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List of World Heritage Sites in Southeast Asia

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Title: List of World Heritage Sites in Southeast Asia  
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List of World Heritage Sites in Southeast Asia

The World Heritage Sites in seven countries (also called "state parties") of Southeast Asia: Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos. Three states in the region do not have any World Heritage Site: Brunei, Singapore and East Timor.[1][2]

Indonesia and Vietnam lead this list with eight inscribed sites, Philippines has six sites, while Thailand has five sites, Malaysia four, followed by Cambodia and Laos each with two inscribed sites and Myanmar with one inscribed site.[3] The first sites from the region were inscribed at the 15th session of the World Heritage Committee in 1991.[4] The latest sites inscribed are the Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary in the Philippines, Pyu Ancient Cities in Myanmar and the Tràng An Scenic Landscape Complex in Vietnam inscribed in 38th session of the Committee in Doha, Qatar in June 2014.[5] Each year, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee may inscribe new sites on the list, or delist sites that that no longer meet the criteria. Selection is based on ten criteria: six for cultural heritage (i–vi) and four for natural heritage (vii–x).[6] Some sites, designated "mixed sites," represent both cultural and natural heritage. In Southeast Asia, there are 22 cultural, 13 natural, and 1 mixed sites.[3]

The World Heritage Committee may also specify that a site is endangered, citing "conditions which threaten the very characteristics for which a property was inscribed on the World Heritage List." One site in this region, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra is listed as endangered, and two sites, Angkor and Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras, had been listed but lost that status in 2004 and 2012, respectively.


The table is sortable by column by clicking on the at the top of the appropriate column; alphanumerically for the Site, Area, and Year columns; by state party for the Location column; and by criteria type for the Criteria column. Transborder sites sort at the bottom.

Site; named after the World Heritage Committee's official designation[3]
Location; at city, regional, or provincial level and geocoordinates
Criteria; as defined by the World Heritage Committee[6]
Area; in hectares and acres. If available, the size of the buffer zone has been noted as well. A value of zero implies that no data has been published by UNESCO
Year; during which the site was inscribed to the World Heritage List
Description; brief information about the site, including reasons for qualifying as an endangered site, if applicable.

Inscribed sites

  † In danger
Site Image Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year Description Refs
Angkor Ruins of a large structure with five large towers at the top. Siem Reap Province,  Cambodia
(i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
700440000000000000040,000 (99,000) 1992 Angkor is one of the most important archaeological sites in South-East Asia. Stretching over some 401 km2 = 40,000 hectares, including forested area, Angkor Archaeological Park contains the magnificent remains of the different capitals of the Khmer Empire, from the 9th to the 15th century. They include the famous Temple of Angkor Wat and, at Angkor Thom, the Bayon Temple with its countless sculptural decorations. UNESCO has set up a wide-ranging programme to safeguard this symbolic site and its surroundings. The site was listed as endangered from its inscription in times of political instability following the civil war in the 1980s to 2004. [7][8]
Archaeological Heritage of the Lenggong Valley Lenggong Valley. Perak,  Malaysia
(iii), (iv)
7002399000000000000399 (990) 2012 The site includes four archaeological sites in two clusters which span close to two million years, one of the longest records of early man in a single locality, and the oldest outside the African continent. It features open-air and cave sites with Palaeolithic tool workshops, evidence of early technology. [10]
Ban Chiang Archaeological Site
Vase with red and white design.
Udon Thani Province,  Thailand
700164000000000000064 (160) 1992 Ban Chiang is considered the most important prehistoric settlement so far discovered in South-East Asia. It was the centre of a remarkable phenomenon of human cultural, social, and technological evolution in the 5th millennium BCE, which occurred independently in this area of south-east Asia and spread widely over the whole region. It marks an important stage in human cultural, social and technological evolution. The site presents the earliest evidence of farming in the region and of the manufacture and use of metals. [11]
Baroque Churches of the Philippines Interior of a church with white walls and coffered ceiling. Manila; Santa Maria, Ilocos Sur; Paoay, Ilocos Norte and Miag-ao, Iloilo;  Philippines
(ii), (iv)
1993 These four churches were built by the Spanish in the late 16th century. Their unique architectural style is a reinterpretation of European Baroque by Philippine craftsmen. Services are still held in these churches up to the present day. [12]
Borobudur Temple Compounds A terraced pyramid like structure with a stupa on top. Magelang Regency, Central Java  Indonesia
(i), (ii), (vi)
1991 This famous Buddhist temple, dating from the 8th and 9th centuries, is located in central Java. It was built in three tiers: a pyramidal base with five concentric square terraces, the trunk of a cone with three circular platforms and, at the top, a monumental stupa. The walls and balustrades are decorated with fine low reliefs, covering a total surface area of 2,500 m2. Around the circular platforms are 72 openwork stupas, each containing a statue of the Buddha. The monument was restored with UNESCO's help in the 1970s. [13]
Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long - Hanoi
Stone tower on top of a stone wall. The wall has circular wheel-shaped windows and a red flag with yellow star is raised on top of the tower.
Hanoi,  Vietnam
(ii), (iii), (vi)
700118000000000000018 (44); buffer zone 108 (270) 2010 The Thang Long Imperial Citadel was built in the 11th century by the Ly Viet Dynasty, marking the independence of the Dai Viet. It was constructed on the remains of a Chinese fortress dating from the 7th century, on drained land reclaimed from the Red River Delta in Hanoi. It was the centre of regional political power for almost 13 centuries without interruption. The Imperial Citadel buildings and the remains in the 18 Hoang Dieu Archaeological Site reflect a unique South-East Asian culture specific to the lower Red River Valley, at the crossroads between influences coming from China in the north and the ancient Kingdom of Champa in the south. [14]
Citadel of the Hồ Dynasty A gate built of massive grey stones. Tây Giai, Vĩnh Lộc District, Thanh Hóa Province,  Vietnam
(ii), (iv)
7002156000000000000156 (390); buffer zone 5,079 (12,550) 2011 The 14th-century Hồ Dynasty citadel, built according to feng shui principles, testifies to the flowering of neo-Confucianism in late 14th century Viet Nam and its spread to other parts of east Asia. According to these principles it was sited in a landscape of great scenic beauty on an axis joining the Tuong Son and Don Son mountains in a plain between the Ma and Buoi rivers. The citadel buildings represent an outstanding example of a new style of south-east Asian imperial city. [15]
Complex of Hué Monuments Staircase leading to a building of dark stone. A simple decorated gate is at the top of the staircase. Thừa Thiên–Huế Province,  Vietnam
(iii), (iv)
1993 Established as the capital of unified Viet Nam in 1802, Hué was not only the political but also the cultural and religious centre under the Nguyen dynasty until 1945. The Perfume River winds its way through the Capital City, the Imperial City, the Forbidden Purple City and the Inner City, giving this unique feudal capital a setting of great natural beauty. It is an outstanding example of ancient oriental philosophy in general and Vietnamese tradition in particular. [16]
Cultural Landscape of Bali Province: the Subak System as a Manifestation of the Tri Hita Karana Philosophy Rice terrace at entrance to Gunung Kawi temple demonstrate the traditional Subak irrigation system, Tampaksiring, Bali. Bali  Indonesia
(ii), (iii), (v), (vi)
700419520000000000019,520 (48,200) 2012 It forms a cultural landscape of five rice terraces and their water temples that cover 19,500 hectares. The temples are the focus of a cooperative water management system of canals and weirs, known as subak, that dates back to the 9th century. Included in the landscape is the 18th-century Royal Temple of Pura Taman Ayun, the largest and most impressive architectural edifice of its type on the island. The subak reflects the philosophical concept of Tri Hita Karana, which brings together the realms of the spirit, the human world and nature. 1194rev[17]
Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex
Medium sized waterfall in a tropical forest.
Saraburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok, Prachinburi, Sa Kaeo and Buriram Provinces  Thailand
7005615500000000000615,500 (1,521,000) 2005 The Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex spans 230 km between Ta Phraya National Park on the Cambodian border in the east, and Khao Yai National Park in the west. The site is home to more than 800 species of fauna, including 112 mammal species (among them two species of gibbon), 392 bird species and 200 reptile and amphibian species. It is internationally important for the conservation of globally threatened and endangered mammal, bird and reptile species, among them 19 that are vulnerable, four that are endangered, and one that is critically endangered. The area contains substantial and important tropical forest ecosystems, which can provide a viable habitat for the long-term survival of these species. [18]
Gunung Mulu National Park Sunset or sunrise over a mountain landscape with fog in the valleys. northern Sarawak, Borneo,  Malaysia
(vii), (viii), (ix), (x)
700452864000000000052,864 (130,630) 2000 Important both for its high biodiversity and for its karst features, Gunung Mulu National Park, on the island of Borneo in the State of Sarawak, is the most studied tropical karst area in the world. The 52,864-ha park contains seventeen vegetation zones, exhibiting some 3,500 species of vascular plants. Its palm species are exceptionally rich, with 109 species in twenty genera noted. The park is dominated by Gunung Mulu, a 2,377 m-high sandstone pinnacle. At least 295 km of explored caves provide a spectacular sight and are home to millions of cave swiftlets and bats. The Sarawak Chamber, 600 m by 415 m and 80 m high, is the largest known cave chamber in the world. [19]
Hạ Long Bay Forested rocks in the sea. Quảng Ninh Province,  Vietnam
(vii), (viii)
7005150000000000000150,000 (370,000) 1994[nb 1] Hạ Long Bay, in the Gulf of Tonkin, includes some 1,600 islands and islets, forming a spectacular seascape of limestone pillars. Because of their precipitous nature, most of the islands are uninhabited and unaffected by a human presence. The site's outstanding scenic beauty is complemented by its great biological interest. [20]
Historic City of Ayutthaya Ruins of stupas of various sizes. Ayutthaya province,  Thailand
7002289000000000000289 (710) 1991 Founded c. 1350, Ayutthaya became the second Siamese capital after Sukhothai. It was destroyed by the Burmese in the 18th century. Its remains, characterized by the prang (reliquary towers) and gigantic monasteries, give an idea of its past splendour. Located just an hour out of Bangkok, tt remains a popular tourist destination to this day. [21]
Historic Town of Sukhothai and Associated Historic Towns
Large white seated Buddha statue.
Sukhothai and Kamphaeng Phet Provinces,  Thailand
(i), (iii)
700411852000000000011,852 (29,290) 1991 Sukhothai was the capital of the first Kingdom of Siam in the 13th and 14th centuries. It has a number of fine monuments, illustrating the beginnings of Thai architecture. The great civilization which evolved in the Kingdom of Sukhothai absorbed numerous influences and ancient local traditions; the rapid assimilation of all these elements forged what is known as the 'Sukhothai style'. [22]
Historic Town of Vigan Street of three-storied ramshackle colonial style buildings. Ilocos Sur,  Philippines
(ii), (iv)
1999 Established in the 16th century, Vigan is the best-preserved example of a planned Spanish colonial town in Asia. Its architecture reflects the coming together of cultural elements from elsewhere in the Philippines, from Asia and from Europe, resulting in a culture and townscape that have no parallel anywhere in East and South-East Asia. [23]
Hội An Ancient Town Street lined by rows of two-storied stone houses opening onto the street. Hội An, Quảng Nam Province,  Vietnam
(ii), (v)
700130000000000000030 (74); buffer zone 280 (690) 1999 Hội An Ancient Town is an exceptionally well-preserved example of a South-East Asian trading port dating from the 15th to the 19th century. Its buildings and its street plan reflect the influences, both indigenous and foreign, that have combined to produce this unique heritage site. The town is a special example of a traditional trading port in South-East Asia which has been completely and assiduously preserved: it is the only town in Viet Nam that has survived intact in this way. [24]
Kinabalu Park Mountain with a rocky top and forested slopes. There is a narro high waterfall on one side of the mountain slope. Sabah, Borneo,  Malaysia
(ix), (x)
700475370000000000075,370 (186,200) 2000 Kinabalu Park, in the State of Sabah on the northern end of the island of Borneo, is dominated by Mount Kinabalu (4,095 m), the highest mountain between the Himalayas and New Guinea. It has a very wide range of habitats, from rich tropical lowland and hill rainforest to tropical mountain forest, sub-alpine forest and scrub on the higher elevations. It has been designated as a Centre of Plant Diversity for Southeast Asia and is exceptionally rich in species with examples of flora from the Himalayas, China, Australia, Malaysia, as well as pan-tropical flora. [25]
Komodo National Park
Komodo dragon at Komodo National Park, Indonesia.
East Nusa Tenggara  Indonesia
(vii), (x)
7005219322000000000219,322 (541,960) 1991 These volcanic islands are inhabited by a population of around 5,700 giant lizards, whose appearance and aggressive behaviour have led to them being called 'Komodo dragons'. They exist nowhere else in the world and are of great interest to scientists studying the theory of evolution. The rugged hillsides of dry savannah and pockets of thorny green vegetation contrast starkly with the brilliant white sandy beaches and the blue waters surging over coral. [26]
Lorentz National Park A rocky mountain ridge. Papua  Indonesia
(vii), (ix), (x)
70062350000000000002,350,000 (5,800,000) 1999 Lorentz National Park (2.35 million ha) is the largest protected area in South-East Asia. It is the only protected area in the world to incorporate a continuous, intact transect from snowcap to tropical marine environment, including extensive lowland wetlands. Located at the meeting-point of two colliding continental plates, the area has a complex geology with ongoing mountain formation as well as major sculpting by glaciation. The area also contains fossil sites which provide evidence of the evolution of life on New Guinea, a high level of endemism and the highest level of biodiversity in the region. [27]
George Town, Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca Town scene with three-storied red houses and a red church. There is a three-storied clock tower standing on a square. Malacca and Penang, Malay Peninsula,  Malaysia
(ii), (iii), (iv)
7002148000000000000148 (370); buffer zone 284 (700) 2008 Melaka and George Town, historic cities of the Straits of Malacca have developed over 500 years of trading and cultural exchanges between East and West in the Straits of Malacca. The influences of Asia and Europe have endowed the towns with a specific multicultural heritage that is both tangible and intangible. With its government buildings, churches, squares and fortifications, Melaka demonstrates the early stages of this history originating in the 15th-century Malay sultanate and the Portuguese and Dutch periods beginning in the early 16th century. Featuring residential and commercial buildings, George Town represents the British era from the end of the 18th century. The two towns constitute a unique architectural and cultural townscape without parallel anywhere in East and Southeast Asia. [28]
Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary Mount Hamiguitan. Davao Oriental,  Philippines
2014 Mt. Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary in Mindanao, Philippines is the only protected forest noted for its unique bonsai field or 'pygmy' forest of 100-year old trees in an ultramafic soil. [29]
Mỹ Sơn Sanctuary Ruins of buildings of red stone with niches and sculptures. The roof of one of the structures is partially covered in grass. Duy Phú, Duy Xuyên District, Quảng Nam Province,  Vietnam
(ii), (iii)
7002142000000000000142 (350); buffer zone 920 (2,300) 1999 [30]
Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng National Park Landscape with river and densely forested hills. Bố Trạch and Minh Hóa districts, Quảng Bình Province,  Vietnam
700485754000000000085,754 (211,900) 2003 [31]
Prambanan Temple Compounds The main shrine of Prambanan temple compound dedicated to Shiva, surrounded by numbers of smaller shrines. Central Java  Indonesia
(i), (iv)
1991 [32]
Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park A river flowing into a cave. Palawan,  Philippines
(vii), (x)
70035753000000000005,753 (14,220) 1999 [33]
Pyu Ancient Cities Mandalay, Magway, Bago,  Myanmar
(ii), (iii), (iv)
2014 [34]
Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras Small village among rice terraces. Ifugao, Cordillera Region,  Philippines
(iii), (iv), (v)
1995 This site was removed from the "endangered" list in 2012 due to the success of the government's conservation efforts. These terraces have been in use for 2000 years, and are an outstanding example of an evolved, living cultural landscape. The inscription covers five clusters: (i) the Nagacadan terrace cluster in the municipality of Kiangan, a rice terrace cluster manifested in two distinct ascending rows of terraces bisected by a river; (ii) the Hungduan terrace cluster that uniquely emerges into a spider web; (iii) the central Mayoyao terrace cluster which is characterized by terraces interspersed with traditional farmers’ bale (houses) and alang (granaries); (iv) the Bangaan terrace cluster in the municipality of Banaue that backdrops a typical Ifugao traditional village; and (v) the Batad terrace cluster of the municipality of Banaue that is nestled in amphitheatre-like semi-circular terraces with a village at its base. [35][36]
Sangiran Early Man Site Upper part of a petrified skull including some teeth. Central Java  Indonesia
(iii), (vi)
70035600000000000005,600 (14,000) 1996 [37]
Temple of Preah Vihear Ruins of a stone building erected on a stone platform. The roof above the main entrance is decorated. Preah Vihear Province,  Cambodia
7002155000000000000155 (380); buffer zone 2,643 (6,530) 2008 [38]
Thungyai-Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuaries
A river flowing through a forested mountain landscape.
Kanchanaburi, Tak and Uthai Thani Provinces  Thailand
(vii), (ix), (x)
7005622200000000000622,200 (1,537,000) 1991 [39]
Town of Luang Prabang Stone building with golden decorated entrance, stacked and very steep roofs. Luang Prabang Province,  Laos
(ii), (iv), (v)
1995 [40]
Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra A high mountain beyond grassland interspersed with trees. Sumatra,  Indonesia
(vii), (ix), (x)
70062595124000000002,595,124 (6,412,690) 2004 The site has been listed as endangered since 2011 due to poaching, illegal logging, agricultural encroachment, and plans to build roads. [41][42]
Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park Shark and corrals. Cagayancillo, Palawan,  Philippines
(vii), (ix), (x)
7005130028000000000130,028 (321,310) 1993[nb 2] [43][44]
Ujung Kulon National Park Rocky ground within a tropical forest. Banten and Lampung,  Indonesia
(vii), (x)
700478525000000000078,525 (194,040) 1991 [45]
Vat Phou and Associated Ancient Settlements within the Champasak Cultural Landscape Ruins of stone buildings in a very green lush mountain landscape. Champasak Province,  Laos
(iii), (iv), (vi)
700439000000000000039,000 (96,000) 2001 [46]
Tràng An Scenic Landscape Complex Tam Cốc in Hoa Lư Ancient Capital Ninh Binh Province,  Vietnam
(v), (vii), (viii)
2014 [47]


  1. ^ Extended inscription in 2000 to include natural criterion (i) (in present nomenclature criterion (vii)).
  2. ^ Extended in 2009 and name change from Tubbataha Reef Marine Park to the present name.


  1. ^ "Number of World Heritage Properties by region".  
  2. ^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". Geographical region and composition of each region.  
  3. ^ a b c "World Heritage List".  
  4. ^ "Number of World Heritage properties inscribed each Year".  
  5. ^ "Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary".  
  6. ^ a b "The Criteria for Selection".  
  7. ^ "Angkor".  
  8. ^ 16th session 1992, pp. 37–38, annex VI
  9. ^ 28th session 2004, pp. 66–67
  10. ^ "Archaeological Heritage of the Lenggong Valley".  
  11. ^ "Ban Chiang Archaeological Site".  
  12. ^ "Baroque Churches of the Philippines".  
  13. ^ "Borobudur Temple Compounds".  
  14. ^ "Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long - Hanoi".  
  15. ^ "Citadel of the Ho Dynasty".  
  16. ^ "Complex of Hué Monuments".  
  17. ^ "Cultural Landscape of Bali Province".  
  18. ^ "Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex".  
  19. ^ "Gunung Mulu National Park".  
  20. ^ "Ha Long Bay".  
  21. ^ "Historic City of Ayutthaya".  
  22. ^ "Historic Town of Sukhothai and Associated Historic Towns".  
  23. ^ "Historic Town of Vigan".  
  24. ^ "Hoi An Ancient Town".  
  25. ^ "Kinabalu Park".  
  26. ^ "Komodo National Park".  
  27. ^ "Lorentz National Park".  
  28. ^ "Melaka and George Town, Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca".  
  29. ^ "Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary".  
  30. ^ "My Son Sanctuary".  
  31. ^ "Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park".  
  32. ^ "Prambanan Temple Compounds".  
  33. ^ "Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park".  
  34. ^ "Pyu Ancient Cities".  
  35. ^ "Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras".  
  36. ^ 15th session 2001, pp. 139–141
  37. ^ "Sangiran Early Man Site".  
  38. ^ "Temple of Preah Vihear".  
  39. ^ "Thungyai-Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuaries".  
  40. ^ "Town of Luang Prabang".  
  41. ^ "Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra".  
  42. ^ "Danger listing for Indonesia's Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra".  
  43. ^ "Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park".  
  44. ^ "Decision - 33COM 8B.3 - Natural properties - Extension of properties already inscribed on the World Heritage List - Tubbataha Reef Marine Park (Philippines)".  
  45. ^ "Ujung Kulon National Park".  
  46. ^ "Vat Phou and Associated Ancient Settlements within the Champasak Cultural Landscape".  
  47. ^ "Trang An Landscape Complex".  
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