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St George's Cross

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St George's Cross

St. George's cross

St George's Cross (or the Cross of St George) is a red crusades.

Historically, the cross appeared on many Aragon, Genoa and Barcelona. The cross is also found, for various reasons, on the provincial flag of Huesca, Zaragoza and Teruel (the 3 provinces of Aragón) as well as the municipal flag for numerous cities, including Montreal, Almería, Milan, Genoa, Padua, Zadar and Freiburg im Breisgau. It is also the basis for the Four Moors flag of Sardinia. Guernsey was permitted to use it as its state flag between 1936 and 1985.

Contents

  • Origins and medieval use 1
  • St George's Cross in England 2
  • St George's Cross in Italy 3
  • St George's Cross in Canada 4
  • St George's Cross in Georgia 5
  • St George's Cross in New South Wales 6
  • St George's Cross in Sardinia 7
  • Nordic countries 8
  • See also 9
  • Notes 10
  • External links 11

Origins and medieval use

1430s depiction of Saint wearing a red cross on a white surcoat, by Bernat Martorell.
Badge of St George's Cross (representing the heraldic Crown of Aragon.

  • Flag of England at FOTW
  • Banners of English saints at FOTW

External links

  1. ^ William Woo Seymour, The Cross in Tradition, History and Art, 1898, p. 387.
  2. ^ Perrin, British Flags, 1922, p. 20.
    "they imagined that they had seen a great army on white horses, clothed in white and bearing white banners in their hands, issue from the neighbouring mountains and come to their assistance. The leaders of this ghostly army, recognised by their names written on their banners, were St George, St Demetrius, and St Mercurius. If at this time the red cross had become the distinctive sign of St George one or other of these writers would surely have mentioned it, but all agree that the banners were white."
  3. ^ Barber, The New Knighthood, p. 66: "According to William of Tyre it was under Eugenius III that the Templars received the right to wear the characteristic red cross upon their tunics, symbolising their willingness to suffer martyrdom in the defence of the Holy Land." (WT, 12.7, p. 554. James of Vitry, 'Historia Hierosolimatana', ed. J. ars, Gesta Dei per Francos, vol I(ii), Hanover, 1611, p. 1083, interprets this as a sign of martyrdom.)
  4. ^ Aldo Ziggioto, "Genova", in Vexilla Italica 1, XX (1993); Aldo Ziggioto, "Le Bandiere degli Stati Italiani", in Armi Antiche 1994, cited after Pier Paolo Lugli, 18 July 2000 on Flags of the World.
  5. ^ William Woo Seymour, The Cross in Tradition, History and Art, 1898, p. 363
  6. ^ Fuller, A Supplement tu the Historie of the Holy Warre (Book V), 1647, chapter 4.
  7. ^ "I have been unable to find any solid ground for the common belief that the cross of St George was introduced as the national emblem of England by Richard I, and am of opinion that it did not begin to attain that position until the first years of the reign of Edward I." Perrin, British Flags, 1922, p. 15
  8. ^ Perrin, British Flags, 1922, p. 20.
  9. ^ "when Montfort saw the advance of the royal troops [wearing a red cross as their distinguishing mark], he exclaimed that 'They have not learned that for themselves, but were taught it by me.'" M. Prestwich, Plantagenet England: 1225-1360 (2005), p. 51.
  10. ^ Church of England - Use of the flag; Flags of the World; 23 October 2008
  11. ^ Michael McCarthy (23 April 2010). "Identity parade: What do flags say about nations – and human nature?". The Independent. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  12. ^ Theodore E. Dowling, Sketches of Georgian Church History, New York, p 54
  13. ^ Nationalencyklopedin. "Georgskors" retrieved on 2010-08-12.
  14. ^ Kimmo Kara, Vaakunaselitys, Helsinki 1989, ISSN 0784-7602, p 49-51

Notes

See also

In [14]

Extended Swedish definition of a St George's cross

Nordic countries

The state badge of the Australian state of Sardinia, popularly known also as the Four Moors flag, consists of a red cross on a white background, with a maure (moor's head) in each quarter. The Flag of Sardinia, according to the Iberic tradition, was created by King of Aragon Peter I after the victory of Alcoraz (1096) in the city of Huesca, Aragón. The battle was won with the help of St. George, therefore the red cross, who abandoned on the battle field the heads of the four defeated Moorish kings.

St George's Cross in New South Wales

The flag with President of Georgia.

The flag of Georgia with St George cross in middle

St George's Cross in Georgia

The Alberta, Manitoba and Ontario, again reflecting England's influence in Canada.

St George's Cross in Canada

The Cross is used extensively across Northern Italy. It is the symbol of Bologna, Padua, Genoa, Reggio Emilia, Mantova, Vercelli, Alessandria and most notably of Milan where it is often called the "Cross of St. Ambrose".

St George's Cross in Italy

During the 2010 World Cup the UK Prime Minister, David Cameron, told Parliament that the flag would fly above his official residence at "no extra cost to the tax payer" whilst England played in the contest.

The flag of St George has since the late 20th century enjoyed a resurgence in popularity partly due to football-inspired nationalism, and also in response to the devolution movements in Scotland and Wales.[11]

Churches belonging to the diocese in the left-hand upper corner of the flag.[10]

The flag of St George is also the rank flag of an Admiral in the Royal Navy, and civilian craft are forbidden to fly it. However, ships which took part in the rescue operation at Dunkirk during World War II are allowed to fly it as a jack.

After the England and Wales when used alongside symbols for Scotland or Ireland; so in the flags of the Commonwealth of England during 1649 to 1660.

Royal Standards of the Plantagenet kings of England.

There used to be a claim that the red cross worn as an emblem was brought to England as early as the 1190s, by Edward I (1270s),[8] and perhaps originated a few years earlier, in the Second Barons' War (specifically in the Battle of Evesham of 1265, during which, according to chronicler William Rishanger, Simon de Montford observed that the king had taken the idea of having his soldiers marked with a cross from him).[9]

St George's flag flying on Leeds Town Hall (2009).

St George's Cross in England

In the 14th century, after the failure of the crusades, the cross ceased to be a symbol directly associated with the "taking of the cross", the resolve to fight in the crusades, and with the development of systematic Order of the Garter in 1348, and also took to using a red-on-white cross in the hoist of his Royal Standard.

The association of the red-on-white cross with the Saint probably arises in insignia cruxata comunis Janue ("cross ensign of the commune of Geona"). The saint's flag was the city's main war flag, but the cross flag was used alongside it in the 1240s.[4]

The red cross in particular was associated with the Denmark).

[2]

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