World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Hawaiian tropical dry forests

Article Id: WHEBN0021549777
Reproduction Date:

Title: Hawaiian tropical dry forests  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Hawaiian hibiscus, Lāna'i hookbill, ʻAkiapolaʻau, Palila, Metrosideros polymorpha
Collection: Ecoregions of Hawaii, Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Hawaiian tropical dry forests

Hawaiian tropical dry forests
Biome Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests
Borders Hawaiian tropical low shrublands, Hawaiian tropical rainforests and Hawaiian tropical high shrublands[1]
Area 6,600 km2 (2,500 sq mi)
Country United States (Hawaii)
Conservation status Critical/Endangered[2]
Global 200 Yes[3]

The Hawaiian tropical dry forests are a tropical dry broadleaf forest ecoregion in the Hawaiian Islands. They cover an area of 6,600 km2 (2,500 sq mi) on the leeward side of the main islands and the summits of Niʻihau and Kahoʻolawe. These forests are either seasonal or sclerophyllous.[2] Annual rainfall is less than 127 cm (50 in) and may be as low as 25 cm (9.8 in);[4] the rainy season lasts from November to March.[5] Dominant tree species include koa (Acacia koa), koaiʻa (A. koaia), ʻakoko (Euphorbia spp.), ʻōhiʻa lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), lonomea (Sapindus oahuensis), māmane (Sophora chrysophylla), loulu (Pritchardia spp.), lama (Diospyros sandwicensis), olopua (Nestegis sandwicensis), wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis), and ʻiliahi (Santalum spp.). Endemic plant species in the dry forests include hau heleʻula (Kokia cookei), uhiuhi (Caesalpinia kavaiensis), and Gouania spp. The Palila (Loxioides bailleui), a Hawaiian honeycreeper, is restricted to this type of habitat.[2]


  • Prehistoric dry forests 1
  • Maui 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Prehistoric dry forests

The plant composition of Hawaii's dry forests has changed rather dramatically since the arrival of Polynesians, excluding the deliberate introduction of non-native species.[5] Fossilized pollen has shown that loulu (Pritchardia spp.) forests with an understory of Ka palupalu o Kanaloa (Kanaloa kahoolawensis) and ʻaʻaliʻi (Dodonaea viscosa) existed on the islands' leeward lowlands[6] from at least before 1210 B.C. until 1565 A.D. Populations of loulu and ʻaʻaliʻi still exist in diminished form, while only two Ka palupalu o Kanaloa specimens have ever been seen in the wild.[7]


Auwahi Dryland Forest

The Auwahi Dryland Forest Restoration Project has produced a substantial forest on the slopes of Haleakala on the island of Maui.

See also


  1. ^ "Hawaii Tropical Dry Forests". Bioimages. Vanderbilt University. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  2. ^ a b c "Hawaii tropical dry forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  3. ^ Olson, David M.; Eric Dinerstein (2002). "The Global 200: Priority Ecoregions for Global Conservation" (PDF). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89: 199–224.  
  4. ^ World Wildlife Fund (2001). "Hawaii tropical dry forests". WildWorld Ecoregion Profile. National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 2010-03-08. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  5. ^ a b "The Hawaiian Islands". Tropical Dry Forests of the Pacific. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  6. ^ James, Helen F.; Johnathan P. Prince (May 2008). "Integration of palaeontological, historical, and geographical data on the extinction of koa-finches". Diversity & Distributions 14 (3): 441–451.  
  7. ^ Bohm, Bruce A. i"ʻ"Rare Delights in Hawai. Floridata. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 

External links

  • Medeiros, A. C.; C.F. Davenport; C.G. Chimera (1998). "Auwahi: Ethnobotany of a Hawaiian Dryland Forest" ( 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.