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Searching for Bobby Fischer

Searching for Bobby Fischer
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Steven Zaillian
Produced by William Horberg
Screenplay by Steven Zaillian
Based on Searching for Bobby Fischer: The Father of a Prodigy Observes the World of Chess 
by Fred Waitzkin
Starring Joe Mantegna
Laurence Fishburne
Joan Allen
Max Pomeranc
Ben Kingsley
Music by James Horner
Cinematography John Corso
Conrad L. Hall
Edited by Wayne Wahrman
Distributed by Paramount Pictures
Release dates
August 11, 1993 (1993-08-11)
Running time
110 min.
Country United States
Language English
Box office $7,266,383

Searching for Bobby Fischer, released in the United Kingdom as Innocent Moves, is a 1993 American drama film written and directed by Steven Zaillian. The film was Zaillian's directorial debut, and stars Max Pomeranc, Joe Mantegna, Joan Allen, Ben Kingsley and Laurence Fishburne. It is based on the life of prodigy chess player Joshua Waitzkin, played by Pomeranc, and adapted from the book of the same name by Joshua's father Fred.


  • Synopsis 1
  • Cast 2
  • Sarwer versus Waitzkin match 3
    • Poe versus Waitzkin endgame 3.1
    • Alternate endgame 3.2
  • Reception 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6
  • External links 7


Josh Waitzkin's family discovers that he possesses a gift for chess and they seek to nurture it. They hire a strict instructor, Bruce Pandolfini (played by Ben Kingsley) who aims to teach the boy to be as aggressive as chess legend Bobby Fischer. The title of the film is a metaphor about the character's quest to adopt the ideal of Fischer and his determination to win at any price. Josh is also heavily influenced by Vinnie, a speed chess hustler (Laurence Fishburne) whom he met in Washington Square Park. The two coaches differ greatly in their approaches to chess, and Pandolfini is upset that Josh continues to adopt the methods of Vinnie. The main conflict in the film arises when Josh refuses to accept Fischer's misanthropic frame of reference. Josh then goes on to win on his own terms.


Some famous chess players have brief cameos in the film: Anjelina Belakovskaia, Joel Benjamin, Roman Dzindzichashvili, Kamran Shirazi, along with the real Joshua Waitzkin, Bruce Pandolfini, and Vincent Livermore. Chess master Asa Hoffmann is played by Austin Pendleton; the real Hoffmann did not like the way he was portrayed. Chess expert Poe McClinton, still a park regular, is seen throughout the film. Pal Benko was supposed to be in the film but his part was cut out. Waitzkin's real mother and sister also have cameos.

The Russian player in the park, played by Vasek Simek, who holds up the sign "For $5 a photo or a game with the man who beat Tal", was based on the real life of Israel Zilber.[1][2] Zilber, Latvian chess champion in 1958, defeated the teenage Tal in 1952,[3] and during most of the 1980s was homeless and regarded as one of the top players in Washington Square Park.

Sarwer versus Waitzkin match

At the end of the film, Josh is seen playing a tough opponent named Jonathan Poe in the final tournament. The character Jonathan Poe was not the actual name of Josh's opponent; his real name was Jeff Sarwer (a boy younger than Josh). In September 1985, Josh first played and was defeated by Jeff at the Manhattan Chess Club. In November of the same year, Josh returned to the Manhattan Chess Club and beat him in a rematch.[4] The film depicts their third match in the 1986 US Primary Championship. Near the end of the game, where Josh offers Poe a draw, Poe rejects the offer and play continues. Sarwer rejected the draw offer in the real-world game as well. Josh played Sarwer to a draw (the two kings were the only remaining pieces on the board), and they were declared co-champions.[5][6] Sarwer went on to win the 1986 World Championship Under-10.

"Poe vs. Waitzkin"
a b c d e f g h
c8 black rook
d8 black bishop
a7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
b6 black knight
e6 white king
f6 white pawn
e5 white rook
g5 white bishop
e4 white knight
h4 white pawn
c2 black king
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h

Poe versus Waitzkin endgame

The diagram depicts the game position in the film, with Waitzkin playing the black pieces, before Waitzkin offers Poe the draw. This position did not occur in the real Sarwer–Waitzkin game; it was contrived by Waitzkin and Pandolfini specially for the film. The following moves are executed:

1... gxf6 2. Bxf6 Rc6+ 3. Kf5 Rxf6+! 4. Nxf6 Bxf6 5. Kxf6 Nd7+ 6. Kf5 Nxe5 7. Kxe5??
In the October 1995 issue of Chess Life, Grandmaster Larry Evans stated that the position and sequence were unsound; Poe (playing White) could still have drawn the game by playing 7.h5 instead.
7... a5 8. h5 a4 9. h6 a3 10. h7 a2 11. h8=Q a1=Q+ 12. Kf5 Qxh8 0–1 (White resigned)

Alternate endgame

An alternate endgame position had been composed by Pal Benko. It was supposed to have been used in the film, but was rejected on the day before the scene was filmed because it did not use the theme that Josh overused his queen.

a b c d e f g h
f5 black pawn
f4 white pawn
c3 black knight
h3 black king
h2 white bishop
h1 white king
7 7
6 6
5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
a b c d e f g h

In this position, Black should play:

1... Ne2

after which White is in zugzwang; he must play either 2.Bg3, losing the bishop to 2...Nxg3+, or 2.Bg1, allowing 2...Ng3 mate.[7]


The book and the film have each received positive reviews from critics. Waitzkin's book was praised by Grandmaster Nigel Short,[8] as well as chess journalist Edward Winter, who called it "a delightful book" in which "the topics [are] treated with an acuity and grace that offer the reviewer something quotable on almost every page."[9] Screenwriter and playwright Tom Stoppard called the book "well written" and "captivating".[10]

The film currently has a 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 34 reviews.[11] Roger Ebert gave the film a score of four stars (out of four), calling it "a film of remarkable sensitivity and insight", adding, "by the end of [the film], we have learned [...] a great deal about human nature."[12] James Berardinelli gave the film three stars (out of four), calling it "an intensely fascinating movie capable of involving those who are ignorant about chess as well as those who love it."[13]

Bobby Fischer never saw the film and strongly complained that it was an invasion of his privacy by using his name without his permission. Fischer never received any compensation from the film, calling it "a monumental swindle".[14]

The film was nominated for Best Cinematography (Conrad L. Hall) at the 1993 Academy Awards. It won the category at the American Society of Cinematographers the same year. The film also ranked No. 96 in AFI's 100 Years... 100 Cheers.


  1. ^ Wall, Bill. Searching For Bobby Fischer Trivia. Retrieved May 26, 2007.
  2. ^ The Games of Israel Zilber at Retrieved May 26, 2007.
  3. ^ Mikhail Tal vs. Israel Zilber, 0-1 at
  4. ^ Wall, Bill ( August 7, 2007) Searching for Bobby Fischer (the movie) Trivia, retrieved August 16, 2014
  5. ^ pp. 214-22 of the book
  6. ^ Jeff Sarwer vs Joshua Waitzkin at Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  7. ^ Bruce Pandolfini, Endgame Workshop: Principles for the Practical Player, 2009, p. 64, Russell Enterprises, ISBN 978-1-888690-53-8
  8. ^ The Spectator, April 8, 1989, p.30-31
  9. ^ Searching for Bobby Fischer review, Edward Winter, Chess History, 1989
  10. ^ The Observer, April 2, 1989, p.45
  11. ^ Searching for Bobby Fischer, Rotten Tomatoes
  12. ^ Searching for Bobby Fischer review, Roger Ebert, Chicago Sun-Times, August 11, 1993
  13. ^ Searching for Bobby Fischer review, James Berardinelli, ReelViews, 1993
  14. ^  

Further reading

  • "20 years of Searching", Chess Life, August 2013, pp. 38–41

External links

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