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Closed list

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Title: Closed list  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: List of legislatures by country, Table of voting systems by country, Party-list proportional representation, Approval voting, Borda count
Collection: Party-List Pr
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Closed list


Closed list describes the variant of party-list proportional representation where voters can (effectively) only vote for political parties as a whole and thus have no influence on the party-supplied order in which party candidates are elected. If voters have at least some influence then it is called an open list.

In closed list systems, each political party has pre-decided who will receive the seats allocated to that party in the elections, so that the candidates positioned highest on this list tend to always get a seat in the parliament while the candidates positioned very low on the closed list will not.

However, the candidates "at the water mark" of a given party are in the position of either losing or winning their seat depending on the number of votes the party gets. "The water mark" is the number of seats a specific party can be expected to achieve. The number of seats that the party wins, combined with the candidates' positions on the party's list, will then determine whether a particular candidate will get a seat.

List of locations with closed list proportional representation

(Countries that have electoral systems that are only partly closed list i.e. mixed-member proportional representation have been excluded.)

Criticism

Voting systems using a closed list employ a listing of candidates selected by the party. Whoever controls this list is in a crucial power-brokering role. Members (candidates) elected from the list are essentially in thrall to the list maker—their political survival depends on

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