World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0036392414
Reproduction Date:

Title: Apinaca  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: WIN 55,212-2, CP 55,244, JWH-081, JWH-200, JWH-018
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
Legal status
  • Illegal (US), Temporary Class Drug (NZ), illegal in Japan, illegal in Latvia Schedule I in USA
CAS number  YesY
ATC code ?
Chemical data
Formula C23H31N3O 
Mol. mass 365.510 g/mol

AKB48 (APINACA, N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide) is a drug that acts as a reasonably potent agonist for the cannabinoid receptors,[1] with a Ki of 304.5nM and a EC50 of 585nM at CB1. It had never previously been reported in the scientific or patent literature, and was first identified by laboratories in Japan in March 2012 as an ingredient in synthetic cannabis smoking blends, along with a related compound APICA.[2] Structurally it closely resembles cannabinoid compounds from patent WO 2003/035005 but with a simple pentyl chain on the indazole 1-position, and AKB48 falls within the claims of this patent despite not being disclosed as an example. AKB48 was made illegal in Japan in 2012,[3] and was banned as a temporary class drug in New Zealand from 13 July 2012.[4] It has been banned in Latvia since 14 November 2013. The DEA announced its intent to schedule 16 May 2013. [5]


A forensic standard of AKB48 is available, and the compound has been posted on the Forendex website of potential drugs of abuse.[6]

See also


  1. ^ Uchiyama, N.; Kawamura, M.; Kikura-Hanajiri, R.; Goda, Y. (2012). "URB-754: A new class of designer drug and 12 synthetic cannabinoids detected in illegal products". Forensic Science International 227 (1–3): 21–32.  
  2. ^ Uchiyama, N.; Kawamura, M.; Kikura-Hanajiri, R.; Goda, Y. (2012). "Identification of two new-type synthetic cannabinoids, N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (APICA) and N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (APINACA), and detection of five synthetic cannabinoids, AM-1220, AM-2233, AM-1241, CB-13 (CRA-13), and AM-1248, as designer drugs in illegal products". Forensic Toxicology 30 (2): 114.  
  3. ^ "Designation of "Shitei Yakubutsu" (designated substances) based on the provision of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (1960, Law No.145)" (PDF). 
  4. ^ "Temporary Class Drug Notice". Department of Internal Affairs. New Zealand. 5 July 2012. 
  5. ^ url=
  6. ^

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.