World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
Trade names Ixel, Joncia, Savella
  • AU: B3
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Legal status
Routes of
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 85%
Protein binding 13%
Metabolism Hepatic
Biological half-life 8 hours
Excretion Renal
CAS Registry Number  Y
ATC code N06
PubChem CID:
DrugBank  Y
ChemSpider  Y
Chemical data
Formula C15H22N2O
Molecular mass 246.348 g/mol

Milnacipran (Ixel, Savella, Dalcipran, Toledomin) is a serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) used in the clinical treatment of fibromyalgia. It is not approved for the clinical treatment of major depressive disorder in the USA, but it is in other countries.


  • Medical uses 1
    • Depression 1.1
    • Fibromyalgia 1.2
  • Side effects 2
    • Interactions 2.1
    • Contraindications 2.2
  • Pharmacology 3
  • Pharmacokinetics 4
  • Regulatory status 5
  • History 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Medical uses


In a pooled analysis of 7 comparative trials with imipramine,[1] milnacipran and imipramine were shown to have comparable efficacy while milnacipran was significantly better tolerated. A pooled analysis of studies comparing milnacipran and SSRIs [2] concluded a superior efficacy for milnacipran with similar tolerability for milnacipran and SSRIs. A more recent meta-analysis of 6 studies involving more than 1,000 patients showed no distinction between milnacipran and SSRIs in efficacy or discontinuation rates, including discontinuation for side effects or lack of efficacy.[3] A meta-analysis of a total of 16 randomized controlled trials with more than 2200 patients [4] concluded that there were no statistically significant differences in efficacy, acceptability and tolerability when comparing milnacipran with other antidepressant agents. However, compared with TCAs, significantly fewer patients taking milnacipran dropped out due to adverse events. As with other antidepressants, 1 to 3 weeks may elapse before significant antidepressant action becomes clinically evident.


During its development for fibromyalgia, milnacipran was evaluated utilizing a composite responder approach. To be considered as a responder for the composite ‘treatment of fibromyalgia’ endpoint, each patient had to show concurrent and clinically meaningful improvements in pain, physical function and global impression of disease status. A systematic review in 2012 showed moderate relief for a minority of people with fibromyalgia. Milnacipran was associated with increased adverse events and discontinuing use of the drug.[5]

Side effects

The most frequently occurring adverse reactions (≥ 5% and greater than placebo) were nausea, headache, constipation, dizziness, insomnia, hot flush, hyperhidrosis, vomiting, palpitations, heart rate increase, dry mouth, and hypertension [FDA Savella prescribing information]. Milnacipran can have a significant impact on sexual functions, including both a decrease in sexual desire and ability. Milnacipran can cause pain of the testicles in men. The incidence of cardiovascular and anticholinergic side effects was significantly lower compared to TCAs as a controlled study with over 3,300 patients revealed. Elevation of liver enzymes without signs of symptomatic liver disease has been infrequent. Mood swing to mania has also been seen and dictates termination of treatment. In psychotic patients emergence of delirium has been noticed. Milnacipran has a low incidence of sedation but improves sleep (both duration and quality) in depressed patients. In agitated patients or those with suicidal thoughts additive sedative/anxiolytic treatment is usually indicated.[6]


  • MAOIs - hyperserotonergia (serotonin syndrome), potentially lethal hypertensive crisis
  • 5-HT1 receptor agonists - coronary vasoconstriction with risk of angina pectoris and myocardial infarction
  • Epinephrine, Norepinephrine (also in local anesthesia) - hypertensive crisis and/or possible cardiac arrhythmia
  • Clonidine - antihypertensive action of clonidine may be antagonized
  • Digitalis - hemodynamic actions increased
  • Triptans - there have been rare postmarketing reports of hyperserotonergia (serotonin syndrome). If concomitant treatment of milnacipran with a triptan is clinically warranted, careful observation of patient is advised when starting or increasing dosages.[7]
  • Alcohol - no interactions known; however, because milnacipran can cause mild elevation of liver enzymes, caution is recommended; the FDA advises against the concomitant use of alcohol and milnacipran


Administration of milnacipran should be avoided in individuals with the following:

Administration of milnacipran should be done with caution in individuals with the following:

  • Concomitant treatment with parenteral epinephrine, norepinephrine, with clonidine, reversible MAO-A Inhibitors (moclobemide, toloxatone) or 5-HT1D-agonists (e.g. triptan migraine drugs).
  • Advanced renal disease (decreased dosage required)
  • Hypertrophy of the prostate gland (possibly urination hesitancy induced), with hypertension and heart disease (tachycardia may be a problem) as well as with open angle glaucoma

Milnacipran should not be used during pregnancy because it may cross the placenta barrier and no clinical data exists on harmful effects in humans and animal studies. Milnacipran is contraindicated during lactation because it is excreted in the milk, and it is not known if it is harmful to the newborn.


Milnacipran inhibits the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in an approximately 1:3 ratio, respectively; in practical use this means a relatively balanced action upon both neurotransmitters. Increasing both neurotransmitters concentration simultaneously works synergistically to treat both depression and fibromyalgia. Milnacipran exerts no significant actions on H1, α1, D1, D2, and mACh receptors, as well as on benzodiazepine and opioid binding sites.[8][9][10]


Milnacipran is well absorbed after oral dosing and has a bioavailability of 85%. Meals do not have an influence on the rapidity and extent of absorption. Peak plasma concentrations are reached 2 hours after oral dosing. The elimination half-life of 8 hours is not increased by liver impairment and old age, but by significant renal disease. Milnacipran is conjugated to the inactive glucuronide and excreted in the urine as unchanged drug and conjugate. Only traces of active metabolites are found.

Regulatory status

Milnacipran is indicated for:

  • treatment of major depressive disorder (not in USA)
  • management of fibromyalgia (USA and Russia)

The recommended dose for depression is 100 mg/day (given as 50 mg 2 times daily), with a starting period of 4 days on 25 mg/day. The dose should be decreased in patients with renal disease. The recommended dose for fibromyalgia is 100 mg/day (after an uptitration period ) which may be increased to 200 mg/day based on individual patient response.

After successful treatment of the acute depressive episode, patients should be maintained on milnacipran for several months (normally 9 months) in order to prevent relapse of depression.

In America, Savella® is supplied by Forest Pharmaceuticals in a 2-week, professional sample titration pack to be provided directly by the doctor to the patient initiating milnacipran therapy. This pack contains five 12.5 mg tablets (one on day one, one tablet twice a day on days 2-3), eight 25 mg tablets (one tablet twice a day on days 4-7), and fourteen 50 mg tablets (one tablet twice a day on days 8-14). Therapy is then continued with one 50 mg tablet twice a day, or adjusted as needed by the physician.


Milnacipran was first approved for the treatment of major depressive episodes in France in December 1996. It is currently marketed (as Ixel) for this indication in over 45 countries worldwide including several European countries such as Austria, Bulgaria, Finland, France, Portugal, and Russia. It is also available in Japan (as Toledomin) and Mexico (as Dalcipran). Cypress Bioscience bought the exclusive rights for approval and marketing of the drug for any purpose in the United States and Canada in 2003 from the manufacturer Laboratoires Pierre Fabre.

In January 2009 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved milnacipran (under the brand name Savella) only for the treatment of fibromyalgia, making it the third medication approved for this purpose in the United States. In July and November 2009, the European Medicines Agency refused marketing authorization for a milnacipran product (under the brand name Impulsor) for the treatment of fibromylagia.[11]


  1. ^ Kasper S, Pletan Y, Solles A, Tournoux A (1996). "Comparative studies with milnacipran and tricyclic antidepressants in the treatment of patients with major depression: a summary of clinical trial results". International Clinical Psychopharmacolgy 11 (Suppl 4): 35–39.  
  2. ^ Lopez-Ibor J, Guelfi JD, Pletan Y, Tournoux A, Prost JF (1996). "Milnacipran and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in major depression". International Clinical Psychopharmacology 11 (Suppl 4): 41–46.  
  3. ^ Papakostas GI, Fava M (2007). "A meta-analysis of clinical trials comparing milnacipran, a serotonin--norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for the treatment of major depressive disorder". European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 17 (1): 32–6.  
  4. ^ Nakagawa A, Watanabe N, Omori IM, Barbui C, Cipriani A, McGuire H, Churchill R, Furukawa TA (2009). Nakagawa, Atsuo, ed. "Milnacipran versus other antidepressive agents for depression". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 8 (3): CD006529.  
  5. ^ Derry, S; Gill, D; Phillips, T; Moore, RA (Mar 14, 2012). "Milnacipran for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults.". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 3: CD008244.  
  6. ^ "" (PDF). 
  7. ^ National Institute of Health. DailyMed.
  8. ^ Moret C, Charveron M, Finberg JP, Couzinier JP, Briley M (1985). "Biochemical profile of midalcipran (F 2207), 1-phenyl-1-diethyl-aminocarbonyl-2-aminomethyl-cyclopropane (Z) hydrochloride, a potential fourth generation antidepressant drug". Neuropharmacology 24 (12): 1211–9.  
  9. ^ Briley M, Prost JF, Moret C (1996). "Preclinical pharmacology of milnacipran". International clinical psychopharmacology. 11 Suppl 4: 9–14.  
  10. ^ Puozzo C, Panconi E, Deprez D (2002). "Pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of milnacipran". International clinical psychopharmacology. 17 Suppl 1: S25–35.  
  11. ^ European Medicines Agency. "Questions and answers on the recommendati on for the refusal of the marketing authorisation for Milnacipran Pierre Fabre Médicament/Impulsor" (PDF). European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 

External links

  • Savella official site
  • Scientific Information on Ixel (German)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.