World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Hexaxial reference system

Article Id: WHEBN0008808309
Reproduction Date:

Title: Hexaxial reference system  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Cardiovascular physiology, Right axis deviation, Circulatory system, Left axis deviation, Electrophysiology
Collection: Cardiology, Electrophysiology
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Hexaxial reference system

The hexaxial reference system is a diagram that is used to determine the heart's electrical axis in the frontal plane.
Cabrera circle (captions in German)
Diagram showing how the polarity of the QRS complex in leads I, II, and III can be used to estimate the heart's electrical axis in the frontal plane.

The hexaxial reference system, also known as the Cabrera system, is a convention to present the extremity leads of the 12 lead electrocardiogram, that provides an illustrative logical sequence that helps interpretation of the ECG, especially to determine the heart's electrical axis in the frontal plane. The most practical way of using this is by arranging extremity leads according to the Cabrera system, reversing polarity of lead aVR and presenting ECG complexes in the order (aVL, I, -aVR, II, aVF, III). Then determine the direction the maximal ECG vector is "pointing", i.e. in which lead there are most positive amplitude - this direction is the electrical axis - see diagram. Example: If lead I has the highest amplitude (higher than aVL or -aVR), the axis is approximately 0°. Conversely, if lead III has the most negative amplitude it means the vector is pointing away from this lead, i.e. towards -60°.

An alternative use is to locate the most isoelectric (or equiphasic) lead (I, II, III, aVR, aVL, or aVF) on a diagnostic quality ECG with proper lead placement. Then find the corresponding spoke on the hexaxial reference system. The perpendicular spoke will point to the heart's electrical axis. To determine which numerical value should be used, observe the polarity of the perpendicular lead on the ECG.

For example, if the most isoelectric (or equiphasic) lead is aVL, the perpendicular lead on the hexaxial reference system is lead II. If lead II is positively deflected on the ECG, the heart's electrical axis in the frontal plane will be approximately +60°.

See also

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.