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Kshatriya, from (holder of) Kshatra (rule or authority), is one of the four varnas (social orders) of the Hindu society. Originally, the Sanskrit term Kshatriya belonged to the Aryan society wherein members organized themselves into 3 classes, viz., Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya.[1][2][3] However, the term Kshatriya is used to indicate second of the four great


Early Rigvedic tribal chiefdom

The administrative machinery of the Aryans in the Rig Vedic period functioned with the tribal chief.He was called Rajan and his position was not hereditary.We have traces of election of the king by the tribal assembly called Samiti.The Rajan protected the tribe and the cattle.Even women attended Samiti.Rajan was assisted by a priest,and the chief did not maintain any standing army.Though in the later period it appears to have risen as a class.Concept of fourfold Varna system was non existent.[5]

Later Vedic period

The later addition of the,hymn Purusha Sukta to the Rig-veda describes the mythical origins of the four Varnas. Some scholars consider the Purusha Sukta a late interpolation into the Rig-veda based on the neological character of the composition, as compared to the more archaic style of the vedic literature.[6] Since the vedic society was not organized based on varna,[7] the Purusha Sukta was supposedly composed in order to secure vedic sanction for the heredity caste scheme.[8] An alternate explanation is that the word 'Shudra' does not occur anywhere else in the Rig-veda except the Purusha Sukta, leading some scholars to believe the Purusha Sukta was a composition of the later Rig-vedic period itself to denote, legitimize and sanctify an oppressive and exploitative class structure that had already come into existence then.[9]

Although the Purusha Sukta uses the term Rajanya, not Kshatriya, it is considered the first instance where four social classes are mentioned for the first time together.[10] Usage of the term Rajanya possibly indicates the 'kinsmen of the rajan' (ie., kinsmen of the ruler) had emerged as a distinct social group then,[10] such that by the end of the vedic period, the term rajanya was replaced by kshatriya; where rajanya stresses kinship with the rajan and kshatriya denotes power over a specific domain.[10] The term Rajanya unlike the word Kshatriya essentially denoted the status within a lineage. Whereas Kshatra, means "ruling; one of the ruling order".[11]

Jaiswal points out the term Brahman rarely occurs in the Rig-veda with the exception of the Purusha Sukta and may not have been used for the priestly class.[10] Based on the authority of Panini, Patanjali, Katyayana and the MBH, Jayaswal believes that Rajanya was the name of a political people and that the Rajanyas were, therefore, a democracy (with an elected ruler).[12] Some examples were the Andhaka and Vrsni Rajanyas who followed the system of elected rulers.[10] Ram Sharan Sharma details how the central chief was elected by various clan chiefs or lineage chiefs with increasing polarization between the rajanyas (aristocracy helping the ruler) and the vis (peasants) leading to a distinction between the chiefs as a separate class (raja, rajanya, kshatra, kshatriya) on one hand and vis (clan peasantry) on the other hand.[13]

The term Kshatriya comes from Kshatra and implies temporal authority and power which was based less on being a successful leader in battle and more on the tangible power of laying claim to sovereignty over a territory, and symbolizing ownership over clan lands. This later gave rise to the idea of kingship.[14]

The later books find some reference to the word Rajanya though it was used to denote specific tribe or political authority, and the word Kshatriya was popular and denoted the ruling class. Later in the Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda there is a mention of a Rajanya requesting a place in a sacrifice from a Kshatriya, suggesting that they were by then lower in status. By Brahminical standards, Kshatirya is superior to Vedic Rajanya. It was a Brahmin authority that decided the status of the two.[15]

In the period of the Brahmanas there was ambiguity in the position of the varnas. In the Panchavimsha Brahmana (13,4,7), the Rajanya are placed first, followed by Brahmana then Vaishya. In Shatapatha Brahmana, the Kshatriya are placed first. In Shatapatha Brahmana the order is -- Brahmana, Vaishya, Rajanya, Shudra. The order of the brahmanical tradition -- Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra -- became fixed from the time of dharmasutras.[16]


In rituals, the nyagrodha (Ficus indica or India fig or banyan tree) danda, or staff, is assigned to the Kshatriya class. Along with a mantra, intended to impart physical vitality or 'ojas'.[17]

Kshatriya lineage

The Vedas do not mention Kshatriyas of any Vansha or lineage. The lineages of the Itihasa-Purana tradition[18] are: Suryavanshi (solar line);[18][19] and Chandravanshi (lunar line).[18][20] There are other lineages such as the Agnivanshi, of lesser myth in which an eponymous ancestor rises out of Agni (fire),[18][19] and Nagavanshi, claiming descent from the Nāgas.

See also


Further reading

  • Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. History and Culture of Indian People, The Vedic Age. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1996. pp. 313–314

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