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고려말/Корё маль
Native to Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan
Native speakers
unknown (220,000 cited 1989)
second-language speakers, largely ethnic Korean, in the tens of thousands
Hangul, Chesili
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Hangul 고려말
Hanja 高麗말
Revised Romanization Goryeomal
McCune–Reischauer Koryŏmal

Koryo-mar, Goryeomal or Koryŏmal (Hangul: 고려말; Russian: Корё маль; Standard Korean: 중앙아시아 한국어, literally Central Asian Korean language) is the dialect of the Korean language spoken by the Koryo-saram, ethnic Koreans in the former USSR. It is descended from the Hamgyŏng dialect. Koryo-saram often report difficulty understanding speakers of standard Korean; this may be compounded by the fact that the majority of Koryo-saram today use Russian and not Korean as their mother tongue.[1]


  • Orthography 1
  • Pedagogy 2
  • References 3
  • See also 4


The Koryo-saram do not generally use Koryo-mar as a literary language. Written Korean during Soviet period tended to follow the North Korean standard, while both Northern and Southern forms have occurred after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. However, some modern writers, most notably Lavrenti Son, have created plays and short stories in Koryo-mar, written using the Hangul alphabet.[2]

A movement for the latinization of Koryo-mar took place in the late 1930s, promoted by various government officials and linguists, but it did not have much success.[3]


Koryo-mar is not taught as a subject or used as the medium of instruction in any schools. The Korean language as taught in universities of the former USSR is that of North or South Korea, with instructors being native to or trained in one of those countries. In one instance, a South Korean professor tried to teach Koryo-mar at Almaty State University, but he did not achieve much success.[4]


  1. ^ Khan, Valeriy Sergeevich. "Koreans and the Poly-ethnic Environment in Central Asia: The Experience of Eurasianism". Seoul: Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2006-11-20. 
  2. ^ Kim, Phil. "Forced Deportation and Literary Imagination". Seoul: Academy of Korean Studies. Archived from the original on 2005-07-29. Retrieved 2006-11-20. 
  3. ^ Kim, German. "The History, Culture, and Language of Koryo Saram" (PDF). Seoul: Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies. Retrieved 2012-08-08. 
  4. ^ Kim, German. "Korean Diaspora in Kazakhstan: Question of Topical Problems for Minorities in Post-Soviet Space" (PDF). Almaty: Institute of Oriental Studies, National Academy of Sciences. 

See also

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