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Title: Jhelum  
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Subject: Jhelum, Rawalpindi railway station, History of Jhelum, Lahore Junction railway station, Jhelum District
Collection: Ancient Greek Sites in Pakistan, Jhelum
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Nickname(s): City of Soldiers
Land of Martyrs and Warriors
Map of Jhelum City
Map of Jhelum City
Jhelum جہلم is located in Pakistan
Location within Pakistan
Coordinates: [1]
Country Pakistan
Province Punjab
Union Council 17 UC
 • Total 22.5 km2 (8.7 sq mi)
Elevation[2] 233 m (768 ft)
Population (1998)
 • Total 145,847
 • Density 6,500/km2 (17,000/sq mi)
Time zone PKT (UTC+5)
Postal code 49600
Dialling code 0544

Jhelum (Urdu, Punjabi: جہلم) (Greek: Alexandria Bucephalous) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River, in the district of the same name in the north of Punjab province, Pakistan. Jhelum is known for providing a large number of soldiers to the British Army[3] before independence and later to the Pakistan armed forces due to which it is also known as city of soldiers or land of martyrs and warriors.[4][5] Jhelum is a few miles upstream from the site of the Battle of the Hydaspes between the armies of Alexander of Macedonia and Raja Porus. A city called Bucephala was founded nearby to commemorate the death of Alexander's horse, Bucephalus. Other notable sites nearby include the 16th-century Rohtas Fort, the Tilla Jogian complex of ancient temples, and the 16th-century Grand Trunk Road which passes through the city. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the population of Jhelum was 145,647[6] and in 2012 its population is 188,803.[6] The name of the city is derived from the words Jal (pure water) and Ham (snow), as the river that flows through the river originates in the Himalayas.[7] There are a number of industries in and around Jhelum city, including a tobacco factory, wood, marble, glass and flour mills.[8]


  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
    • Ancient 2.1
    • Medieval 2.2
    • Later Periods 2.3
    • British Raj 2.4
    • Independence 2.5
  • Administration 3
  • Demography 4
  • City 5
  • Geography and climate 6
    • Major floods 6.1
  • Important sites 7
  • Travel and tourism 8
    • Local 8.1
    • National 8.2
    • Railway 8.3
    • Air 8.4
  • Telecommunication 9
  • Sports 10
  • Education 11
    • Higher and technical education 11.1
    • Universities 11.2
  • Hospitals 12
  • Major industries 13
  • Notable people 14
  • Gallery 15
  • See also 16
  • References 17
  • External links 18


Anjum Sultan Shahbaz recorded some stories of the name Jhelum in his book Tareekh-e-Jhelum as:[9]

  • Jhelum travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Jhelum District Official Portal
  • Jhelum Police Website
  • TMA Jhelum Website
  • Punjab Government website (Jhelum Profile)

External links

  1. ^ "Location of Jhelum – Falling Rain Genomics". Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  2. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Jhelum, Pakistan". Weatherbase. 2008. 
  3. ^ John Pike. "Dominated Recruitment". Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  4. ^ Shoaib, Syed (17 June 2009). "City of Soldiers". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  5. ^ "AAJ NEWS Report (City of martyrs and warriors)". 10 February 2009. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  6. ^ a b c
  7. ^ The District Jhelum
  8. ^ "Tehsil Municipal Administration Jhelum – Industries of Jhelum". Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  9. ^ Tareekh-e-Jhelum, page 92 by Anjum Sultan Shahbaz
  10. ^ The District Jhelum
  11. ^ Encyclopaedia of Ancient Indian Geography – Subodh Kapoor. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  12. ^<
  13. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri, v. 8, 20, 29; Curtius Rufus, Historiae Alexandri Magni, viii. 12–14, ix. 1, x. 1
  14. ^ a b "Jhelum District Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 14, p. 152". Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  15. ^  
  16. ^ Diodorus, Bibliotheca, xvii. 90
  17. ^ The Tribes and Castes of Bombay: Ill – Reginald E. Enthoven. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  18. ^ "Biography of Abdur Rahim Khankhana". Retrieved 2006-10-28. 
  19. ^ ^ a b c Robert L. Canfield, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 20: "The Mughals – Persianized Turks who invaded from Central Asia and claimed descent from both Timur and Genghis – strengthened the Persianate culture of Muslim India"
  20. ^ a b 'Imperial Gazetteer of India'', v. 14, p. 159-160"'". Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  21. ^ The London Gazette, 19 May 1858
  22. ^ "Tehsils & Unions in the District of Jhelum – Government of Pakistan". Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  23. ^ "Jhelum City". Retrieved 2010-09-19. 
  24. ^ "Population growth rate". Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  25. ^ "Census of India, 1901;, v. 17, p. 283". India Census Commissioner. Retrieved 6 October 2015. 
  26. ^ a b
  27. ^ "District Profile". Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  28. ^ "University of Gujrat". 3 March 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  29. ^ Gujranwala Business Center
  30. ^ a b "Jhelum Climate Normals 1961–1990".  
  31. ^ Annual weather report of Jhelum
  32. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Jhelum, Pakistan". Weatherbase. 2015. Retrieved 13 October 2015. 
  33. ^
  34. ^ Mangla View Resort
  35. ^ Daewoo Express Bus Service
  36. ^ PTCL EVO
  37. ^ LinkdotNET
  38. ^ Jhelum River View Golf Club
  39. ^ Jang News report(District Cricket Stadium, Jhelum)
  40. ^ School Directory of PUNJAB (Jhelum)
  41. ^ Technical education in Jhelum
  42. ^ Punjab University NewsLetter
  43. ^ VU Jhelum campuses
  44. ^ Types of Health Facilities report in Jhelum
  45. ^ Medical facilities in Jhelum
  46. ^ TMA Jhelum (Industries)


See also


Notable people

Some of the major industries are:[46]

Pakistan Tobacco Company Jhelum

Major industries

. Combined Military Hospital Jhelum One such hospital is the [45] in the area which include the hospital in the cantonment area of the city managed by the [44] Jhelum has some of the largest hospitals

AlKhadim Memorial Hospital
DHQ Civil Hospital Jada Jhelum


Jhelum also has two sub-campuses of the Virtual University of Pakistan, Virtual University Campus at Civil Lines opposite city Church and other one is Private Virtual Campus namely Wings Institute of Learning.[43] Virtual University of Pakistan inaugurated its own Campus in Jhelum in March 2012; VU Jhelum Campus has started its vital role to educate people of Jhelum within their affordability. It is located in the middle of the city in a beautiful building. VU Jhelum Campus is well equipped, neat and organised campus. To facilitate the students, all sort of academics programs are offered at the campus. Students can continue their study without any power cut and internet issue. It is the place where students get prepared for their promising career and meet their respective course fellows.

The University of the Punjab has also established a campus in Jhelum offering programs related to business, commerce, law, and computer science. The new undergraduate and postgraduate degree programs are due to commence soon. The literacy rate of Jhelum is high in comparison to other cities of the Punjab. 65 kanals of land was allocated to establish this campus by Government of Punjab.[42]


Air School System is an Independent Education System that follows National Curriculum in accordance with Federal Ministry of Education and is registered as a Private Limited Company under the Companies Ordinance 1984. Air Foundation School System carries Trade Mark under the Ordinance 2001/Act 1940, Government of Pakistan. AFSS is ISO 9001 – 2000 certified by Moody International.

In technical education there are three technical colleges, Government Institute of Technology (Chak Daulat), Government Vocational Institute for Women (Civil Lines Jhelum) and Government Technical Training Institute.[41]

Higher and technical education

Jhelum has six Degree Colleges for Women, six Degree Colleges for Men, six Co-education Colleges, six Commerce Colleges, one Law College, numerous higher secondary schools and over 150 high schools.[40]

Govt. College GT Road Jhelum


These events are usually sponsored by the UK and foreign based Pakistani diaspora.

Besides the mainstream sports like football, cricket, hockey, and squash, a lot of other sports are also played in the rural areas around the city. These, which are equally popular, include tent pegging, volleyball, stone-lifting and Kabaddi. Thousands of people flock to these local grand sporting events as keenly as the average sports fan anywhere in the world.

There is also a Cricket + football Stadium Zamir Jaffri Cricket Stadium where District level tournaments are held. In October 2008, Pakistan Cricket Board upgraded this stadium for Regional events.[39]

Located within the city is a golf course called the River-View Golf Club,[38] where national golf tournaments are held regularly.

Horse and rider in action
Cricket Stadium Jhelum


Jhelum Networks is providing WiFi and cable internet services throughout the district. Different Cellular Networks are also Providing 3G internet in city Jhelum.


The nearest airport is the Islamabad International Airport, which is approximately 110 km by road from Jhelum. The Sialkot International Airport, is approximately 100 km by road from Jhelum. A small airport called Mangla Airport, located near Dina, is in use of the aviation wing of the Pakistan Army.


The Jhelum Railway Station was built in 1928 during British rule before the independence of Pakistan. It was connected by the North-Western Railway to other cities in the Indian empire. Jhelum is on main line of Pakistan Railways, and linked to whole country through Railway line across Pakistan. Many of the railway lines and bridges were designed and constructed by exceptionally hardworking engineers during the British time and after independence in railway workshop Jhelum.

Jhelum Railway Station


Regular bus and van services are available within Jhelum District. It includes important towns and villages such as: buses from Jhelum to Pind Dadan Khan, Dina, Sohawa, Lilla, Nakka Khurd, Chakri Rajgan Khalaspur, Pind Sawika, Bair Faqiran- Green Hills Village) Nagyal, Sanghoi, Mangla Cantt, Nara, Domeli, Darapur, Jalalpur Sharif and many more, while vans go from Jhelum to Sanghoi, Wagh, Dina, Kharian, Sarai Alamgir, Chak Jamal, Chak Doulat, Mughalabad, Boken, Dhanyala and many other destinations as well as Baragowah.

Daewoo Express Bus Service and other bus services operate from the city to the entire country.[35] There is a regular bus/Hiace service available running from early hours of the morning to late in the night. Daily routes include Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore, Gujrat, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Mandi Bahauddin, Sargodha, Chakwal, Mirpur and Faisalabad.

Bus Stand Jhelum


Auto Rickshaws are a popular mode of transport for short routes within the city. Many of the new rickshaws in the city use Compressed natural gas (CNG) instead of the petrol engines as CNG is environmentally clean and cheaper than petrol. Rickshaws are another important mode of transportation. The older horse drawn tongas are now defunct although some can still be privately commissioned. Taxis and privately commissioned small passenger carrying vans are available.


The lawn of Tulip Riverside Hotel

Travel and tourism

Rasul Barrage is located on the Jhelum River about 30 km downstream from Jhelum. Two major water canals originate at the Rasul barrage, Rasul-Qadirabad link canal which is also called Lower-Jhelum link canal and Rasul-Shahpur branch canal. The area around the Rasul Barrage lake is also a picnic spot.

The Mangla Dam is located on the Jhelum River about 30 km (19 mi) from Jhelum, it is the twelfth largest dam in the world. It was constructed in 1967 across the Jhelum River. There is the Mangla View Resort[34] that is the first planned resort development in Pakistan to offer residences, villas, townhouses, hotels, serviced apartments & retail outlets. The resort is located on a 340-acre (1.4 km2) site on the Mangla Dam area.

Lehri Nature Park is located 10 kilometers away from G. T. Road between Jhelum and Islamabad, it is 30 kilometers from Jhelum and 90 kilometers from Islamabad in the hilly Pothohar region.

Mangla Dam Water Reservoir

Located in the cantonment area is the St. John's Church Jhelum which was built in 1860. There was a local stadium near Gul Afshan Colony which was changed to a cricket stadium named Zamir Jaffri Cricket Stadium. Altaf Park which was constructed in 1994–95 is in a very close proximity of Cricket Stadium. Nearly 100 m from Shandar Chowk, in the center of city, is Major Akram Shaheed Memorial Park. Major Muhammad Akram Memorial Library is also present in this park. This is also a site of a parade which takes place every year on 6 September at the occasion of Defence Day.

The old city has a fascinating labyrinth of narrow streets and crowded bazaars. Opposite to the CMH Jhelum Cantt is located the beautiful mosque of the city, CMH Masjid Jhelum.


Akram Shaheed Library
Front view of Melange super Market

Important sites

The biggest floods in Jhelum in recent years were in 1992. Jhelum city and surrounding areas were almost completely submerged under flood waters.[33]

Major floods

Climate data for Jhelum, Punjab
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.1
Average high °C (°F) 19.7
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.3
Average low °C (°F) 5.0
Record low °C (°F) −0.6
Average rainfall mm (inches) 33.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 212.8 202.9 225.3 256.8 312.7 284.7 247.0 243.6 257.0 287.5 251.9 215.3 2,997.5
Source: NOAA (1961–1990)[30]
Climate data for Jhelum, Pakistan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19
Average low °C (°F) 4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 35
Source: Weatherbase 2015[32]

Over the years, global climate change has affected Jhelum as well as any other place on Earth and below comparison charts from Weatherbase and NOAA show the difference in rainfall between 1990 and 2015:

Jhelum has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) and is extremely hot and humid in summer, and cold and generally dry in winter. The maximum recorded temperature in the pre-monsoon season of April to June is 49.2 °C (120.6 °F), whereas in winter the minimum temperature recorded is −0.6 °C (30.9 °F).[30] Average annual rainfall is about 850 millimetres (33 in) which is much below the required quantity given the extremely high evaporation levels. Nevertheless, in the rainy season water torrents flow from the north to Jhelum River very rapidly and cause damage to the crops, bridges, roads. This is responsible for the soil erosion in the district.[31]

Lying at 32°56′ North latitude and 73°44′ East longitude, Jhelum is located just 1-hour and 30 minutes drive from the Capital of Pakistan Islamabad, and 3 hours drive from the heart of Punjab Lahore. Jhelum is linked with these cities through the National Highway N-5. Several cities are within 1 to 2 hours drive including Gujrat (home to fan manufacturing),[28] Gujranwala,[29] Chakwal and Mirpur, Azad Kashmir.

Geography and climate

The main market area of Jhelum is centred around "Shandar Chowk", "GTS Chowk", "Muhammadi Chowk" and includes "Main Bazaar", "Naya Bazaar", "Raja Bazaar", "Kinari Bazaar", "Sarafa Bazaar", "Chowk-Ehl-e-Hadith" and Soldier Arcade. Some of the main roads of Jhelum City are Civil Line, Railway Road, Old GT Road, Kucheri Road, Iqbal Road and Rohtas Road. A cantonment was built during the British rule, which has now been upgraded into a strong Garrison, with an Infantry Division commanded by a Major General.

During the past few years, the city has experienced rapid expansion and it has now become a vibrant economic and cultural center. The old city has narrow streets and crowded bazaars.

Gumbad wali Masjid
Shabir plaza Shandar Chowk


The literacy rate of Jhelum is among the highest in Pakistan. At 79%, it is only lower than that of Islamabad and neighbouring Rawalpindi.[26] Somewhat higher than the literacy in Punjab province (58 percent).[26] The literacy rate has remarkably increased from 38.9 percent in 1981. The rate is much higher in the urban areas for both males and females. 84% of the population have electricity and 96% have access to water.[27] Human Development Index of Jhelum is 0.770, which is highest in Pakistan after Karachi.

The Mughals, Arain, Gujjars, Panhwar, Gakhars, Janjua, Awan, Syed, Jat, Kashmiri, Kayani and Khokhar are among the tribes residing here.

The population of the Jhelum city is about 188,800(2012)[6] and it is the 32nd largest city of Pakistan with respect to population. Total area of city is about 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi). Population density is 261/km. Population Growth Rate is 1.51[24] which is very low as compared to other urban areas of Pakistan. The majority of the population i.e. 98.47 percent is Muslim. Among the minorities Christians are in majority sharing 1.36 percent in the district. As per the 1998 census of Pakistan, Punjabi is the dominant language (96.6 percent), while, other languages spoken in the district are Urdu (1.9 percent) and Pushto (1.2 percent). Inhabitants of Jhelum City speak a great variety of Punjabi dialects, major dialects spoken in the city are Majhi and Potohari.[25]


As well as being district capital, Jhelum city is also the headquarters of Jhelum Tehsil, the city of Jhelum is administratively subdivided into 7 Union Councils,[22] namely Jhelum-I, Jhelum-II, Jhelum-III, Jhelum-IV, Jhelum-V, Jhelum-VI and Jhelum-VII.

The River Jhelum below the bridge From Sarai Alamgir side


The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while Muslim refugees from India settled down in the Jhelum District.


During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, 35 British soldiers of the 24th Regiment of Foot were killed by the local resistance. Among the dead was Captain Francis Spring, the eldest son of Colonel William Spring.[21] A lectern inside St. John's Church shows the names of the soldiers. The church is located in Jhelum Cantonment beside the river Jhelum. It was built in 1860 and is a landmark of the city. It is a Protestant church and was in use during the British period. For forty years it remained closed. Now it has been renovated and re-opened.

Marble lectern in memory of 35 British soldiers
"The present town is of modern origin, the old town, which may have been the Bucephala of Alexander having been, on the left or opposite bank of the river. Under Sikh rule the place was quite unimportant, being mainly occupied by a settlement of boatmen, and at the time of annexation contained about 500 houses. It was then chosen as the site of a cantonment and as the headquarters of the civil administration. For some years it was the seat of the Commissioner of the Division, but in 1859 his headquarters were transferred to Rawalpindi. Under British rule, Jhelum has steadily advanced in prosperity; and is the entrepôt for most of the trade of the District, though, since the completion of the Sind-Sāgar branch of the North-Western Railway; the salt trade no longer passes through it. It is an important timber dépôt, the timber from the Kashmir forests which is floated down the river being collected here. A good deal of boat-building is carried on. The cantonment, which is 3 miles from the civil station, contains the church and post office. The normal strength of the garrison is one Native cavalry and four Native infantry regiments. The municipality was founded in 1867. During the ten years ending 1902–3 the receipts averaged Rs. 32,100, and the expenditure Rs, 31,900. Receipts and expenditure from cantonment funds in the same period averaged Rs. 31,900 and Rs. 6,100 respectively. The chief income of the municipality in 1903-4 was Rs. 34,200 chiefly from octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. 41,000. The town has two Anglo vernacular schools, a municipal high school, and a middle school maintained by the American Presbyterian Mission. Besides the civil hospital, the mission also maintains a hospital."[20]

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India:

During British rule, Jhelum was connected by the North-Western Railway to other cities in the Indian Empire, 1,367 miles from Calcutta, 1,413 from Bombay, and 849 from Karachi. The population according to the 1901 census of India was 14,951.[20]

British Raj

A Sikh-era fort in Jhelum City

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Jhelum District. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule. In 1849 Jhelum passed with the rest of the Sikh territories to the British. In 1857 the 14th Native Infantry stationed at Jhelum town mutinied, and displayed a vigorous defence against a force sent from Rawalpindi to disarm them, but decamped for the night following the action, with the main body being subsequently arrested by the Kashmiri authorities, into whose territory they had escaped.

Later Periods

With the collapse of the Mughal Empire after the death of Aurangzeb, the Durrani empire had occupied the plains but were quickly ousted by the Sikhs.

The Mughals were Persianized Turks who claimed descent from both Timur and Genghis Khan and strengthened the Persianate culture of Muslim India. Being very few in number, they adopted a policy of converting the local jats and Gakhars mandatory as recorded in the Baburnama.[18] Thus it is credited to the Mughals, who were largely responsible for the conversion of the jatts to Islam.[19]

In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin. In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region including Jhelum. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region.


The Rajputs, Jats and Ahirs,[11][12][13] who now hold the Salt Range and its northern plateau respectively, appear to have been the earliest inhabitants of Jhelum.[14] The history of Jhelum dates back to the semi-mythical period of the Mahabharata. Hindu tradition represents the nearby Salt Range as the refuge of the five Pandava brothers during the period of their exile. The next major point in the history of the district was the Battle of the Hydaspes between Alexander the Great and the local ruler, Porus. Abisares (or Abhisara;[15] in Greek Αβισαρης), called Embisarus (Eμ Oβισαρoς) by Diodorus,[16] was an Indian people king of abhira[17] descent beyond the river Hydaspes, whose territory lay in the mountains, sent embassies to Alexander the Great both before and after the conquest of Porus in 326 BC, although inclined to espouse the side of the latter. Alexander not only allowed him to retain his kingdom, but increased it, and on his death appointed his son as his successor. The Gakhars appear to represent an early wave of conquerors from the west, and who still inhabit a large tract in the mountain north to tilla range. Gakhars were the dominant race during the early Muslim era and they long continued to retain their independence, both in Jhelum itself and in the neighbouring district of Rawalpindi.[14]




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