World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Classical theism

Article Id: WHEBN0004254233
Reproduction Date:

Title: Classical theism  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Theism, Liberal theism, Philosophical theism, Glossary of philosophy, Argument from religious experience
Collection: Christian Philosophy, Classical Greek Philosophy, Theism
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Classical theism

Classical theism refers to the form of theism in which God is characterized as the absolutely metaphysically ultimate being, in contrast to other conceptions such as Pantheism, Panentheism, Polytheism, and Process Theism.

Whereas most theists agree that God is, at a minimum, all-knowing, all-powerful, and completely good,[1] some classical theists go farther and conceive of God as completely transcendent (totallly independent of all else), simple, and having such attributes as immutability, impassibility, and timelessness.[2]

Classical theism is, historically, the mainstream view in philosophy and is associated with the tradition of writers like Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Augustine, St. Anselm, Maimonides, Averroes and Thomas Aquinas.[2] In opposition to this tradition, there are, today, philosophers like Alvin Plantinga (who rejects divine simplicity), Richard Swinburne (who rejects divine timelessness) and William Lane Craig (who rejects both divine simplicity and timelessness), who can be viewed as theistic personalists. As well, Gregory Palamas' defense of Hesychasm highlights the Essence-Energies distinction, as understood by the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Since classical theistic ideas are influenced by Greek philosophy and focus on God in the abstract and metaphysical sense, they can be difficult to reconcile with the "near, caring, and compassionate" view of God presented in the religious texts of the main monotheistic religions, particularly the Bible.[3]


  1. ^ Pojman and Rea, 2
  2. ^ a b Craig, 98
  3. ^ Pojman and Rae, 3; Jansen, 2


  • Edward Craig, ed. (1998). "God, concepts of". Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Taylor & Francis. 
  • Henry Jansen (1995). Relationality and the concept of God. Rodopi. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.