chemist 428 Synthesized (1947) ADP (ADENOSINE DI-PHOSPHATE) and ATP (ADENOSINE TRI-PHOSPHATE). Synthesized (1940’S) the various NUCLEOTIDES in the NUCLEIC ACIDS. PHOEBUS AARON LEVENE (1869-1940) Russian-American Chemist 429 First to identify (early 1900’s) the NUCLEIC ACIDS ,RNA ( RIBONUCLEIC ACID) and DNA (DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID). Identified the NUCLEOTIDES as the BUILDING BLOCKS of the NUCLEIC ACIDS. PETER DENNIS MITCHELL (1920- 1992) English Chemist 431 Identified the mitochondria as the energy factory in cells. Characterized the energy transfer mechanism in cells. FREDERICK SANGER (1918- 2013) English Biochemist 433 Characterized (1953) & synthesized (1964) the INSULIN MOLECULE. Determined the AMINO ACID SEQUENCE in PROTEIN MOLECULES. Characterized (1977)) the NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE in the DNA MOLECULE of a small VIRUS. FREDERICK GRANT BANTING (1891-1941) Canadian Physiologist 436 Isolated (1921) the PROTEIN MOLECULE, INSULIN, which controls DIABETES. VINCENT Du VIGNEAUD (1901-1978) American Biochemist 438 Characterized (1942) the chemical structure of BIOTIN and In 1953 the AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of the PROTEIN, OXYTOCIN. LINUS CARL PAULING (1901 - 1994) American Chemist 441 Proposed his THEORY of ELECTRON RESONANCE. Published (1939) his classic book, The Nature of the Chemical Bond. Helped to characterize the chemical structure of the DNA molecule. ERWIN CHARGAFF (1905- 2002) Austrian- American Biochemist 444 Characterized (1940’s) the four NITROGENOUS BASES (ADENINE, THYMINE, GUANINE and CYTOSINE) present in NUCLEIC ACIDS. MAURICE HUGH WILKINS (1916- 2004) New Zealand-British Physicist 445 Helped to characterize the chemical structure of the DNA molecule. FRANCIS HARRY CRICK (1916- 2004) English Biochemist 447 JAMES DEWEY WATSON (1928- ) American Biochemist 447 CRICK and WATSON created (1953) their famous MODEL of the DOUBLE HELIX DNA MOLECULE, which revolutionized the WORLD of GENETICS and BIOLOGY. THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY 453 THE MAGNIFICENT SCIENTISTS & THEIR FABULOUS ACCOMPLISHMENTS THE CHEMISTS AND THEIR LIVES 457 THE GREEK AND ROMAN ERA 457 EMPEDOCLES (492-432 B.C.) Greek Philosopher 457 DEMOCRITUS (470-380 B.C.) Greek Philosopher 461 CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (100-170) Greek Astronomer 466 THE ALCHEMY OF ANTIQUITY AND THE MIDDLE AGES 467 GEBER (721-815) Arabian Alchemist 469 OMAR KHAYYAM (1048-1131) Persian Astronomer and Mathematician 470 BERNARDO TREVISAN (1406-1490) Italian Alchemist 470 PHILIPPUS A. PARACELSUS (1493-1541) Swiss Physician and Alchemist 473 THE BIRTH OF MODERN SCIENCE 475 THE ADVENT OF THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION DURING THE AGE OF REASON 475 THE PHILOSOPHERS OF SCIENCE AND THE EVOLUTION OF KNOWLEDGE 475 FUNDAMENTAL EVENTS IN THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN SCIENCE 477 THE FIRST GENERATION IN SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT 477 NICOLAS COPERNICUS (1473-1543) Polish Astronomer 477 CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN (1809-1882) English Naturalist 477 THE SECOND GENERATION IN SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT 478 IN THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES 478 GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642) Italian Astronomer 478 JOHANN KEPLER (1571-1630) German Astronomer 478 ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727) English Scientist 478 RENE DESCARTES (1596-1650) French Mathematician 479 ROBERT BOYLE (1627-1691) British Scientist 479 JOHN DALTON (1766-1844) English Chemist 479 ANTOINE LAURENT LAVOISIER (1743-1794) French Chemist 479 WILLIAM GILBERT (1544-1603) English Scientist 480 MICHAEL FARADAY (1791-1867) English Physicist and Chemist 480 JAMES CLERK MAXWELL(1831-1879) Scottish Mathematician & Physicist 480 IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 480 MARCELLO MALPIGHI (1628-1694) Italian Microscopist and Anatomist 480 MONDINO De LUZZI (1275-1326) Italian Anatomist 480 ANDREAS VESALIUS (1514-1564) Flemish-Italian Anatomist 480 WILLIAM HARVEY (1578-1657) English Physician 480 ROBERT HOOKE (1635-1703) English Physicist 481 MATTHIAS JAKOB SCHLEIDEN (1804-1881) German Botanist 481 THEODOR SCHWANN (1810-1882) German Physiologist 481 WALTHER FLEMMING (1843-1905) German Anatomist 481 GREGOR JOHANN MENDEL (1822-1884) Austrian Botanist 481 LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895) French Microbiologist and Chemist 483 THE BIRTH OF MODERN CHEMISTRY 485 THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN CHEMISTRY 485 ROBERT BOYLE (1627-1691) Irish Chemist and Physicist 487 SOME IMPORTANT EVENTS IN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 490 PIERRE GASSENDI (1592-1655) French Philosopher and Scholar 491 JAN BAPTISTA VAN HELMONT (1580-1644) Flemish Chemist & Physician 492 JOHN MAYOW (1641-1679) English Physiologist 493 GEORG ERNST STAHL (1660-1734) German Chemist 494 STEPHEN HALES (1677-1761) English Botanist and Chemist 496 JAN INGENHOUSZ (1730-1799) Dutch Physician & Plant Physiologist 497 SOME IMPORTANT EVENTS IN MODERN CHEMISTRY 498 JOSEPH BLACK (1728-1799) Scottish Chemist 498 HENRY CAVENDISH (1731-1810) English Chemist and Physicist 500 JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733-1804) English Chemist 505 KARL WILHELM SCHEELE (1742-1786) Swedish Chemist 508 DANIEL RUTHERFORD (1749-1819) Scottish Chemist 510 THE ERA OF ANTOINE LAVOISIER, JOHN DALTON AND J. J. BERZELIUS 512 THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY 512 ANTOINE LAURENT LAVOISIER (1743-1794) French Chemist 513 JOHN DALTON (1766-1844) English Chemist 517 JONS JAKOB BERZELIUS (1779 – 1848) Swedish Chemist 522 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 19TH CENTURY 527 THE BEGINNING OF CHEMISTRY IN THE 19TH CENTURY 532 MARTIN HEINRICH KLAPROTH (1743-1817) German Chemist 532 ANDREAS SIGISMUND MARGGRAF (1709-1782) German Chemist 533 WILLIAM HYDE WOLLASTON (1766-1828) English Chemist and Physicist 534 WILLIAM NICHOLSON (1753-1815) English Chemist 536 JOHANN WILHELM RITTER (1776-1810) German Physicist 537 WILLIAM HERSCHEL (1738-1822) German-English Astronomer 539 HUMPHRY DAVY (1778-1829) English Chemist 541 JOSEPH LOUIS GAY-LUSSAC (1778-1850) French Chemist 546 AMEDEO AVOGADRO (1776-1856) Italian Physicist 548 JUSTUS VON LIEBIG (1803-1873) German Chemist 551 ROBERT WILHELM BUNSEN (1811-1899) German Chemist 554 EDWARD FRANKLAND (1825-1899) English Chemist 556 STANISLAO CANNIZZARO (1826-1910) Italian Chemist 558 WILLIAM PROUT (1785-1850) English Chemist and Physiologist 560 ANTOINE JEROME BALARD (1802-1876) French Chemist 562 PERIODICITY OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND THE LAW OF TRIADS 563 JOHANN WOLFGANG DOBEREINER (1780-1849) German Chemist 563 THE PERIODIC TABLE OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS 565 DMITRI IVANOVICH MENDELEEV (1834-1907) Russian Chemist 565 WILLIAM RAMSAY (1852-1916) Scottish Chemist 569 THE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY OF THE 19TH CENTURY 572 PIERRE JOSEPH PELLETIER (1788-1842) French Chemist 573 JOSEPH BIENAIME CAVENTOU (1795-1877) French Chemist 574 JOHN KIDD (1775-1851) British Chemist and Physician 574 SAMUEL GUTHRIE (1782-1848) American Chemist and Physician 575 A NEW REVOLUTION IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 576 FRIEDRICH WOHLER (1800-1882) German Chemist 576 JEAN BAPTISTE DUMAS (1800-1884) French Chemist 578 JOHANN GUSTAV KJELDAHL (1849-1900) Danish Chemist 579 AUGUSTE LAURENT (1807-1853) French Chemist 580 ADOLPH WILHELM KOLBE (1818-1884) German Chemist 582 PIERRE EUGENE BERTHELOT (1827-1907) French Chemist 583 LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895) French Chemist and Microbiologist 585 WILHELM KUHNE (1837-1900) German Physiologist 589 EDUARD BUCHNER (1860-1917) German Chemist 590 EILHARDT MITSCHERLICH (1794-1863) German Chemist 592 ARCHIBALD SCOTT COUPER (1831-1892) Scottish Chemist 593 RICHARD AUGUST ERLENMEYER (1825-1909) German Chemist 593 THE NEW SCIENCE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 594 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE CARBON ATOM 594 FRIEDRICH AUGUST KEKULE (1829-1896) German Organic Chemist 598 JACOBUS HENRICUS VAN’T HOFF (1852-1911) Dutch Physical Chemist 606 WILLIAM JACKSON POPE (1870-1939) English Chemist 611 VIKTOR MEYER (1848-1897) German Organic Chemist 612 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION OF THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES 613 THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY 613 ALFRED BERNHARD NOBEL (1833-1896) Swedish Inventor 614 CHARLES GOODYEAR (1800-1860) American Inventor 616 WILLIAM HENRY PERKIN (1838-1907) English Chemist 617 JOHANN FRIEDRICH BAEYER (1835-1917) German Chemist 619 KARL JAMES GRAEBE (1841-1927) German Chemist 620 AUGUST WILHELM VON HOFMANN (1818-1892) German Chemist 620 OTTO WALLACH (1847-1931) German Organic Chemist 621 LEOPOLD STEPHEN RUZICKA (1887-1976) Croatian-Swiss Chemist 622 GEORGE EASTMAN (1854-1932) American Inventor 622 DEVELOPMENTS IN CHEMISTRY AT THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY 625 SVANTE AUGUST ARRHENIUS (1859-1927) Swedish Chemist 625 ALFRED WERNER (1866-1919) German-Swiss Chemist 629 FRIEDRICH W. OSTWALD (1853-1932) Russian-German Physical Chemist 630 JOSIAH WILLARD GIBBS (1839-1903) American Physicist & Mathematician 632 ERNST MACH (1838-1916) Austrian Physicist 634 SOREN PETER SORENSEN (1868-1939) Danish Chemist 636 FRITZ HABER (1868-1934) German Chemist 637 HERMANN STAUDINGER (1881-1965) German Chemist 638 FRITZ PREGL (1869-1930) Austrian Chemist 639 THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS (1868-1928) American Chemist 641 FREDERICK SODDY (1877-1956) English Chemist 642 FRANCIS WILLIAM ASTON (1877-1945) English Chemist and Physicist 644 WILLIAM DRAPER HARKINS (1873-1951) American Chemist 648 ARTHUR JEFFREY DEMPSTER (1886-1950) Canadian-American Physicist 649 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 20TH CENTURY 651 THE LEGACY FROM THE 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES 651 DEVELOPMENTS IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY 651 DEVELOPMENTS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 653 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE CARBON ATOM 654 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS IN THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 20TH CENTURY 655 THE NEW ATOMIC MODEL FROM THE PHYSICS POINT OF VIEW 670 ERNEST RUTHERFORD (1871-1937) British Physicist 670 NIELS HENRIK BOHR (1885-1962) Danish Physicist 675 JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON (1856-1940) English Physicist 680 MAX KARL PLANCK (1858-1947) German Physicist 683 MAX BORN (1882-1970) German-British Physicist 685 ARNOLD JOHANNES SOMMERFELD (1868-1951) German Physicist 686 JAMES CHADWICK (1891-1974) English Physicist 686 PAUL ULRICH VILLARD (1860-1934) French Physicist 688 THE FIVE GREAT SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS OF THE 20th CENTURY 691 THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE AND THE SUBMICROSCOPIC WORLD 692 ERNST AUGUST RUSKA (1906 - 1988) German Electrical Engineer 692 JAMES HILLIER (1915 - 2007) Canadian-American Physicist 692 VLADIMIR KOSMA ZWORYKIN (1889 - 1982) Russian-American Physicist 693 ALBERT CLAUDE (1898 - 1983) Belgian-American Cytologist 694 GEORGE EMIL PALADE (1912 - 2008) Romanian-American Physiologist 694 CHRISTIAN RENE De DUVE (1917 - 2013) Belgian Cytologist 696 X-RAY DIFFRACTION AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE 696 CHARLES GLOVER BARKLA (1877-1944) English Physicist 696 MAX THEODOR VON LAUE (1879-1960) German Physicist 698 WILLIAM HENRY BRAGG (1862-1942) English Physicist 699 WILLIAM LAWRENCE BRAGG (1890-1971) English Physicist 701 HENRY MOSELEY (1887 - 1915) English Physicist 702 RADIOISOTOPES AND THE RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE 704 IRENE JOLIOT – CURIE (1897 – 1956) French Physicist 704 FREDERIC JOLIOT – CURIE (1900 – 1958) French Physicist 704 GILBERT NEWTON LEWIS (1875 – 1946) American Chemist 704 HAROLD CLAYTON UREY (1893 – 1981) American Chemist 706 STANLEY LLOYD MILLER (1930 - 2007) American Chemist 709 THE RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE 710 GYORGY HEVESY (1885-1966) Hungarian Chemist 710 RUDOLF SCHOENHEIMER (1898-1941) German-American Biochemist 712 CHROMATOGRAPHY AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE 713 MIKHAIL SEMENOVICH TSVETT (1872-1919) Russian-Italian Botanist 713 RICHARD WILLSTATTER (1872-1942) German Chemist 714 FRANK HAROLD SPEDDING (1902- 1984) American Chemist 716 ARCHER JOHN MARTIN (1910-2002 ) English Biochemist 717 RICHARD LAURENCE SYNGE (1914 - 1994) English Biochemist 719 DIFFUSION, DIALYSIS AND OSMOSIS AS ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES 720 THOMAS GRAHAM (1805-1869) Scottish Physical Chemist 720 WILHELM PFEFFER (1845-1920) German Botanist 725 ARTHUR HARDEN (1865-1940) English Biochemist 726 HANS KARL EULER-CHELPIN (1873-1964) German-Swedish Chemist 728 THEODOR H. SVEDBERG (1884-1971) Swedish Chemist 729 ARNE WILHELM TISELIUS (1902-1971) Swedish Chemist 731 ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE 20TH CENTURY 734 EMIL HERMANN FISCHER (1852-1919) German Chemist 734 HANS FISCHER (1881-1945) German Chemist 736 MELVIN CALVIN (1911- 1997) American Biochemist 737 MAX FERDINAND PERUTZ (1914 - 2002) Austrian-British Biochemist 739 JOHN COWDERY KENDREW (1917- 1997) English Biochemist 739 CHRISTIAAN EIJKMAN (1858-1930) Dutch Physician 741 FREDERICK GOWLAND HOPKINS (1861-1947) English Biochemist 742 WILLIAM CUMMING ROSE (1887- 1985) American Biochemist 744 PAUL KARRER (1889-1971) Swiss Chemist 745 WALTER NORMAN HAWORTH (1883- 1950) English Chemist 746 RICHARD KUHN (1900-1967) Austrian-German Chemist 747 HANS ADOLF KREBS (1900-1981) German-British Biochemist 748 FRITZ ALBERT LIPMANN (1899 - 1986) German-American Biochemist 750 ALEXANDER ROBERTUS TODD (1907- 1997) Scottish Chemist 751 PHOEBUS AARON LEVENE (1869-1940) Russian-American Chemist 752 PETER DENNIS MITCHELL (1920 - 1992) English Chemist 753 FREDERICK SANGER (1918 - 2013) English Biochemist 754 FREDERICK GRANT BANTING (1891-1941) Canadian Physiologist 756 VINCENT Du VIGNEAUD (1901-1978) American Biochemist 757 LINUS CARL PAULING (1901- 1994) American Chemist 759 ERWIN CHARGAFF (1905 - 2002) Austrian-American Biochemist 760 MAURICE HUGH WILKINS (1916 - 2004) New Zealand-British Physicist 761 JAMES DEWEY WATSON (1928- ) American Biochemist 762 FRANCIS HARRY CRICK (1916 - 2004) English Biochemist 763 ABOUT THE AUTHOR 769 PUBLICATIONS WRITTEN BY THE AUTHOR………………………………………………771 RECOMMENDED LITERATURE 782

 

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