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Lantibiotics

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Title: Lantibiotics  
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Subject: Bacteriocin, Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides, Lantibiotics, Lanthionine, Nisin
Collection: Lantibiotics, Peripheral Membrane Proteins
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Lantibiotics

Gallidermin
Identifiers
Symbol Gallidermin
Pfam PF02052
InterPro IPR006079
SCOP 1g5q
SUPERFAMILY 1g5q
TCDB 1.C.20
OPM superfamily 170
OPM protein 1mqy

Lantibiotics are a class of peptide antibiotics that contain the characteristic polycyclic thioether amino acids lanthionine or methyllanthionine, as well as the unsaturated amino acids dehydroalanine and 2-aminoisobutyric acid.

Lanthionine is composed of two alanine residues that are crosslinked on their β-carbon atoms by a thioether (monosulfide) linkage.

Lantibiotics are produced by a large number of Gram-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus and Streptomyces to attack other Gram-positive bacteria, and as such, they are considered a member of the bacteriocins. Bacteriocins are classified according to their extent of posttranslational modification. The lantibiotics are a class of more extensively modified bacteriocins, also called Class I bacteriocins. (Bacteriocins for which disulfide bonds are the only modification to the peptide are Class II bacteriocins.)

Lantibiotics are well studied because of the commercial use of these bacteria in the food industry for making dairy products such as cheese.

Nisin and epidermin are members of a family of lantibiotics that bind to lipid II, a cell wall precursor lipid component of target bacteria and disrupt cell wall production. The duramycin family of lantibiotics binds phosphoethanolamine in the membranes of its target cells and seem to disrupt several physiological functions.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Classification 2
    • Examples 2.1
  • Biosynthesis 3
  • Mechanism of action 4
  • Application 5
    • Food preservation 5.1
    • Veterinary antibiotic 5.2
    • Clinical antibiotic 5.3
  • Databases 6
  • References 7
  • Further reading 8
  • External links 9

History

The name lantibiotics was introduced in 1988 as an abbreviation for "lanthionine-containing peptide antibiotics".[1] The first structures of these antimicrobial agents were produced by pioneering work by Gross and Morell in the late 1960s and early 1970s, thus marking the formal introduction of lantibiotics. Since then, lantibiotics such as nisin have been used auspiciously for food preservation and have yet to encounter significant bacterial resistance. These attributes of lantibiotics have led to more detailed research into their structures and biosynthetic pathways.

Classification

Some contain 2 peptides, e.g. haloduracin.[6]

Examples

Lantibiotic Type Nr of
residues
Nr of
thioether links
Other
links
refs
nisin
subtilin
A 34 5 0
gallidermin
epidermin
A 21 3 1 [2]
mersacidin B 20 4 [3]
actagardine B 19 4 0
cinnamycin
duramycin
B 19 3 1 [5]
Sublancin 168 ? 37 1 2 [7]
Plantaricin C B 27 4 0

(Sublancin may be an S-linked glycopeptide.[8]

Biosynthesis

They are synthesised with a leader polypeptide sequence that is removed only during the transport of the molecule out of the synthesising cell. They are synthesized by ribosomes, which distinguishes them from most natural antibiotics.[9] There are four known enzymes (lanthipeptide synthetases) responsible for producing lanthionine rings.[10][11]

Mechanism of action

Lantibiotics show substantial specificity for some components (e.g., lipid II) of bacterial cell membranes especially of Gram-positive bacteria. Type A lantibiotics kill rapidly by pore formation, type B lantibiotics inhibit peptidoglycan biosynthesis.[12] They are active in very low concentrations.[13]

Application

Food preservation

Lantibiotics are produced by Gram-positive bacteria and show strong antimicrobial action toward a wide range of other Gram-positive bacteria.[14] As such, they have become attractive candidates for use in food preservation (by inhibiting pathogens that cause food spoilage) and the pharmaceutical industry (to prevent or fight infections in humans or animals).[14]

Veterinary antibiotic

Duramycin is used for chickens.

Clinical antibiotic

One type known as B lantibiotic NVB302 entered phase 1 clinical trials in 2011 for use against Clostridium difficile,[15] and reported good results in 2012.[16]

Databases

BACTIBASE is an open-access database for bacteriocins including lantibiotics.[17][18] LANTIBASE is a lantibiotic specific resource.[19]

References

  1. ^ Chatterjee C, Paul M, Xie L, van der Donk WA (February 2005). "Biosynthesis and mode of action of lantibiotics". Chem. Rev. 105 (2): 633–84.  
  2. ^ a b Kellner R, Jung G, Hörner T, Zähner H, Schnell N, Entian KD, Götz F (October 1988). "Gallidermin: a new lanthionine-containing polypeptide antibiotic". Eur. J. Biochem. 177 (1): 53–9.  
  3. ^ a b Sass P, Jansen A, Szekat C, Sass V, Sahl HG, Bierbaum G (2008). "The lantibiotic mersacidin is a strong inducer of the cell wall stress response of Staphylococcus aureus". BMC Microbiol. 8: 186.  
  4. ^ Brötz H, Bierbaum G, Markus A, Molitor E, Sahl HG (March 1995). "Mode of action of the lantibiotic mersacidin: inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis via a novel mechanism?". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39 (3): 714–9.  
  5. ^ a b Makino A, Baba T, Fujimoto K, Iwamoto K, Yano Y, Terada N, Ohno S, Sato SB, Ohta A, Umeda M, Matsuzaki K, Kobayashi T (January 2003). "Cinnamycin (Ro 09-0198) promotes cell binding and toxicity by inducing transbilayer lipid movement". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (5): 3204–9.  
  6. ^ Cooper LE, McClerren AL, Chary A, van der Donk WA (October 2008). "Structure-activity relationship studies of the two-component lantibiotic haloduracin". Chem. Biol. 15 (10): 1035–45.  
  7. ^ Stein T (May 2005). "Bacillus subtilis antibiotics: structures, syntheses and specific functions". Mol. Microbiol. 56 (4): 845–57.  
  8. ^ Oman TJ, Boettcher JM, Wang H, Okalibe XN, van der Donk WA (February 2011). "Sublancin is not a lantibiotic but an S-linked glycopeptide". Nat. Chem. Biol. 7 (2): 78–80.  
  9. ^ Siegers K, Heinzmann S, Entian KD (May 1996). "Biosynthesis of lantibiotic nisin. Posttranslational modification of its prepeptide occurs at a multimeric membrane-associated lanthionine synthetase complex". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (21): 12294–301.  
  10. ^ Goto, Y; Li, B; Claesen, J; Shi, Y; Bibb, MJ; van der Donk, WA (2010). "Discovery of unique lanthionine synthetases reveals new mechanistic and evolutionary insights". PLoS Biology 8 (3): e1000339.  
  11. ^ Zhang, Q; Yu, Y; Vélasquez, JE; van der Donk, WA (2012). "Evolution of lanthipeptide synthetases". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (45): 18361–6.  
  12. ^ Brötz H and Sahl H-G. (2000). "New insights into the mechanism of action of lantibiotics—diverse biological effects by binding to the same molecular target".  
  13. ^ Cotter, Hill, Ross (2005). "Bacterial Lantibiotics: Strategies to Improve Therapeutic Potential" (PDF) 6. Current Protein and Peptide Science. pp. 61–75. 
  14. ^ a b van Kraaij C, de Vos WM, Siezen RJ, Kuipers OP (October 1999). "Lantibiotics: biosynthesis, mode of action and applications". Nat Prod Rep 16 (5): 575–87.  
  15. ^ "New antibiotic compound enters phase I clinical trial". Press Release. Wellcome Trust. 2011-11-03. 
  16. ^ Parker S (2012-08-06). "Novacta Biosystems Limited completes Phase I study of NVB302 against C. difficile infection in healthy volunteers". Press Release. Celtic Pharma Holding. 
  17. ^ Hammami R, Zouhir A, Ben Hamida J, Fliss I (2007). "BACTIBASE: a new web-accessible database for bacteriocin characterization". BMC Microbiology 7: 89.  
  18. ^ Hammami R, Zouhir A, Le Lay C, Ben Hamida J, Fliss I (2010). "BACTIBASE second release: a database and tool platform for bacteriocin characterization". BMC Microbiology 10: 22.  
  19. ^ http://bioinfo-presiuniv.edu.in/lantibase_about.php

Further reading

  • Jack R, Bierbaum G, Heidrich C, Sahl HG (September 1995). "The genetics of lantibiotic biosynthesis". BioEssays 17 (9): 793–802.  
  • Sahl HG, Jack RW, Bierbaum G (June 1995). "Biosynthesis and biological activities of lantibiotics with unique post-translational modifications". Eur. J. Biochem. 230 (3): 827–53.  
  • Sahl HG, Bierbaum G (1998). "Lantibiotics: biosynthesis and biological activities of uniquely modified peptides from gram-positive bacteria". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 52: 41–79.  
  • Stein T (May 2005). "Bacillus subtilis antibiotics: structures, syntheses and specific functions". Mol. Microbiol. 56 (4): 845–57.  
  • Smith JL (2002). Structural and functional characterization of the lantibiotic mutacin (PDF) (Ph.D.). University of Florida. 

External links

  • "Complete list of lantibiotics". BACTIBASE Database. Functional Proteomics & Alimentary Bio-preservation Research Unit at Institute of Applied Biological Sciences Tunis (ISSBAT), Tunisia. 
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