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Battle of Kashgar (1933)

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Title: Battle of Kashgar (1933)  
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Subject: Ma Zhancang, Xinjiang Wars, Ma Shaowu, East Turkestan independence movement, Kashgar
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Battle of Kashgar (1933)

Battle of Kashgar
Part of the Kumul Rebellion
Date 1933
Location Kashgar, Xinjiang
Result Stalemate
Republic of China 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) First East Turkestan Republic
Commanders and leaders
Ma Zhancang Ma Shaowu Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra, Abdullah Bughra, Osman Ali (Kirghiz), Timur Beg , Tawfiq Bay[1]
Several thousand Chinese Muslim and Han Chinese troops Thousands of Turkic Muslim Uighur and Kirghiz fighters
Casualties and losses
several hundred several hundred

In the 1933 Battle of Kashgar, Gen. Ma Zhancang signed a secret agreement with the daotai of Kashgar, Ma Shaowu, and his Chinese Muslim troops joined the Han Chinese garrison inside the yamen in Kashgar and helped them repulse Uighur and Kirghiz attacks led by Abdullah Bughra.[2] Turkic Uighur and Kirghiz forces led by the Uighur Timur Beg had been attacking Chinese Muslim villages and pillaging them.[3][3] During the fighting Timur Beg was shot and then beheaded by Ma Zhancang's forces, his head being put on display at the Idgah mosque. When more Chinese Muslim troops arrived, they reinforced the Chinese garrison inside Kashgar.[4] Osman Ali, the Kirghiz rebel, attempted to attack the yamen, but was repulsed with heavy losses. He then proceeded to loot the city.[5]

On September 26, 1933, the Syrian Arab Tawfiq Bay led a Turkic force against the Chinese Muslims in Kashgar new city. Ma Zhancang repulsed the attack after very heavy fighting, and wounded Tawfiq Bay.[1]

During the battle the Kirghiz prevented the Uighur from looting the city, mainly because they wanted to loot it themselves. They started murdering any Chinese and Chinese Muslim they could get their hands on, as well as any Turkic people who were wives or mistresses of Chinese. They then looted their property.[6]


  1. ^ a b "FIGHTING IS SEVERE Tungans and Turkis Clash in Chinese Turkestan". The Montreal Gazette. 11 October 1933. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  2. ^ Mary Patricia Joan Rouse (1992). Search for a new dominion: revolt and rebellion in Xinjiang, China during the Republican period, 1911–1949. Ithaca: Cornell University. p. 34. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  4. ^ S. Frederick Starr (2004). Xinjiang: China's Muslim borderland. M.E. Sharpe. p. 77.  
  5. ^ James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian crossroads: a history of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. p. 197.  
  6. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 81 accessdate=2010-06-28.  

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