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Penitrem A

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Title: Penitrem A  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Norsalsolinol, Para-Iodoamphetamine, Para-Bromoamphetamine, 3,4-Dichloroamphetamine, Vanillotoxin
Collection: Alcohols, Cell Communication, Chloroarenes, Indole Alkaloids, Neurotoxins, Organochlorides, Penicillium
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Penitrem A

Penitrem A
Other names
ChemSpider  N
Jmol-3D images Image
Molar mass 634.20136
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N  (: YesY/N?)

Penitrem A (tremortin) is a fungal neurotoxin found on ryegrass. It is produced by certain species of Aspergillus, Claviceps, and Penicillium. It inhibits potassium channels in smooth muscles. The maxi-channels targeted have their highest density in the cerebellar Purkinje cells.

It causes a stagger in horses and cattle.


  • Effective dose 1
  • Stages of toxicity 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4

Effective dose

The ED50 for penitrem A is 10 nM. The ED50 is the effective dose for 50% of the population. Many toxic chemicals do not show ED-50s and act by irreversible covalent adduction.

Stages of toxicity

See also


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