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Politics

By: Aristotle

...The Politics , by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, is one of the most influential texts in political philosophy. In it, Aristotle explores the role that the political community should play in developing the virtue of its citizens. One of his central ideas is that Man is a political animal, meaning that people can o...

Philosophy, Politics

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On Liberty

By: John Stuart Mill

...sition that challenges our ideas on the very nature of government and society, and sheds light on some of the key issues we face today. A key text of political philosophy, On Liberty has been continuously in print since its first publication. (Summary by David Barnes)....

Philosophy

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Two Treatises of Civil Government

By: John Locke

...The Two Treatises of Civil Government is a work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke. The First Treatise is an extended attack on Sir Robert Filmer's Patriarcha , which argued for a divinely-ordained, hereditary, absolute monarchy. The more infl...

Philosophy, Politics, Religion

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Leviathan (Books III and IV)

By: Thomas Hobbes

...In Books 3 and 4 of Leviathan , Thomas Hobbes elaborates on the political philosophy set forth in the first two books, by considering the nature of a Christian commonwealth. Book 3 begins with a wealth of biblical scholarship, directed at establishing the authority of Scripture while at t...

Philosophy, Politics, Religion

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Anarchism and Other Essays

By: Emma Goldman

...Emma Goldman (1869-1940) was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing and speeches. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the twentieth century. Born in Russia, Goldman emigrate...

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Prince, The (Version 3)

By: Niccolo Machiavelli

...The Prince (Italian: Il Principe) is a political treatise by the Italian diplomat, historian and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. From correspondence a version appears to have been distributed in 1513, using a Latin title, De Principatibus (About Principali...

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Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy

By: John Stuart Mill

Philosophy, Economics/Political Economy

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Unto this Last: Four Essays on the First Principles of Political Economy

By: John Ruskin

...nown for his work as an art critic and social critic, but is remembered as an author, poet and artist as well. Unto This Last is an important work of political economic though that influenced Gandhi, among others. (Hugh McGuire/Wikipedia)...

Philosophy, Politics, Economics/Political Economy

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Vices are not Crimes

By: Lysander Spooner

...Lysander Spooner (1808 – 1887) was an American individualist anarchist, entrepreneur, political philosopher, abolitionist, supporter of the labour movement, and legal theorist of the nineteenth century. Here he gives his views on the role of Governments in the private lives of their citizens (Summary by Annise...

Philosophy, Economics/Political Economy

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Prince, The

By: Niccolo Machiavelli

...ll Principe (The Prince) is a political treatise by the Florentine writer Niccolò Machiavelli, originally called “De Principatibus” (About Principalities). It was written around 1513, but not published until 1532, five years after Machiavelli’s death. The...

Philosophy

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Omega: The Last Days of the World

By: Camille Flammarion

...Camille Flammarion. On 25th century Earth, a comet made mostly of Carbonic-Oxide (CO) could possibly collide with the Earth. It is concerned with the philosophy and political consequences of the end of the world....

Science fiction, Philosophy, Politics

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Republic, The

By: Plato

...The Republic is a Socratic dialogue by Plato, written in approximately 380 BC. It is one of the most influential works of philosophy and political theory, and arguably Plato's best known work. In it, Socrates and various other Athenians and foreigners discuss the meaning of justice and whether the just man is happier than the unjust man by const...

Philosophy

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Two Tactics of Social-Democracy in the Democratic Revolution

By: Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

...In the heat of the failed 1905 revolution in Russia, Lenin here contrasts the precision of the Bolshevik political program and tactics with various inconsistent and servile factions within the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party. (Summary by Christian Pecaut)...

History, Philosophy

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Democracy in America I

By: Alexis de Tocqueville

... America in the 1830s he found a thriving democracy of a kind he had not seen anywhere else. Many of his insightful observations American society and political system, found in the two volume book he published after his visit, still remain surprisingly relevant today. (Summary by the Bookworm)...

Philosophy, History, Politics

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Proposed Roads to Freedom

By: Bertrand Russell

...Bertrand Russell, 3rd Earl Russell (1872 – 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, political activist and Nobel laureate. He led the British revolt against idealism in the early 1900s and is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege and his protégé Ludwig...

Philosophy, Politics

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Social Contract, The

By: Jean-Jacques Rousseau

...The Social Contract outlines Rousseau's views on political justice, explaining how a just and legitimate state is to be founded, organized and administered. Rousseau sets forth, in his characteristically brazen and iconoclastic manner, the case for direct democracy, while s...

Philosophy, Politics

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Offences Against One's Self: Paederasty

By: Jeremy Bentham

...Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. He was a political radical and a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law. He is best known as an early advocate of utilitarianism and animal rights who influenced the development of liberalism. The essay Offences Against ...

Philosophy, Politics

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Vindication of the Rights of Woman, A

By: Mary Wollstonecraft

...be treated as rational beings and imagined a social order founded on reason. - Today, Wollstonecraft is considered a foundational thinker in feminist philosophy. Her early advocacy of women's equality and her attacks on conventional femininity and the degradation of women presaged the later emergence of the feminist political movement. Feminist scholars and activists have ...

Philosophy

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Capital: a critical analysis of capitalist production, Vol 1

By: Karl Marx

...on and of the class struggles rooted in these capitalist social relations of production. Marx said himself that his aim was “to bring a science [i.e. political economy] by criticism to the point where it can be dialectically represented”, and in this way to “reveal the law of motion of modern society”. By showing how capitalist development was the precursor of a new, socia...

Philosophy, Politics, Economics/Political Economy

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On the Popular Judgment: That may be Right in Theory, but does not Hold Good in the Praxis

By: Immanuel Kant ; ed. D.E. Wittkower

...ances himself from Thomas Hobbes, and in the third, Moses Mendelssohn. The three taken together are representative of the breadth of Kant’s moral and political thought; the first section being concerned with the individual, the second with the state, and the third with the species. Although this is, on the whole, a difficult piece to approach, the second and third sections...

Philosophy

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Marriage of Heaven and Hell, The

By: William Blake

...The work was composed between 1790 and 1793, in the period of radical foment and political conflict immediately after the French Revolution. The title is an ironic reference to Emanuel Swedenborg's theological work Heaven and Hell published in Latin 33 years earlier. Swedenborg is directly cited and criti...

Literature, Philosophy, Satire, Poetry

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Zadig or the Book of Fate

By: François Marie) Voltaire (Arouet

...nt Babylonia. The author does not attempt any historical accuracy, and some of the problems Zadig faces are thinly disguised references to social and political problems of Voltaire's own day. The book is philosophical in nature, and presents human life as in the hands of a destiny beyond human control. It is a story of religious and metaphysical orthodoxy, both of which Vo...

Philosophy, Satire, Fiction

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Perpetual Peace: A Philosophic Essay

By: Immanuel Kant

...n of whether his theory is mere theory, or whether it bears translation into practice. In this, he distinguishes between the moral politician and the political moralist, pointing out ways in which practical considerations conceal and excuse behavior that leads us towards discord and war. This essay continues to be relevant, and of great importance today, much to our shame....

Philosophy

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Anti-Federalist Papers, The

By: Patrick Henry

...the President would become a king. They objected to the federal court system created by the proposed constitution. This produced a phenomenal body of political writing; the best and most influential of these articles and speeches were gathered by historians into a collection known as the Anti-Federalist Papers in allusion to the Federalist Papers. (Summary by Ticktockman)...

Philosophy, Essay/Short nonfiction, Politics

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Bacon

By: Richard William Church

...I. It includes accounts of his positions as solicitor general, attorney-general, and chancellor. The book concludes with Bacon's failure, his overall philosophy, and summaries of his writings. ( Summary by Bill Boerst )...

Biography, Economics/Political Economy, History, Literature, Philosophy, Politics, Religion, Science

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John Stuart Mill; His Life and Works

...use, his moral character, certain botanical explorations, how effective he was as a critic, studies in morals and the law, and discoveries concerning political economy. They also explore ideas concerning his influence on institutions of higher learning, accomplishments as a politician, and fame as a philosopher. (Summary by Bill Boerst)...

Biography, Economics/Political Economy, History, Philosophy, Nature, Politics

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Anticipations

By: H. G. Wells

Advice, Economics/Political Economy, Instruction, History, Philosophy, Politics, Psychology, Science

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Laws

By: Plato

Classics (antiquity), Ancient Texts, Economics/Political Economy, History, Philosophy, Politics

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Works of Tacitus, Vol. I, The

By: Publius Cornelius Tacitus ; Thomas Gordon

...of the works were lost (only books 1-5 of the Histories and 1-6 and 11-16 of the Annals survive), enough remains to provide a good sense of Tacitus’s political and moral philosophy. He recognized the necessity for strong rulers but argued that more should be done to manage the succession of power and allow for the ascension of talent. Tacitus asserted that it was the dynas...

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Third Class in Indian Railways

By: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

...Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869 – 1948) was the pre-eminent political and spiritual leader of India during the Indian independence movement. He was the pioneer of satyagraha—resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, a philosophy firmly founded upon ahimsa or total nonviol...

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Lie, The (version 2)

By: Sir Walter Raleigh

...ers bring you 10 recordings of The Lie by Sir Walter Raleigh. This was the fortnightly poem for the period beginning September 16, 2012. The Lie is a political and social criticism poem probably written by Sir Walter Raleigh. Speaking in the imperative mood throughout, he commands his soul to go upon a thankless errand and tell various people and organizations of their mis...

Poetry, Historical Fiction, Philosophy, Satire

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Age of Reason, The

By: Thomas Paine

...in 1794, 1795, and 1807, it was a bestseller in America, where it caused a short-lived deistic revival. British audiences, however, fearing increased political radicalism as a result of the French revolution, received it with more hostility. The Age of Reason presents common deistic arguments; for example, it highlights the corruption of the Christian Church and criticizes...

Politics, Religion, Philosophy

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Discourse Upon the Origin and the Foundation of the Inequality Among Mankind, A

By: Jean-Jacques Rousseau

...presents Rousseau's belief in the profoundly transformational effects of the development of civilization on human nature, which Rousseau claims other political philosophers had failed to grasp. Specifically, before the onset of civilization, according to Rousseau, natural man lived a contented, solitary life, naturally good and happy. It is only with the onset of civilizat...

Essay/Short nonfiction, Politics, Philosophy

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Life of Cicero, Vol. II, The

By: Anthony Trollope

...n insight into his own mind and times as well as those of his subject. This second volume of two covers his last years, BC 57-43 and the personal and political upheavals that surrounded them: the civil war between Caesar and Pompey, the death of his daughter Tullia, Caesar's dictatorship and assassination, Cicero's antagonism against Antony in the Philippics and his final ...

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Federalist Papers, The

By: Alexander Hamilton ; James and Jay Madison

...as published in 1788 by J. and A. M’Lean. The Federalist Papers serve as a primary source for interpretation of the Constitution, as they outline the philosophy and motivation of the proposed system of government.The authors of the Federalist Papers wanted to both influence the vote in favor of ratification and shape future interpretations of the Constitution. According to...

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Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air

By: Joseph Priestley

...RS (13 March 1733 (O.S.) – 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, chemist, educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works. In “Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air,” he reviews experiments with gases. A common theme in this work is measuring the volumes of gases held in glass tube...

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Year Amongst the Persians, A

By: Edward Granville Browne

...t Persians, at a time when nearly the whole nation was highly suspicious of foreigners, and in particular of any British or Russian person due to the political dynamics of that time, Edward Browne was well accepted by the people who knew him and his works. He is well remembered today, and a street named after him in Tehran, as well as his statue, remained even after the Ir...

Travel, Religion, Philosophy

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