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Benigno Ramos

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Title: Benigno Ramos  
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Subject: Filipino activists, Writers from Bulacan, Filipino revolutionaries, 1940s deaths, Filipino poets
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Benigno Ramos

See Pugad Baboy for the Filipino comic character Igno who shares this name.
Benigno Ramos
Born February 11, 1893
Bulacan, Bulacan, Philippines
Died unknown (possibly 1946 according to most sources)
Nationality  Philippines
Occupation author, writer, politician
Known for Advocate for the independence of the Philippines from the United States, author, writer, founder of Makapili, Sakdalista, GANAP party, Sakdal Party

Benigno "Ben Ruben" Ramos (1893―1946?) was a Filipino author, writer, organization founder, politician and was an advocate for the independence of the Philippines from the United States who collaborated with Japan.

Educated in Bulacan, Ramos went to work there as a teacher.[1] Later, whilst based in Manila, he entered the civil service and by 1928 had risen to a high position with the Senate Staff. He became a member of the Nacionalista Party and a close associate of Manuel L. Quezon but this came to an end in 1930 when he joined a wildcat strike by teachers in the capital, causing Quezon to demand his resignation. Ramos did so but became a figure of anti-Quezon agitation, setting up a Tagalog language newspaper Sakdal which gained a wide circulation in rural areas.[2]

Ramos reconstituted his followers as the Sakdalista movement. Gaining as many as 20,000 members the group launched an attempted uprising in May 1935 but this was quickly crushed and Ramos went into exile in Japan.[3]

Ramos returned to Manila on August 28, 1938 on board the German passenger ship Gneisenau.[4] He became leader of the Ganap Party which contested the 1941 elections (although Ramos himself was imprisoned during the vote).[5] During the Japanese occupation this group became part of the KALIBAPI governing coalition, whilst Ramos formed the Makapili, a militant youth movement that aimed to limit the power of José P. Laurel and to provide soldiers for Japan.[6] The followers of Ramos and his ally Artemio Ricarte were eventually armed by the Japanese in December 1944 by which time the Americans had already landed.

Accounts differ on what happened to Ramos after the fall of the Philippines; some claim that he was killed in an airplane crash in Baguio along with the retreating Japanese.

As well as his political activism, Ramos was also noted as a writer of poetry with a collection Mga Agam-agam at Iba Pang Tula due for publication.[7]


  1. ^ David R. Sturtevant, 'Sakdalsim and Philippine Radicalism', Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 21, No. 2. (Feb., 1962), p.201
  2. ^ Sturtevant, op cit
  3. ^ Philippines Resistance Movements
  4. ^ Grant K. Goodman, 'Review of Origins of the Philippine Republic. Extracts from the Diaries and Records of Francis Burton Harrison by Francis Burton Harrison and Michael P. Onorato', Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 34, No. 3. (May, 1975), p. 864
  5. ^ 'Bedroom Campaign' from Time, November 24, 1941
  6. ^ Jovito Salonga, 'A tribute to Dr. Jose P. Laurel'
  7. ^ Link to publication of Ramos' poetry book
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