World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Covered hopper

Article Id: WHEBN0001894835
Reproduction Date:

Title: Covered hopper  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Hopper car, Canpotex, List of railway vehicles, Bulk cargo, Railroad car
Collection: Freight Rolling Stock
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Covered hopper

This covered hopper car originally was built in the 1950s for the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. After the 1967 SCL merger, these cars were fitted with rotary couplers and used in Bone Valley phosphate service.

A covered hopper is a railroad freight car designed for carrying dry bulk loads, varying from grain to products such as sand and clay. The cover protects the loads from the weather - dry cement would be very hard to unload if mixed with water in transit, while grain would be liable to rot if exposed to rain. However, they are unsuitable for perishables such as fruit or meat - these are transported in refrigerator cars, where they can be kept at low temperatures, as well. Similar to an open hopper car, covered hoppers tend to contain two to four separated bays. Each of these can be loaded and emptied individually, with access at the top to load the materials and visible chutes at the bottom for unloading.

Covered hoppers in North American service have been built by most of the freight car manufacturers of the 20th century. Originally, boxcars were used for the transport of bulk materials, but these had many disadvantages. Not having been specifically designed for this, it was very hard to use any form of bulk material handling to load or unload them. Also, a large amount of product was liable to be lost, either during loading or unloading, or in transit - since the cars had to be boarded up, rather than using the doors, to enclose the products.

Hoppers with bays are used for different purposes; two-bay hoppers are used for the most dense loads (such as sand), while four-bay hoppers are more suited to lighter loads. This is due to axle load limits—for example, dry cement is very heavy in bulk quantities, and a four-bay hopper of sand would be very likely to exceed these limits, while also having problems with increased strain upon the central span. Therefore, by trading off cubic capacity, two-bay hoppers are able to transport these heavy loads. As technology has advanced, some of the heavier loads formerly assigned to two-bay hoppers have been assigned to larger, more efficient three-bay hoppers.

A CSX Hopper being switched in Knoxville, Tennessee shows off the new "How tomorrow moves" slogan (Two-bay Centerflow shown)

Large unit trains of various grain crops are a common sight in North America, reaching up to 125 cars long. These predominantly haul grain from the large farming areas of the Great Plains to various markets, but a number of unit trains originate from other major farming areas, such as Illinois and [[Indiana

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.