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Burmese Martyrs' Day

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Title: Burmese Martyrs' Day  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: History of Myanmar, Ko Htwe, Ohn Maung, Mahn Ba Khaing, Thakin Mya
Collection: Burmese Culture, Fixed Holidays, History of Myanmar, July Observances
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Burmese Martyrs' Day

Martyrs' Day
အာဇာနည်နေ့
Observed by Myanmar
Type National holiday
Date 19 July
Next time 19 July 2016 (2016-07-19)
Frequency annual

Martyrs' Day (Burmese: အာဇာနည်နေ့, pronounced: ) is a Burmese national holiday observed on 19 July to commemorate Gen. Aung San and seven other leaders of the pre-independence interim government—Thakin Mya, Ba Cho, Abdul Razak, Ba Win, Mahn Ba Khaing, Sao San Tun and Ohn Maung—all of whom were assassinated on that day in 1947. It is customary for high-ranking government officials to visit the Martyrs' Mausoleum in Yangon in the morning of that day to pay respects.

Myoma U Than Kywe led the ceremony of the First Burmese Martyrs' Day on July 20, 1947 in Rangoon.[1]

Contents

  • History 1
  • Commemorations 2
    • Poem for Martyr's Day 2.1
  • See also 3
  • Notes 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

History

On July 19, 1947, at approximately 10:37 a.m., BST, several of Burma's independence leaders were gunned down by a group of armed men in uniform while they were holding a cabinet meeting at the Secretariat in downtown Yangon. The assassinations were planned by a rival political group, and the leader and alleged mastermind of that group Galon U Saw, together with the perpetrators, were tried and convicted by a special tribunal presided by Kyaw Myint with two other Barristers-at-law, Aung Thar Gyaw and Si Bu. In a judgment given on 30 December 1947 the tribunal sentenced U Saw and a few others to death and the rest were given prison sentences.

Appeals to the High Court of Burma by U Saw and his accomplices were rejected on 8 March 1948. In a judgment written by Supreme Court Justice E Maung (1898–1977) on 27 April 1948, the Supreme Court refused leave to appeal against the original judgment. (All the judgments of the tribunal, the High Court, and the Supreme Court were written in English.[note 1]

Then-President of Burma Sao Shwe Thaik refused to pardon or commute the sentences of most of those who were sentenced to death, and U Saw was hanged inside Rangoon's Insein jail on 8 May 1948. A number of perpetrators met the same fate, while minor players, who were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment, also spent several years in prison.

The assassinated were:[2]

  1. Aung San, Prime Minister
  2. Ba Cho, Minister of Information
  3. Mahn Ba Khaing, Minister of Industry
  4. Ba Win, Minister of Trade
  5. Thakin Mya, Minister of Home Affairs
  6. Abdul Razak, Minister of Education and National Planning
  7. Sao San Tun, Minister of Hills Regions
  8. Ohn Maung, Deputy Minister of Transport
  9. Ko Htwe, Razak's bodyguard

Tin Tut, Minister of Finance, and Kyaw Nyein, Minister of Home affairs, were not present at the meeting,so they were not in the list of casualties.U Nu who later became the Prime minister of Burma took a leave of absence from the office due to minor illness . One of the assassins namely Ba Nyunt came to his office but U Nu was not there. So U Nu also escaped the assassination. Many Burmese believe that the British were somehow involved in the assassination plot; two British officers were also arrested at the time and one of them charged and convicted for supplying an agent of U Saw with arms and munitions. A large part of the stockpile, which was enough to equip a small army, was recovered from a lake next to U Saw's house in the immediate aftermath of the shooting.[3]

Soon after the assassinations, Major General Sir Hubert Rance, the last British Governor of Burma, appointed U Nu to head an interim administration and when Burma became independent on 4 January 1948, Nu became the first Prime Minister of Burma. July 19 was designated a public holiday known as Martyr's Day.

Commemorations

Poem for Martyr's Day

Aung San Zarni

Born on February 13 was he
Born in 1915, son of Lawyer U Hpa
Of Natmauk, in Magwe District
Mother's name was Daw Suu
The year 1947 died he
On July 19 everyone wept
He is the cause of our Independence
He is the father of this nation.
The blessings he had given us, the words he had uttered ...
How can we ever take
those out of our minds ...

အောင်ဆန်းဇာနည်
ဖေဖေါ်ဝါရီ ဆယ့်သုံး မှာ
ဗိုလ်ချုပ်မွေးနေ့ပါ၊
တစ်ထောင့်ကိုးရာတစ်ဆယ့်ငါး
ရှေ့နေ ဦးဖာသား၊
ဇာတိ နတ်မောက် မကွေးခရိုင်
သိကြများ ခုတိုင်၊
ကြံ့ကြံ့ခိုင်လို့ ဇာနည်ဘွား
မိခင်ဒေါ်စုသား၊
တစ်ထောင့်ကိုးရာလေးဆယ့်ခွန်
ပြောင်းကြွ တမလွန်၊
မျက်ရည်သွန်လို့ ဘဝင်ညှိုး
ဇူလိုင် တစ်ဆယ့်ကိုး။
ပြည်ထောင်စုရဲ့ ကျေးဇူးရှင်
ဗိုလ်ချုပ် တို့ဖခင်၊
ကောင်းစေချင်တဲ့ မှာစကား
ငါတို့ မမေ့အား။

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The judgment of the tribunal can be read in A Trial in Burma by Dr Maung Maung (Martinus Njhoff, 1963), and the judgment of the High Court and Supreme Court can be read in the 1948 Burma Law Reports.

References

  1. ^ File:Myoma U Than Kywe and Burmese Martyrs' Day (1).JPG
  2. ^ "63rd Anniversary of Martyrs' Day Held at the Martyrs' Mausoleum, Yangon". Bi-Weekly Eleven (in Burmese) 3 (13). 2010-07-23. 
  3. ^ "Who Killed Aung San?, an interview with Gen. Kyaw Zaw".  

External links

  • Who Really Killed Aung San? BBC documentary on YouTube, July 19, 1997
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