2014 Sochi Olympics

"2014 Olympics" redirects here. For the Summer Youth Olympics held in Nanjing, China, see 2014 Summer Youth Olympics.

Olympic Winter Games
File:Sochi 2014 - Logo.svg
Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics official logo
Host city Sochi, Russia
Motto "Hot.Cool.Yours."[1] (Russian: Жаркие. Зимние. Твои.)
Nations participating

51 (qualified)

82+/- (estimated)
Athletes participating 2500+ (estimated)
Events 98 in 15 sports
Opening ceremony 7 February
Closing ceremony 23 February
Stadium Fisht Olympic Stadium


The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially the XXII Olympic Winter Games, or the 22nd Winter Olympics, are scheduled to take place 7 to 23 February 2014, in Sochi,[2] Russia, with some events held in the resort town of Krasnaya Polyana. Ninety-eight events in fifteen winter sports will be held. Both the Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics are being organized by the Sochi Organizing Committee (SOC).

Sochi was selected as the host city on July 4, 2007, during the 119th I.O.C. Session held in Guatemala City,[3] defeating bids from Salzburg, Austria, and Pyeongchang, South Korea. The Sochi Olympics will be the first Winter Olympics (and first Olympics altogether) for the Russian Federation, since the 1980 Summer Olympics were in Moscow when that was the capital of the Soviet Union.

Construction in preparation for the Games involves the building of new venues; and modernizing the telecommunications, electric power, and transportation systems of this area. These improvements will include the construction of a new Olympic Park along the coast of the Black Sea in the Imeretin Valley, with several buildings clustered in that area. The venues in Krasnaya Polyana will be new, also.

Organization

Bid and preparations

Sochi was elected on July 4, 2007, during the 119th International Olympic Committee (IOC) session held in Guatemala City, Guatemala.[4] This will be the first time that the Russian Federation will host the Winter Olympics. The U.S.S.R. was the host of the 1980 Summer Olympics held in and around Moscow.

2014 Host City Election — ballot results
City Country (NOC) Round 1 Round 2
Sochi  Russia 34 51
Pyeongchang  South Korea 36 47
Salzburg  Austria 25

Financials

Funds approved
from 2006 until 2014
Year Billions of rubles[5]
2006 4.9
2007 15.9
2008 31.6
2009 27.3
2010 22.2
2011 27.1
2012 26.3
2013 22.1
2014 8.4

According to Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Organizing Committee President and CEO Dmitry Chernyshenko, the successful partnership and commercial programs allowed the use of funds generated by Sochi 2014 for the 2009–2010 development period, postponing the need for the state funds guaranteed by the Russian Government. He confirmed that the Organizing Committee successfully generated more than $500 million through the marketing program in the first five months of 2009.[6]

Russia provides nearly 327 billion rubles (approximately US$9.964 billion) for the total development, expansion and hosting of the Games. 192.4 billion coming from the federal budget and 7.1 billion from the Krasnodar Krai budget and from the Sochi budget. The organizers expect to have a surplus of US$300 million when the Games conclude.[7]

Financing from non-budget sources (including private investor funds) is distributed as follows:[8]

  • Tourist infrastructure – $2.6 billion
  • Olympic venues – $500 million
  • Transport infrastructure – $270 million
  • Power supply infrastructure – $100 million

Venues

Main article: Venues of the 2014 Winter Olympics

With an average February temperature of 8.3 °C (42.8 °F) and having a humid subtropical climate, Sochi will be the warmest city to have ever hosted a Winter Olympic Games.[9]

Sochi Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster)


The Sochi Olympic Park will be built by the Black Sea coast in the Imeretin Valley, which is located approximately 4 km from Russia's border with Georgia.[10][11] All the venues are new.[12] The venues will be clustered around a central water basin on which the Medals Plaza will be built. This will provide a great compactness of the concept with the Olympic Stadium and all indoor venues of the Olympics gathered within walking distance.

Tentative post-Olympic usage

After the Olympics, a Formula One street circuit is planned for the site. The deal to hold the Russian Grand Prix was signed on 14 October 2010, and runs from 2014 to 2020.[14] The first race will take place after the Closing Ceremony of the Games, but the IOC has announced that the race will be delayed until 2015 if construction of the circuit interferes with preparations for the 2014 Olympics.[15]

Krasnaya Polyana (Mountain Cluster)

Sochi 2014 will be the 12th straight Olympics to outlaw smoking. This means that all Sochi venues, Olympic Park bars and restaurants and public areas will be smoke-free during the Games.[16]

Marketing

Along with 2008 Russian presidential election, on 2 March 2008 there was an unofficial referendum held in Sochi to elect the mascot for the 2014 Winter Olympics. 270,000 voters along with their ballots received a coupon with four mascot candidates: Ded Moroz, a snowflake, a polar bear and a dolphin. According to a representative of Sochi city administration, the majority of Sochians voted for the dolphin.[17] However, representatives of the Sochi Organizing Committee for the Games, which is to officially elect a logo and a mascot, commented that while respecting the opinion of Sochians, such a procedure is usually held later. They also pointed out, that the final version of the mascot should be a consensus of opinions of all citizens of the country and the result of work by professional designers and market analysts.[18]

On 1 December 2009 the official 2014 Winter Olympic logo was released.[19] International Olympic Committee President, Jacques Rogge, said of the logo: "It's very appealing. It's very creative, innovative. I think it will appeal especially to the young population."[20]

There has been controversy over the announced mascots. The frog Zoich, which won the official online vote was inexplicably excluded by officials from the second round of voting. The ultimately selected mascots: a polar bear, snow hare, and snowboarding leopard (said to be Vladimir Putin's favorite) found only timid popular support.

Sochi 2014 is the only Olympic emblem to include a web address. The mirror of "Sochi" and "2014" 'reflects' that Sochi is a meeting point between sea and mountains. As the main component of the Sochi 2014 emblem, the Olympic rings sit large and in color to show that this is a symbol of progress for the Olympic Movement. The change of colours and inner design of the rest of the emblem encourages people to express themselves, with some expected to transform it using traditional images, while others will take an ultra-modern approach.

The fourth video game in the Mario & Sonic series, Mario & Sonic at the Sochi Winter Games, is currently being developed by Sega for the Wii U.[21]

Mascots

Main article: 2014 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games mascots

On 26 February 2011, at 11.20 pm (GMT+3) the final results of the public vote during the live television show "Talismaniya Sochi 2014 – The Final” were announced on the first Channel. The election council made the decision that the top-three characters with the maximum number of votes would all become the Olympic Winter Games mascots:[22]

Construction

The Olympic infrastructure is being constructed according to a Federal Target Program (FTP). In June 2009 the Games' organisers reported they are one year ahead in building the main Olympic facilities as compared to recent Olympic Games.[23] In November 2011 IOC President Jacques Rogge was in Sochi and concluded that the city has made significant progress since he last visited eighteen months earlier.[24]

Telecommunications

According to the FTP, US$580 million will be spent on construction and modernization of telecommunications in the region. Avaya Inc, a global provider of business collaboration and communications solutions, has been named by the Sochi 2014 Organising Committee as the official supplier of telecom equipment for the 2014 Olympic Games. Avaya will be a part of the overall Games technology solutions group. Avaya will provide network, collaboration and communications equipment and work with other technology partners to provide athletes, dignitaries and fans worldwide a full communications experience around the Olympic Games.

Expected to be built:

During the Olympic Games, the telecommunications backbones of UTK, Rostelecom and TransTeleCom providers will be used.[25]

The fiber-optic channel links Sochi between Adler and Krasnaya Polyana. The 46 km (29 mi) long channel will enable videoconferencing and news reporting from the Olympics.[26]

Russian mobile phone operator Megafon expanded and improved Sochi's telecom infrastructure with over 700 new 2G/3G/4G cell towers. Sochi 2014 will be the first Olympic Games to offer 4G connectivity at a speed of 10 MB/sec. Subscribers to other operators will be able to access Megafon roaming services through the settings menu of their mobile devices.

Power infrastructure

A five-year strategy for increasing power supply in the Sochi region was presented by Russian energy experts during a seminar on 29 May 2009, held by the Sochi 2014 Organizing Committee, and attended by International Olympic Committee (IOC) experts and officials from the Russian Ministry of Regional Development, the Russian Ministry of Energy, the State Corporation Olimpstroy and the Krasnodar Krai administration.[27]

The event was a part of the Olympic Games Knowledge Management (OGKM) program by the IOC.

According to the strategy, the capacity of the regional energy network will increase by two and a half times by 2014, guaranteeing stable power supply during and after the Games.

Power demand of Sochi in the end of May 2009 was 424 MW. Power demand of the Olympic infrastructure is expected to be about 340 MW.

  • Poselkovaya electrical substation became operational in early 2009
  • Sochi thermal power station is being reconstructed (expected power output is 160 MW)
  • Laura and Rosa Khutor electrical substations were completed in November 2010
  • Mzymta electrical substation was completed in March 2011
  • Krasnopolyanskaya hydroelectric power station was completed in 2010
  • Adler CHP station design and construction was completed in 2012. Expected power output is 360 MW[28]
  • Bytkha substation, under construction with two transformers 25 MW each, includes dependable microprocessor-based protection

Earlier plans also include building combined cycle (steam and gas) power stations near the cities of Tuapse and Novorossiysk and construction of a cable-wire powerline, partially on the floor of the Black Sea.[29]

Transportation

The transportation infrastructure being prepared to support the Olympics includes many roads, tunnels, bridges, interchanges, railroads and stations in and around Sochi.

The Sochi Light Metro is located between Adler and Krasnaya Polyana connecting the Olympic Park, the airport and the venues in Krasnaya Polyana.[30]

The existing 102 km (63 mi) Tuapse to Adler railroad would be renovated to provide double track throughout, increasing capacity and enabling a reliable regional service to be provided and extending to the airport. In December 2009 Russian Railways ordered 38 Siemens Mobility Desiro trains for delivery in 2013 for use during the Olympics, with an option for a further 16 which would be partly built in Russia.[31]

Russian Railways has had gone to establish a high-speed Moscow-Adler link and a new railroad (more than 60 km long) passing by the territory of Ukraine.[32]

At the Sochi airport, a new terminal has been built along a 3.5 km (2.2 mi) runway extension, possibly overlapping Mzymta river.[33] Backup airports will be built in Gelendzhik, Mineralnye Vody and Krasnodar by 2009.[34]

At the Sochi sea port, a new offshore terminal 1.5 km (0.93 mi) from the shore allows docking for cruise ships with capacities of 3000 passengers.[35] The cargo terminal of the sea port is to be moved from the Sochi centre.

Road ways will be detoured, some going around the construction site and others being cut off.[36]

In May 2009 Russian Railways started the construction of tunnel complex No.1 (the final total is six) on the combined road (automobile and railway) from Adler to Alpica Service Mountain Resort in Krasnaya Polyana region. The tunnel complex No.1 is located near Akhshtyr settlement in Adlersky City District, and includes:[37]

  • Escape tunnel, 2.25 km, completed in 2010
  • Road tunnel, 2153 m, completed in 2013
  • One-track railway tunnel, 2473 m, completed in 2013

Russian Railways president Vladimir Yakunin said the road construction will cost more than 200 billion rubles.[38]

Other infrastructure

Funds will be spent on construction of 15 modern sport venues and some hotels for 10,300 guests.[39] The first of the Olympic hotels, Zvezdny (Stellar), will be rebuilt anew.[40]

Federation Island will be built in the sea near the Lesser Akhun subdistrict of Khostinsky City District. The island will be shaped like the Russian Federation. It will hold hotels and offices.[41][42]

Significant funds are being spent on construction of an advanced sewage treatment system in Sochi, designed by Olimpstroy. The system meets BREF standards and employs top available technologies for environment protection, including tertiary treatment with microfiltration.[43]

The Games


Torch Relay

Main article: 2014 Winter Olympics torch relay

On 29 September 2013, the Olympic torch was lit in Ancient Olympia, beginning a seven-day journey across Greece and on to Russia, then the torch relay will start at Moscow on 7 October 2013 before passing 83 Russian cities and arriving at Sochi on the day of the opening ceremony, 7 February 2014.[44]

Participating National Olympic Committees

So far 51 nations have qualified at least one athlete.

Participating National Olympic Committees
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Brazil
  • British Virgin Islands [45]
  • Bulgaria
  • Canada
  • China
  • Chile
  • Croatia
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France

  • Georgia[46]
  • Germany
  • Great Britain
  • Iceland
  • Ireland[47]
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Netherlands
  • New Zealand
  • Norway
  • Pakistan[48]

  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Portugal[49]
  • Romania
  • Russia (host)
  • Serbia
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • South Korea
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Turkey
  • Ukraine
  • United States
  • Uzbekistan
  • Virgin Islands

National houses

During the Games some countries and continents will have a national house. These temporary meeting place for supporters, athletes and other followers will be located throughout Sochi and Adler.

Sports

Fifteen winter sport disciplines, organized as seven olympic sports, were included in the 2014 Winter Olympics. The three skating sports disciplines were: figure skating, speed skating, and short track speed skating. The six skiing sport disciplines were: alpine, cross-country skiing, freestyle, Nordic combined, ski jumping and snowboarding. The two bobsleigh sports disciplines are: bobsleigh and skeleton. The other four sports were: biathlon, curling, hockey, and luge. A total of twelve new events will be contested to make it the largest Winter Olympics to date.[51]

Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each sports discipline

On 6 April 2011, the IOC accepted a number of events that were submitted by their respective sports federations to be considered for inclusion into the official program of these Olympic Games.[52] The events include:

Other events that were also considered to be included had their decision postponed for further study, however on 4 July 2011 the IOC announced that these events would be added to the program.[53] These events were officially declared by Olympic Committee President Jacques Rogge on 5 July 2011.[51]

Team alpine skiing was presented as a candidate for inclusion in the Olympic program but the Executive board of the IOC rejected this proposal. The International Ski Federation persisted with the nomination and this was considered.[54] There were reports of Bandy potentially being added to the sports program,[55][56][57] but the IOC rejected this request. Subsequently, the international governing body, Federation of International Bandy, decided to have Sochi host the 2014 Bandy World Championships during the Olympics.[58]

On 28 November 2006, the Executive Board of the IOC decided not to include the following sports in the review process of the program.[59]

Calendar

All dates are MSK (UTC+4)

Concerns and controversies

Main article: Concerns and controversies at the 2014 Winter Olympics

There have been controversies and concerns affecting the upcoming Winter Olympics. The major disputes are with Circassians, environmental and economic issues, lack of political stability and governance and the safety and human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) athletes, supporters and journalists.[62][63] The 2014 Winter Olympics will be the most expensive games in history, with an estimated cost of $50 billion. Much of the cost overruns have been blamed on corruption.[64]

According to an article in Daily Telegraph, Prince Bandar, head of Saudi intelligence, allegedly confronted the Kremlin with a mix of inducements and threats in a bid to break the deadlock over Syria. This included security of winter olympics in Sochi if there is no accord. “I can give you a guarantee to protect the Winter Olympics next year. The Chechen groups that threaten the security of the games are controlled by us,” he allegedly said. [65]

Broadcasting rights

Main article: List of 2014 Winter Olympics broadcasters

In most regions, broadcast rights to the 2014 Winter Olympics were packaged together with broadcast rights for the 2016 Summer Olympics, but some broadcasters obtained rights to further games as well. Domestic broadcast rights were sold by Sportfive to a consortium of three Russian broadcasters; Channel One, VGTRK, and NTV Plus.[66] In the United States, the 2014 Winter Olympics will be the first in a US$4.38 billion contract with NBC, extending its broadcast rights to the Olympic Games through 2020.[67] In Canada, after losing the 2010 and 2012 Games to CTV, the 2014 Winter Olympics will mark the return of the Olympics to CBC Television and French sister network Ici Radio-Canada Télé for the first time since 2008.[68] In Australia, after all three major commercial networks pulled out of bidding on rights to both the 2014 and 2016 Games due to cost concerns, the IOC awarded broadcast rights to just the 2014 Winter Olympics to Network Ten for AUD$20 million.[69][70][71]

See also

Olympics portal
  • Chelyabinsk meteor, the anniversary of the event will be marked at the games.[72]

Notes

External links

  • (Russian)
  • Sochi 2014 IOC Page
  • International Olympic Committee
  • Olimpstroy state corporation
  • Galina Masterova Sochi: an Olympic makeover Russia Now, 23 February 2010
  • Sochi (Satellite Image) (Latitude: 43.404 Longitude: 39.953)] Google Maps
  • English-Russian translating & explanatory Glossary of Olympic and Paralympic winter sports This is the first attempt of the modern winter sports vocabulary synthesizing. It has been prepared by the Organizing Committee 'Sochi 2014' Language Services Department.
Preceded by
Vancouver
Winter Olympics
Sochi

XXII Olympic Winter Games (2014)
Succeeded by
Pyeongchang

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