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Title: Ptk2b  
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Subject: RTK class III, Fyn-related kinase, DDR1, AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, Leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase
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Protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta

Rendering based on PDB .
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
External IDs ChEMBL: GeneCards:
EC number
RNA expression pattern
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

Protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTK2B gene.[1][2]


This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase that is involved in calcium-induced regulation of ion channels and activation of the map kinase signaling pathway. The encoded protein may represent an important signaling intermediate between neuropeptide-activated receptors or neurotransmitters that increase calcium flux and the downstream signals that regulate neuronal activity. The encoded protein undergoes rapid tyrosine phosphorylation and activation in response to increases in the intracellular calcium concentration, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation, membrane depolarization, or protein kinase C activation. This protein has been shown to bind CRK-associated substrate, nephrocystin, GTPase regulator associated with FAK, and the SH2 domain of GRB2. The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases but lacks significant sequence similarity to kinases from other subfamilies. Four transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene.[3]


PTK2B has been shown to interact with PTPN11,[4] PTPN6,[5][6] PITPNM1,[7] Gelsolin,[8] Src,[6][9][10] GRIN2A,[11][12] Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1,[13] RB1CC1,[14] TGFB1I1,[15][16][17] NPHP1,[18] BCAR1,[19][20][21] FYN,[22][23][24] DLG4,[11] DLG3,[11] DDEF2,[25] Cbl gene,[26][27] RAS p21 protein activator 1,[28][29] Paxillin[15][20][30] and SORBS2.[26]

See also


  1. ^ Lev S, Moreno H, Martinez R, Canoll P, Peles E, Musacchio JM, Plowman GD, Rudy B, Schlessinger J (September 1995). "Protein tyrosine kinase PYK2 involved in Ca(2+)-induced regulation of ion channel and MAP kinase functions". Nature 376 (6543): 737–45.  
  2. ^ Avraham S, London R, Fu Y, Ota S, Hiregowdara D, Li J, Jiang S, Pasztor LM, White RA, Groopman JE, et al. (January 1996). "Identification and characterization of a novel related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase (RAFTK) from megakaryocytes and brain". J Biol Chem 270 (46): 27742–51.  
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: PTK2B PTK2B protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta". 
  4. ^ Chauhan, D; Pandey P, Hideshima T, Treon S, Raje N, Davies F E, Shima Y, Tai Y T, Rosen S, Avraham S, Kharbanda S, Anderson K C (September 2000). "SHP2 mediates the protective effect of interleukin-6 against dexamethasone-induced apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 275 (36): 27845–50.  
  5. ^ Ganju, R K; Brubaker S A; Chernock R D; Avraham S; Groopman J E (June 2000). "Beta-chemokine receptor CCR5 signals through SHP1, SHP2, and Syk". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 275 (23): 17263–8.  
  6. ^ a b Kumar, S; Avraham S; Bharti A; Goyal J; Pandey P; Kharbanda S (October 1999). "Negative regulation of PYK2/related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase signal transduction by hematopoietic tyrosine phosphatase SHPTP1". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 274 (43): 30657–63.  
  7. ^ Lev, S; Hernandez J; Martinez R; Chen A; Plowman G; Schlessinger J (March 1999). "Identification of a novel family of targets of PYK2 related to Drosophila retinal degeneration B (rdgB) protein". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 19 (3): 2278–88.  
  8. ^ Wang, Qiang; Xie Yi; Du Quan-Sheng; Wu Xiao-Jun; Feng Xu; Mei Lin; McDonald Jay M; Xiong Wen-Cheng (February 2003). "Regulation of the formation of osteoclastic actin rings by proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 interacting with gelsolin". J. Cell Biol. (United States) 160 (4): 565–75.  
  9. ^ Keely, S J; Calandrella S O; Barrett K E (April 2000). "Carbachol-stimulated transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase in T(84) cells is mediated by intracellular ca(2+), PYK-2, and p60(src)". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 275 (17): 12619–25.  
  10. ^ Dikic, I; Tokiwa G; Lev S; Courtneidge S A; Schlessinger J (October 1996). "A role for Pyk2 and Src in linking G-protein-coupled receptors with MAP kinase activation".  
  11. ^ a b c Seabold, Gail K; Burette Alain; Lim Indra A; Weinberg Richard J; Hell Johannes W (April 2003). "Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the Src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 and SAP102". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (17): 15040–8.  
  12. ^ Liu, Y; Zhang G; Gao C; Hou X (August 2001). "NMDA receptor activation results in tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit 2A(NR2A) and interaction of Pyk2 and Src with NR2A after transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion". Brain Res. (Netherlands) 909 (1–2): 51–8.  
  13. ^ Felsch, J S; Lane W S; Peralta E G (May 1999). "Tyrosine kinase Pyk2 mediates G-protein-coupled receptor regulation of the Ewing sarcoma RNA-binding protein EWS". Curr. Biol. (ENGLAND) 9 (9): 485–8.  
  14. ^ Ueda, H; Abbi S; Zheng C; Guan J L (April 2000). "Suppression of Pyk2 kinase and cellular activities by FIP200". J. Cell Biol. (UNITED STATES) 149 (2): 423–30.  
  15. ^ a b Matsuya, M; Sasaki H; Aoto H; Mitaka T; Nagura K; Ohba T; Ishino M; Takahashi S; Suzuki R; Sasaki T (January 1998). "Cell adhesion kinase beta forms a complex with a new member, Hic-5, of proteins localized at focal adhesions". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 273 (2): 1003–14.  
  16. ^ Wang, Xin; Yang Yue; Guo Xiaojian; Sampson Erik R; Hsu Cheng-Lung; Tsai Meng-Yin; Yeh Shuyuan; Wu Guan; Guo Yinglu; Chang Chawnshang (May 2002). "Suppression of androgen receptor transactivation by Pyk2 via interaction and phosphorylation of the ARA55 coregulator". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (18): 15426–31.  
  17. ^ Thomas, S M; Hagel M; Turner C E (January 1999). "Characterization of a focal adhesion protein, Hic-5, that shares extensive homology with paxillin". J. Cell. Sci. (ENGLAND) 112 (2): 181–90.  
  18. ^ Benzing, T; Gerke P; Höpker K; Hildebrandt F; Kim E; Walz G (August 2001). "Nephrocystin interacts with Pyk2, p130(Cas), and tensin and triggers phosphorylation of Pyk2".  
  19. ^ Manié, S N; Beck A R, Astier A, Law S F, Canty T, Hirai H, Druker B J, Avraham H, Haghayeghi N, Sattler M, Salgia R, Griffin J D, Golemis E A, Freedman A S (February 1997). "Involvement of p130(Cas) and p105(HEF1), a novel Cas-like docking protein, in a cytoskeleton-dependent signaling pathway initiated by ligation of integrin or antigen receptor on human B cells". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 272 (7): 4230–6.  
  20. ^ a b Anfosso, F; Bardin N; Vivier E; Sabatier F; Sampol J; Dignat-George F (January 2001). "Outside-in signaling pathway linked to CD146 engagement in human endothelial cells". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (2): 1564–9.  
  21. ^ Astier, A; Avraham H; Manie S N; Groopman J; Canty T; Avraham S; Freedman A S (January 1997). "The related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase is tyrosine-phosphorylated after beta1-integrin stimulation in B cells and binds to p130cas". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 272 (1): 228–32.  
  22. ^ Ganju, R K; Hatch W C; Avraham H; Ona M A; Druker B; Avraham S; Groopman J E (March 1997). "RAFTK, a novel member of the focal adhesion kinase family, is phosphorylated and associates with signaling molecules upon activation of mature T lymphocytes". J. Exp. Med. (UNITED STATES) 185 (6): 1055–63.  
  23. ^ Katagiri, T; Takahashi T; Sasaki T; Nakamura S; Hattori S (June 2000). "Protein-tyrosine kinase Pyk2 is involved in interleukin-2 production by Jurkat T cells via its tyrosine 402". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 275 (26): 19645–52.  
  24. ^ Qian, D; Lev S; van Oers N S; Dikic I; Schlessinger J; Weiss A (April 1997). "Tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 is selectively regulated by Fyn during TCR signaling". J. Exp. Med. (UNITED STATES) 185 (7): 1253–9.  
  25. ^ Andreev, J; Simon J P; Sabatini D D; Kam J; Plowman G; Randazzo P A; Schlessinger J (March 1999). "Identification of a new Pyk2 target protein with Arf-GAP activity". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 19 (3): 2338–50.  
  26. ^ a b Haglund, Kaisa; Ivankovic-Dikic Inga, Shimokawa Noriaki, Kruh Gary D, Dikic Ivan (May 2004). "Recruitment of Pyk2 and Cbl to lipid rafts mediates signals important for actin reorganization in growing neurites". J. Cell. Sci. (England) 117 (Pt 12): 2557–68.  
  27. ^ Sanjay, A; Houghton A, Neff L, DiDomenico E, Bardelay C, Antoine E, Levy J, Gailit J, Bowtell D, Horne W C, Baron R (January 2001). "Cbl associates with Pyk2 and Src to regulate Src kinase activity, alpha(v)beta(3) integrin-mediated signaling, cell adhesion, and osteoclast motility". J. Cell Biol. (United States) 152 (1): 181–95.  
  28. ^ Chow, A; Davis A J; Gawler D J (March 2000). "Identification of a novel protein complex containing annexin VI, Fyn, Pyk2, and the p120(GAP) C2 domain". FEBS Lett. (NETHERLANDS) 469 (1): 88–92.  
  29. ^ Zrihan-Licht, S; Fu Y; Settleman J; Schinkmann K; Shaw L; Keydar I; Avraham S; Avraham H (March 2000). "RAFTK/Pyk2 tyrosine kinase mediates the association of p190 RhoGAP with RasGAP and is involved in breast cancer cell invasion". Oncogene (ENGLAND) 19 (10): 1318–28.  
  30. ^ Hiregowdara, D; Avraham H; Fu Y; London R; Avraham S (April 1997). "Tyrosine phosphorylation of the related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase in megakaryocytes upon stem cell factor and phorbol myristate acetate stimulation and its association with paxillin". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 272 (16): 10804–10.  

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