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Notes

  1. ^ He was originally named Marcus Annius Catilius Severus (or perhaps Marcus Catilius Severus).[2] When he married he took the name Marcus Annius Verus,[3] and when he was named emperor, he was given the name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus.
  2. ^ Cassius Dio asserts that the Annii were near-kin of Hadrian, and that it was to these familial ties that they owed their rise to power.[12] The precise nature of these kinship ties is nowhere stated. One conjectural bond runs through Annius Verus (II). Verus' wife Rupilia Faustina was the daughter of the consular senator Libo Rupilius Frugi and an unnamed mother. It has been hypothesized Rupilia Faustina's mother was Matidia, who was also the mother (presumably through another marriage) of Vibia Sabina, Hadrian's wife.[13]
  3. ^ Farquharson dates his death to 130, when Marcus was nine.[20]
  4. ^ Birley amends the text of the HA Marcus from "Eutychius" to "Tuticius".[35]
  5. ^ Commodus was a known consumptive at the time of his adoption, so Hadrian may have intended Marcus' eventual succession anyway.[44]
  6. ^ The manuscript is corrupt here.[65]
  7. ^ Moderns have not offered as positive an assessment. His second modern editor, Niebhur, thought him stupid and frivolous; his third editor, Naber, found him contemptible.[82] Historians have seen him as a "pedant and a bore", his letters offering neither the running political analysis of a Cicero or the conscientious reportage of a Pliny.[83] Recent prosopographic research has rehabilitated his reputation, though not by much.[84]
  8. ^ Champlin notes that Marcus' praise of him in the Meditations is out of order (he is praised immediately after Diognetus, who had introduced Marcus to philosophy), giving him special emphasis.[104]
  9. ^ Although part of the biographer's account of Lucius is fictionalized (probably to mimic Nero, whose birthday Lucius shared[121]), and another part poorly compiled from a better biographical source,[122] scholars have accepted these biographical details as accurate.[123]
  10. ^ These name-swaps have proven so confusing that even the Historia Augusta, our main source for the period, cannot keep them straight.[138] The 4th-century ecclesiastical historian Eusebius of Caesarea shows even more confusion.[139] The mistaken belief that Lucius had the name "Verus" before becoming emperor has proven especially popular.[140]
  11. ^ There was, however, much precedent. The consulate was a twin magistracy, and earlier emperors had often had a subordinate lieutenant with many imperial offices (under Antoninus, the lieutenant had been Marcus). Many emperors had planned a joint succession in the past—Augustus planned to leave Gaius Caesar and Lucius Caesar as joint emperors on his death; Tiberius wished to have Gaius Caligula and Tiberius Gemellus do so as well; Claudius left the empire to Nero and Britannicus, imagining that they would accept equal rank—but all of these arrangements had ended in failure, either through premature death (Gaius and Lucius Caesar) or judicial murder (Gemellus by Caligula and Britannicus by Nero).[140]
  12. ^ The biographer relates the scurrilous (and, in the judgment of Anthony Birley, untrue) rumor that Commodus was an illegitimate child born of a union between Faustina and a gladiator.[152]
  13. ^ Because both Verus and Marcus are said to have taken active part in the recovery (HA Marcus 8.4–5), the flood must have happened before Verus' departure for the east in 162; because it appears in the biographer's narrative after Antoninus' funeral has finished and the emperors have settled into their offices, it must not have occurred in the spring of 161. A date in autumn 161 or spring 162 is probable, and, given the normal seasonal distribution of Tiber flooding, the most probable date is in spring 162.[169] (Birley dates the flood to autumn 161.[164])
  14. ^ Since 15 CE, the river had been administered by a Tiber Conservancy Board, with a consular senator at its head and a permanent staff. In 161, the curator alevi Tiberis et riparum et cloacarum urbis ("Curator of the Tiber Bed and Banks and the City Sewers") was A. Platorius Nepos, son or grandson of the builder of Hadrian's Wall, whose name he shares. He probably had not been particularly incompetent. A more likely candidate for that incompetence is Nepos' likely predecessor, M. Statius Priscus. A military man and consul for 159, Priscus probably looked on the office as little more than "paid leave".[171]
  15. ^ Alan Cameron adduces the 5th-century writer Sidonius Apollinaris's comment that Marcus commanded "countless legions" vivente Pio (while Pius was alive) while contesting Birley's contention that Marcus had no military experience. (Neither Apollinaris nor the Historia Augusta (Birley's source) are particularly reliable on 2nd-century history.[186])
  16. ^ Birley believes there is some truth in these considerations.[207]
  17. ^ The whole section of the vita dealing with Lucius' debaucheries (HA Verus 4.4–6.6), however, is an insertion into a narrative otherwise entirely cribbed from an earlier source. Most of the details are fabricated by the biographer himself, relying on nothing better than his own imagination.[213]
  18. ^ Champlin dates these letters to either summer 162 or early 165.[244]

Citations

All citations to the Historia Augusta are to individual biographies, and are marked with a "HA". Citations to the works of Fronto are cross-referenced to C.R. Haines' Loeb edition.

  1. ^ In Classical Latin, Aurelius' name would be inscribed as MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS.
  2. ^ Dio 69.21.1; HA Marcus 1.9; McLynn, 24.
  3. ^ Dio 69.21.1; HA Marcus 1.10; McLynn, 24.
  4. ^ a b Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 229–30. The thesis of single authorship was first proposed in H. Dessau's "Über Zeit und Persönlichkeit der Scriptoes Historiae Augustae" (in German), Hermes 24 (1889), 337ff.
  5. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 230. On the HA Verus, see Barnes, 65–74.
  6. ^ Mary Beard, "Was He Quite Ordinary?", London Review of Books 31:14 (23 July 2009), accessed 15 September 2009; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 226.
  7. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 227.
  8. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 228–29, 253.
  9. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 227–28.
  10. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 228.
  11. ^ HA Marcus 1.2, 1.4; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 28; McLynn, 14.
  12. ^ Dio 69.21.2, 71.35.2–3; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 31.
  13. ^ Codex Inscriptionum Latinarum 14.3579; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 29; McLynn, 14, 575 n. 53, citing Ronald Syme, Roman Papers 1.244.
  14. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 29; McLynn, 14.
  15. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 29, citing Pliny, Epistulae 8.18.
  16. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 30.
  17. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 49.
  18. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 31, 44.
  19. ^ a b Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 31.
  20. ^ Farquharson, 1.95–96.
  21. ^ Meditations 1.1, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 31.
  22. ^ HA Marcus 2.1 and Meditations 5.4, qtd. in Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 32.
  23. ^ Meditations 1.3, qtd. in Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 35.
  24. ^ Meditations 1.17.7, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 35.
  25. ^ a b Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 33.
  26. ^ Ad Marcum Caesarem 2.8.2 (= Haines 1.142), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 31.
  27. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 31–32.
  28. ^ Meditations 1.1, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 35.
  29. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 35.
  30. ^ Meditations 1.17.2; Farquharson, 1.102; McLynn, 23; cf. Meditations 1.17.11; Farquharson, 1.103.
  31. ^ McLynn, 20–21.
  32. ^ Meditations 1.4; McLynn, 20.
  33. ^ HA Marcus 2.2, 4.9; Meditations 1.3; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 37; McLynn, 21–22.
  34. ^ HA Marcus 2.6; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 38; McLynn, 21.
  35. ^ Birley, Later Caesars, 109, 109 n.8; Marcus Aurelius, 40, 270 n.27, citing Bonner Historia-Augusta Colloquia 1966/7, 39ff.
  36. ^ HA Marcus 2.3; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 40, 270 n.27.
  37. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 40, citing Aelius Aristides, Oratio 32 K; McLynn, 21.
  38. ^ Meditations 1.10; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 40; McLynn, 22.
  39. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 40, 270 n.28, citing A.S.L. Farquharson, The Meditations of Marcus Antoninus (Oxford, 1944) 2.453.
  40. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 41–42.
  41. ^ HA Hadrian 23.10, qtd. in Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 42.
  42. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 42. On the succession to Hadrian, see also: T.D. Barnes, "Hadrian and Lucius Verus", Journal of Roman Studies 57:1–2 (1967): 65–79; J. VanderLeest, "Hadrian, Lucius Verus, and the Arco di Portogallo", Phoenix 49:4 (1995): 319–30.
  43. ^ HA Hadrian 23.15–16; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 45; "Hadrian to the Antonines", 148.
  44. ^ Dio 69.17.1; HA Aelius 3.7, 4.6, 6.1–7; Birley, "Hadrian to the Antonines", 147.
  45. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 46. Date: Birley, "Hadrian to the Antonines", 148.
  46. ^ Dio 69.21.1; HA Hadrian 24.1; HA Aelius 6.9; HA Antoninus Pius 4.6–7; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 48–49.
  47. ^ HA Marcus 5.3; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 49.
  48. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 49–50.
  49. ^ HA Marcus 5.6–8, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 50.
  50. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 80–81.
  51. ^ Dio 69.22.4; HA Hadrian 25.5–6; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 50–51. Hadrian's suicide attempts: Dio 69.22.1–4; HA Hadrian 24.8–13.
  52. ^ HA Hadrian 25.7; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 53.
  53. ^ HA Antoninus Pius 5.3, 6.3; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 55–56; "Hadrian to the Antonines", 151.
  54. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 55; "Hadrian to the Antonines", 151.
  55. ^ HA Marcus 6.2; Verus 2.3–4; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 53–54.
  56. ^ Dio 71.35.5; HA Marcus 6.3; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 56.
  57. ^ Meditations 6.30, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 57; cf. Marcus Aurelius, 270 n.9, with notes on the translation.
  58. ^ a b HA Marcus 6.3; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 57.
  59. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 57, 272 n.10, citing Codex Inscriptionum Latinarum 6.32, 6.379, cf. Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae 360.
  60. ^ Meditations 5.16, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 57.
  61. ^ Meditations 8.9, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 57.
  62. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 57–58.
  63. ^ Ad Marcum Caesarem 4.7, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 90.
  64. ^ HA Marcus 6.5; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 58.
  65. ^ a b Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 89.
  66. ^ Ad Marcum Caesarem 5.1, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 89.
  67. ^ Ad Marcum Caesarem 4.8, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 89.
  68. ^ Dio 71.36.3; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 89.
  69. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 90–91.
  70. ^ HA Antoninus Pius 10.2, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 91.
  71. ^ Birley, Marcus Unko Aurelius, 91.
  72. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 61.
  73. ^ HA Marcus 3.6; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 62.
  74. ^ HA Marcus 2.4; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 62.
  75. ^ Alan Cameron, review of Anthony Birley's Marcus Aurelius, Classical Review 17:3 (1967): 347.
  76. ^ Vita Sophistae 2.1.14; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 63–64.
  77. ^ Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae 9.2.1–7; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 64–65.
  78. ^ Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae 19.12, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 65.
  79. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 65.
  80. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 67–68, citing E. Champlin, Fronto and Antonine Rome (1980), esp. chs. 3 and 4.
  81. ^ a b Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 65–67.
  82. ^ Champlin, Fronto, 1–2.
  83. ^ Ronald Mellor, review of Edward Champlin's Fronto and Antonine Rome, The American Journal of Philology 103:4 (1982): 460.
  84. ^ Cf., e.g.: Ronald Mellor, review of Edward Champlin's Fronto and Antonine Rome, The American Journal of Philology 103:4 (1982): 461 and passim.
  85. ^ a b Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 69.
  86. ^ Ad Marcum Caesarem 4.6 (= Haines 1.80ff), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 76.
  87. ^ Ad Marcum Caesarem 4.6 (= Haines 1.80ff); Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 76–77.
  88. ^ Ad Marcum Caesarem 3.10–11 (= Haines 1.50ff), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 73.
  89. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 73.
  90. ^ Champlin, "Chronology of Fronto", 138.
  91. ^ Ad Marcum Caesarem 5.74 ( =Haines 2.52ff), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 73.
  92. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 77. On the date, see Champlin, "Chronology of Fronto", 142, who (with Bowersock, Greek Sophists in the Roman Empire (1964), 93ff) argues for a date in the 150s; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 78–79, 273 n.17 (with Ameling, Herodes Atticus (1983), 1.61ff, 2.30ff) argues for 140.
  93. ^ Ad Marcum Caesarem 3.2 (= Haines 1.58ff), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 77–78.
  94. ^ Ad Marcum Caesarem 3.3 (= Haines 1.62ff); Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 78.
  95. ^ Ad Marcum Caesarem 3.3 (= Haines 1.62ff), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 79.
  96. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 80.
  97. ^ Ad Marcum Caesarem 4.13 (= Haines 1.214ff), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 93.
  98. ^ Ad Marcum Caesarem 4.3.1 (= Haines 1.2ff); Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 94.
  99. ^ HA Marcus 3.5–8, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 94.
  100. ^ Ad Marcum Caesarem 4.3, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 69.
  101. ^ De Eloquentia 4.5 (= Haines 2.74), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 95. Alan Cameron, in his review of Birley's biography (The Classical Review 17:3 (1967): 347), suggests a reference to chapter 11 of Arthur Darby Nock's Conversion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1933, rept. 1961): "Conversion to Philosophy".
  102. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 94, 105.
  103. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 95; Champlin, Fronto, 120.
  104. ^ Champlin, Fronto, 174 n. 12.
  105. ^ Ad Antoninum Imperator 1.2.2 (= Haines 2.36), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 95.
  106. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 94–95, 101.
  107. ^ Champlin, Fronto, 120.
  108. ^ Meditations 1.7, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 94–95.
  109. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 103.
  110. ^ Ad Marcum Caesarem 4.11 (= Haines 1.202ff), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 105.
  111. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 247 F.1.
  112. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 206–7.
  113. ^ Meditations 9.40, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 207.
  114. ^ Meditations 10.34, tr. Farquharson, 78, 224.
  115. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 107.
  116. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 107–8.
  117. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 108.
  118. ^ Inscriptiones Graecae ad Res Romanas pertinentes 4.1399, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 114.
  119. ^ a b Birley, 114.
  120. ^ HA Verus 2.9–11; 3.4–7; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 108.
  121. ^ Suetonius, Nero 6.1; HA Verus 1.8; Barnes, 67; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 158. See also: Barnes, 69–70; Pierre Lambrechts, "L'empereur Lucius Verus. Essai de réhabilitation" (in French), Antiquité Classique 3 (1934), 173ff.
  122. ^ Barnes, 66. Poorly compiled: e.g. Barnes, 68.
  123. ^ Barnes, 68–69.
  124. ^ HA Verus 2.9–11; 3.4–7; Barnes, 68; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 108.
  125. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 112.
  126. ^ Bowman, pg. 156; Victor, 15:7
  127. ^ Victor, 15:7
  128. ^ Dio 71.33.4–5; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 114.
  129. ^ Bury, pg. 532
  130. ^ HA Antoninus Pius 12.4–8; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 114.
  131. ^ Bowman, pg. 156
  132. ^ HA Marcus 7.5, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 116.
  133. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 116. Birley takes the phrase horror imperii from HA Pert. 13.1 and 15.8.
  134. ^ Birley, "Hadrian to the Antonines", 156.
  135. ^ HA Verus 3.8; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 116; "Hadrian to the Antonines", 156.
  136. ^ HA Verus 4.1; Marcus 7.5; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 116.
  137. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 116–17.
  138. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 117; "Hadrian to the Antonines", 157 n.53.
  139. ^ Birley, "Hadrian to the Antonines", 157 n.53.
  140. ^ a b c d Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 117.
  141. ^ HA Verus 4.2, tr. David Magie, cited in Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 117, 278 n.4.
  142. ^ HA Marcus 7.9; Verus 4.3; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 117–18.
  143. ^ HA Marcus 7.9; Verus 4.3; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 117–18. "twice the size": Richard Duncan-Jones, Structure and Scale in the Roman Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 109.
  144. ^ a b Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 118.
  145. ^ a b """Tulane University "Roman Currency of the Principate. Tulane.edu. Retrieved 2012-06-15. 
  146. ^ HA Marcus 7.10, tr. David Magie, cited in Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 118, 278 n.6.
  147. ^ HA Marcus 7.10–11; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 118.
  148. ^ HA Antoninus Pius 12.8; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 118–19.
  149. ^ HA Marcus 7.4; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 119.
  150. ^ HA Comm. 1.3; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 119.
  151. ^ HA Comm. 1.2; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 119.
  152. ^ HA Marcus 19.1–2; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 278 n.9.
  153. ^ HA Comm. 1.4, 10.2; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 119.
  154. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 119, citing H. Mattingly, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum IV: Antoninus Pius to Commodus (London, 1940), Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, nos. 155ff.; 949ff.
  155. ^ "Portrait of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius".  
  156. ^ HA Marcus 7.7; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 118.
  157. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 118, citing Werner Eck, Die Organisation Italiens (1979), 146ff.
  158. ^ HA Marcus 8.1, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 119; "Hadrian to the Antonines", 157.
  159. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 122–23, citing H.G. Pfalum, Les carrières procuratoriennes équestres sous le Haut-Empire romain I–III (Paris, 1960–61); Supplément (Paris, 1982), nos. 142; 156; Eric Birley, Roman Britain and the Roman Army (1953), 142ff., 151ff.
  160. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 123, citing H.G. Pfalum, Les carrières procuratoriennes équestres sous le Haut-Empire romain I–III (Paris, 1960–61); Supplément (Paris, 1982), no. 141.
  161. ^ HA Marcus 8.8; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 123, citing W. Eck, Die Satthalter der germ. Provinzen (1985), 65ff.
  162. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 120, citing Ad Verum Imperator 1.3.2 (= Haines 1.298ff).
  163. ^ Ad Antoninum Imperator 4.2.3 (= Haines 1.302ff), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 119.
  164. ^ a b Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 120.
  165. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 120, citing Ad Verum Imperator 1.1 (= Haines 1.305).
  166. ^ Ad Antoninum Imperator 4.1 (= Haines 1.300ff), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 120.
  167. ^ HA Marcus 8.3–4; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 120.
  168. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 120, citing H. Mattingly, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum IV: Antoninus Pius to Commodus (London, 1940), Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, nos. 841; 845.
  169. ^ Gregory S. Aldrete, Floods of the Tiber in ancient Rome (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007), 30–31.
  170. ^ HA Marcus 8.4–5; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 120.
  171. ^ Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae 5932 (Nepos), 1092 (Priscus); Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 121.
  172. ^ HA Marcus 11.3, cited in Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 278 n.16.
  173. ^ Ad Antoninum Imperator 1.2.2 (= Haines 2.35), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 128.
  174. ^ De eloquentia 1.12 (= Haines 2.63–65), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 128.
  175. ^ Ad Antoninum Imperator 1.2.2 (= Haines 2.35); Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 127–28.
  176. ^ Ad Antoninum Imperator 1.2.4 (= Haines 2.41–43), tr. Haines; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 128.
  177. ^ HA Antoninus Pius 12.7; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 114, 121.
  178. ^ Event: HA Marcus 8.6; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 121. Date: Jaap-Jan Flinterman, "The Date of Lucian's Visit to Abonuteichos," Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 119 (1997): 281.
  179. ^ HA Marcus 8.6; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 121.
  180. ^ Lucian, Alexander 27; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 121.
  181. ^ Lucian, Alexander 27; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 121–22. On Alexander, see: Robin Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986), 241–50.
  182. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 278 n.19.
  183. ^ Dio 71.2.1; Lucian, Historia Quomodo Conscribenda 21, 24, 25; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 121–22.
  184. ^ HA Marcus 8.7; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 122.
  185. ^ HA Antoninus Pius 7.11; Marcus 7.2; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 103–4, 122.
  186. ^ Pan. Ath. 203–4, qtd. and tr. Alan Cameron, review of Anthony Birley's Marcus Aurelius, The Classical Review 17:3 (1967): 349.
  187. ^ HA Marcus 8.6; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 123.
  188. ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum 8.7050–51; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 123.
  189. ^ Incriptiones Latinae Selectae 1097–98; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 123.
  190. ^ Incriptiones Latinae Selectae 1091; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 123.
  191. ^ Incriptiones Latinae Selectae 2311; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 123.
  192. ^ HA Marcus 12.13; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 123.
  193. ^ L'Année Épigraphique 1972.657; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 125.
  194. ^ HA Verus 9.2; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 125.
  195. ^ De Feriis Alsiensibus 1 (= Haines 2.3); Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 126.
  196. ^ De Feriis Alsiensibus 3.1 (= Haines 2.5), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 126.
  197. ^ De Feriis Alsiensibus 3.4 (= Haines 2.9); Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 126–27.
  198. ^ De Feriis Alsiensibus 3.6–12 (= Haines 2.11–19); Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 126–27.
  199. ^ De Feriis Alsiensibus 4, tr. Haines 2.19; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 127.
  200. ^ De Feriis Alsiensibus 4 (= Haines 2.19), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 127.
  201. ^ De bello Parthico 10 (= Haines 2.31), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 127.
  202. ^ De bello Parthico 1–2 (= Haines 2.21–23).
  203. ^ De bello Parthico 1 (= Haines 2.21), qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 127.
  204. ^ Ad Verum Imperator 2.1.19 (= Haines 2.149); Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 129.
  205. ^ Dio 71.1.3; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 123.
  206. ^ HA Verus 5.8; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 123, 125.
  207. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 125.
  208. ^ HA Marcus 8.9, tr. Magie; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 123–26. On Lucius' voyage, see: HA Verus 6.7–9; HA Marcus 8.10–11; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 125–26.
  209. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 129.
  210. ^ HA Verus 4.4; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 129.
  211. ^ HA Verus 4.6, tr. Magie; cf. 5.7; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 129.
  212. ^ HA Verus 8.7, 8.10–11; Fronto, Principae Historia 17 (= Haines 2.217); Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 129.
  213. ^ Barnes, 69.
  214. ^ HA Verus 9.2; Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum 3.199; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 130–31.
  215. ^ HA Verus 7.7; Marcus 9.4; Barnes, 72; Birley, "Hadrian to the Antonines", 163; cf. also Barnes, "Legislation Against the Christians", Journal of Roman Studies 58:1–2 (1968), 39; "Some Persons in the Historia Augusta", Phoenix 26:2 (1972), 142, citing the Vita Abercii 44ff.
  216. ^ HA Verus 7.10; Lucian, Imagines 3; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 131. Cf. Lucian, Imagines, Pro Imaginibus, passim.
  217. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 131; "Hadrian to the Antonines", 163.
  218. ^ HA Verus 7.7; Marcus 9.4; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 131.
  219. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 131, citing Anné Épigraphique 1958.15.
  220. ^ HA Verus 7.7; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 131.
  221. ^ HA Marcus 9.4; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 131.
  222. ^ HA Marcus 9.5–6; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 131.
  223. ^ HA Marcus 9.1; Birley, "Hadrian to the Antonines", 162.
  224. ^ HA Marcus 9.1; HA Verus 7.1–2; Ad Verrum Imperator 2.3 (= Haines 2.133); Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 129; "Hadrian to the Antonines", 162.
  225. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 129; "Hadrian to the Antonines", 162, citing H. Mattingly, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum IV: Antoninus Pius to Commodus (London, 1940), Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, nos. 233ff.
  226. ^ Dio 71.3.1; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 131; "Hadrian to the Antonines", 162; Millar, Near East, 113.
  227. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 280 n. 42; "Hadrian to the Antonines", 162.
  228. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 131; "Hadrian to the Antonines", 162, citing H. Mattingly, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum IV: Antoninus Pius to Commodus (London, 1940), Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, nos. 261ff.; 300 ff.
  229. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 130, 279 n. 38; "Hadrian to the Antonines", 163, citing Prosopographia Imperii Romani2 M 169; Millar, Near East, 112.
  230. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 130; "Hadrian to the Antonines", 162.
  231. ^ Fronto, Ad Verum Imperator 2.1.3 (= Haines 2.133); Astarita, 41; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 130; "Hadrian to the Antonines", 162.
  232. ^ Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae 1098; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 130.
  233. ^ Birley, "Hadrian to the Antonines", 163, citing Prosopographia Imperii Romani2 M 169.
  234. ^ Lucian, Historia Quomodo Conscribenda 15, 19; Birley, "Hadrian to the Antonines", 163.
  235. ^ Lucian, Historia Quomodo Conscribenda 20, 28; Birley, "Hadrian to the Antonines", 163, citing Syme, Roman Papers, 5.689ff.
  236. ^ HA Verus 8.3–4; Birley, "Hadrian to the Antonines", 163. Birley cites R.H. McDowell, Coins from Seleucia on the Tigris (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1935), 124ff., on the date.
  237. ^ Birley, "Hadrian to the Antonines", 164.
  238. ^ Birley, "Hadrian to the Antonines", 164, citing H. Mattingly, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum IV: Antoninus Pius to Commodus (London, 1940), Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, nos. 384 ff., 1248 ff., 1271 ff.
  239. ^ Birley, "Hadrian to the Antonines", 164, citing P. Kneissl, Die Siegestitulatur der römischen Kaiser. Untersuchungen zu den Siegerbeinamen des 1. und 2. Jahrhunderts (Göttingen, 1969), 99 ff.
  240. ^ Birley, "Hadrian to the Antonines", 164, citing H. Mattingly, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum IV: Antoninus Pius to Commodus (London, 1940), Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, nos. 401ff.
  241. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 130, citing Prosopographia Imperii Romani2 A 1402f.; 1405; Astarita, passim; Syme, Bonner Historia-Augustia Colloquia 1984 (= Roman Papers IV (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988), ?).
  242. ^ Birley, "Hadrian to the Antonines", 164, citing Alföldy, Konsulat, 24, 221.
  243. ^ Ad Antoninum Imperator 2.1–2 (= Haines 2.94ff.); Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 132.
  244. ^ Champlin, Fronto, 134.
  245. ^ Pulleyblank, Edwin G.; Leslie, D. D.; Gardiner, K. H. J. (1999). "The Roman Empire as Known to Han China". Journal of the American Oriental Society 119 (1): 71–79.  
  246. ^ Fergus Millar, The Emperor in the Roman World, 31 BC – AD 337 (London: Duckworth, 1977), 6 and passim. See also: idem. "Emperors at Work", Journal of Roman Studies 57:1/2 (1967): 9–19.
  247. ^ "Pius, one of longest-serving emperors, became infirm in his last years, so Marcus Aurelius gradually assumed the imperial duties. By the time he succeeded in AD 161, he was already well-practised in public administration." This quote is from philosopher Iain King, writing about Aurelius in Thinkers At War, published August 2014, accessed November 2014.
  248. ^ Codex Justinianus 7.2.6, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 133.
  249. ^ Digest 31.67.10, qtd. and tr. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 133.
  250. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 133.
  251. ^ Birley, 253
  252. ^ Birley, 183
  253. ^ Dio 72.11.3–4; Ad amicos 1.12 (= Haines 2.173); Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 132.
  254. ^ Dio 72.11.3–4; Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 132, citing De nepote amisso 2 (= Haines 2.222); Ad Verum Imperator 2.9–10 (= Haines 2.232ff.).
  255. ^ Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 133, citing Geza Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand (1977), Moesia Inferior: 232 f.; Moesia Superior: 234f.; Pannonia Superior: 236f.; Dacia: 245f.; Pannonia Inferior: 251.
  256. ^ Dio 72.11.4-5; Birley, Marcus Aurelius
  257. ^ Tr. Cary, ad loc.
  258. ^ HA Marcus 1.1, 27.7; Dio 71.1.1; James Francis, Subversive Virtue: Asceticism and Authority in the Second-Century Pagan World (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 21 n. 1.
  259. ^ Francis, 21 n.1, citing Justin, 1 Apologia 1; Athenagoras, Leg. 1; Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica 4.26.9–11.
  260. ^ Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica 4.26.9–11, qtd. and tr. Francis, 21 n. 1.
  261. ^ Herodian, Ab Excessu Divi Marci 1.2.4, tr. Echols.
  262. ^ This is the conclusion of King's biography of Aurelius, Thinker at War, published August 2014, accessed November 2014.
  263. ^ Timothy D. Barnes, "Legislation Against the Christians," Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 58 (1968)
  264. ^ McLynn, Frank (2009). Marcus Aurelius: A Life. Da Capo Press. p. 295.  
  265. ^ a b c
  266. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Jona Lendering. "Marcus Aurelius". Livius.org. Retrieved 2012-06-15. 
  267. ^ Gregory Hays. Introduction to Marcus Aurelius Meditations Weidenfeld and Nicholson London2003 pxlix
  268. ^ Stertz, 434, citing Themistius, Oratio 6.81; HA Cassius 3.5; Aurelius Victor, De Caesaribus 16.9.
  269. ^ Gregory Hays. Introduction to Marcus Aurelius Meditations Weidenfeld and Nicholson London 2003 pp xlviii–xlix.

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P. Aelius Hadrianus
Titus
(r. 79-81)
Marcia Furnilla
Marcia
Trajanus Pater
Nerva
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Ulpia
Aelius Hadrianus Marullinus
Julia Flavia
Marciana
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Antinous
Hadrian (r. 117–138)
Paulina
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G. Arrius Antoninus
L. Caesennius Paetus
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Appia Severa
G. Fuscus Salinator II
Arria Antonia
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T. Aurelius Fulvus
L. Caesennius Antoninus
Lucius
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G. Avidius
Nigrinus
Antoninus Pius
(r. 138–161)
M. Annius Verus
Domitia Lucilla
Fundania
M. Annius Libo
FAUSTINA
Lucius Aelius
Caesar
Avidia Plautia
}}}} }}}} }}}} }}}} }}}}
Cornificia
MARCUS AURELIUS
(r. 161–180)
FAUSTINA Minor
G. Avidius Cassius
Aurelia Fadilla
LUCIUS VERUS
(r. 161–169)
(1)
Ceionia Fabia
Plautius Quintillus
Q. Servilius Pudens
Ceionia Plautia
Cornificia Minor
M. Petronius Sura
COMMODUS
(r. 177–192)
Fadilla
M. Annius Verus Caesar
Ti. Claudius Pompeianus (2)
Lucilla
M. Plautius Quintillus
Junius Licinius Balbus
Servilia Ceionia
Petronius Antoninus
L. Aurelius Agaclytus
(2)
Aurelia Sabina
L. Antistius Burrus
(1)
Plautius Quintillus
Plautia Servilla
G. Furius Sabinus Timesitheus
Antonia Gordiana
Junius Licinius Balbus
Furia Sabina Tranquillina
GORDIAN III
(r. 238-244)
Marcus Aurelius
Cadet branch of the Nervan–Antonine dynasty
Born: 26 April 121 Died: 17 March 180
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Antoninus Pius
Roman Emperor
161–180
(with Lucius Verus 161–169)
Succeeded by
Commodus
Political offices
Preceded by
Antoninus Pius, Gaius Bruttius Praesens and Lucius Fulvius Rusticus
Consul of the Roman Empire with Antoninus Pius
140
Succeeded by
Titus Hoenius Severus and Marcus Peducaeus Stloga Priscinus
Preceded by
Lollianus Avitus and Titus Statilius Maximus
Consul of the Roman Empire with Antoninus Pius
145
Succeeded by
Sextus Erucius Clarus and Gnaeus Claudius Severus Arabianus
Preceded by
Appius Annius Atilius Bradua and Titus Clodius Vibius Varus
Consul of the Roman Empire with Lucius Verus
161
Succeeded by
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