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10th Indian Infantry Division

The 10th Indian Infantry Division was a war formed infantry division of the Indian Army during World War II. In four years, the division traveled over 4,000 miles (6,400 km) from Tehran to Trieste, fought three little wars, and fought two great campaigns: Anglo-Iraqi War, Invasion of Syria-Lebanon, Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, North African Campaign, and Italian Campaign.

Contents

  • History 1
    • World War II 1.1
  • Order of Battle in World War II 2
    • Division troops 2.1
    • 10th Indian Infantry Brigade (from September 1942) 2.2
    • 20th Indian Infantry Brigade 2.3
    • 21st Indian Infantry Brigade (until June 1942) 2.4
    • 25th Indian Infantry Brigade 2.5
    • 43rd Independent Gurkha Infantry Brigade 2.6
    • Support Units 2.7
  • Assigned brigades 3
  • General Officers Commanding 4
  • Sources 5
  • Notes 6

History

World War II

The 10th Indian Infantry Division was formed in World War II in Iraq in early 1941 under Major-General W.A.K. Fraser. Command was passed in May 1941 to Major General William "Bill" Slim when Fraser fell ill.

As part of Iraqforce, the division first fought in Iraq, in Syria, and in Iran against forces potentially barring the road from Europe to India.

In March 1942 command of the division passed from Major General Slim to Major General T.W. "Pete" Rees when Slim was ordered to India to take command of Burma Corps, the kernel that would eventually become the British Fourteenth Army.[2]

The division then moved on to North Africa for the battle for Libya. Initially the division was committed piecemeal with units involved El Adem and Sidi Rezegh during the 1942 Battle of Gazala. In June the division, with 2nd Free French Brigade under command, was ordered by William Gott, the XIII Corps commander, to hold a position near the Egyptian border with Libya for 72 hours during the British Eighth Army's retreat to El Alamein. Rees responded that the division had only just concentrated and that defensive works were as yet inadequate. He believed therefore that the division was unlikely to be able to withstand a full-scale attack from Rommel. Gott immediately visited Rees and relieved him of command of the division, telling him he lacked resolution.[3] Command passed to Major General John Nichols and as Rees had foretold, the division was overrun at the Mersa Matruh defenses. Rees was posted to command 19th Indian Infantry Division in the Burma Campaign.

The division then went to Cyprus for regrouping and hill training under Major-General Alan Bruce Blaxland and then to Iraq to join Tenth Army, part of Paiforce. In July 1943, Major General Wilfrid Lloyd took command when Blaxland was promoted and in January 1944, command passed to Major General Denys Reid when Lloyd was killed in an air crash. Reid remained in command until the end of British involvement in the division in 1947.

After nearly a year of relative inactivity and training, the 10th Indian Infantry Division was sent in March 1944 to Italy to join the British Eighth Army on the Adriatic front. The division fought the rest of the Italian Campaign, facing hard fighting northwards through central Italy with the Eighth Army. Numerous mountain battles and river crossings followed with Operation Olive on the Gothic Line and then Operation Grapeshot. The division earned many battle honours and decorations and suffered many casualties before final victory in Italy in May 1945. Security tasks on the Yugoslav border around Trieste completed the Division's war service.

Order of Battle in World War II

Division troops

Commanders Royal Artillery: Brigadier R.P. Waller (to August 1942); Brigadier W.R. Goodman March 1943 onwards)
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