Abkhazian language

Abkhaz
Аҧсуа бызшәа; аҧсшәа
Native to Abkhazia (Partially recognized state) (Georgia), Turkey, Russia
Native speakers Template:Sigfig  (1993)Template:Infobox language/ref
Language family
Dialects
Abzhywa
Sadz
Writing system Cyrillic (Abkhaz alphabet)
Official status
Official language in  AbkhaziaTemplate:Efn
 Georgia (on the territory of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 ab
ISO 639-2 abk
ISO 639-3 abk
Linguist List Template:Infobox language/linguistlist
  Template:Infobox language/linguistlist
  Template:Infobox language/linguistlist
  Template:Infobox language/linguistlist
  Template:Infobox language/linguistlist
  Template:Infobox language/linguistlist

Abkhaz (sometimes spelled Abxaz; /æpˈhɑːz/;[1] Аҧсуа бызшәа) is a Northwest Caucasian language spoken mostly by the Abkhaz people. It is the official language of AbkhaziaTemplate:Efn where around 100,000 people speak it.[2] Furthermore, it is spoken by thousands of members of the Abkhazian diaspora in Turkey, Georgia's autonomous republic of Adjara, Syria, Jordan and several Western countries. There are 9,447 speakers of Abkhaz in Russia, according to the 2002 census.[3]

Classification

Abkhaz is a Northwest Caucasian language, indicating it originated in the northwest Caucasus. Northwest Caucasian languages have been suggested as being related to the Northeast Caucasian languages and both are often merged under the blanket phrase "North Caucasian languages"; several linguists, notably Sergei Starostin, posit a phylogenetic link between these two families. Some consider the proposed North Caucasian family to be a member of the Dené–Caucasian macrofamily; however, the Dené–Caucasian hypothesis is itself unproven and highly controversial, and attempts to categorize Abkhaz as a Dené–Caucasian language are thus premature. Also, sometimes the North Caucasian families are grouped with the South Caucasian languages into a pan-Caucasian or Ibero-Caucasian macrofamily, but these have not been shown to be related and are widely considered to be a geographically based convention.

Abkhaz is often united with Abaza into one language, Abazgi, of which the literary dialects of Abkhaz and Abaza are simply two ends of a dialect continuum. Grammatically, the two are very similar; however, the differences in phonology are substantial, and are the main reason why many other linguists prefer to keep the two separate. Most linguists (see for instance Chirikba 2003) believe that Ubykh is the closest relative of the Abkhaz–Abaza dialect continuum.

Geographical distribution

Abkhaz is spoken primarily in Abkhazia. Abkhaz is also spoken by members of the large Abkhaz Muhajir diaspora, mainly located in Turkey with smaller groups living in Syria, Iraq and Jordan; Georgia's autonomous republic of Adjara; throughout the former USSR (e.g. Armenia and the Ukraine) and through more recent emigration in Western countries such as Germany, the Netherlands and the United States. However, the exact number of Abkhaz speakers in these countries remains unknown due to a lack of official records.

Dialects

Abkhaz is generally viewed as having three major dialects:

  • Abzhywa, spoken in the Caucasus, and named after the historical area of Abzhywa (Абжьыуа), sometimes referred to as Abzhui, the Russified form of the name ("Abzhuiski dialekt", derived from the Russian form of the name for the area, Абжуа).
  • Bzyb or Bzyp, spoken in the Caucasus and in Turkey, and named after the Bzyb (Abkhaz бзыҧ) area.
  • Sadz, nowadays spoken only in Turkey, formerly also spoken between the rivers Bzyp and Khosta.

The literary Abkhaz language is based on the Abzhywa dialect.

Phonology

Main article: Abkhaz phonology

Abkhaz has a very large number of consonants (58 in the literary dialect), with three-way voiced/voiceless/ejective and palatalized/labialized/plain distinctions. By contrast, the language has only two phonemically distinct vowels — which, however, have several allophones depending on the palatal and/or labial quality of adjacent consonants.

Phonemes in green are found in the Bzyp and Sadz dialects of Abkhaz, but not in Abzhywa; phonemes in blue are unique to the Bzyp dialect.

Labial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Alveolo-
palatal
Retro-
flex
Velar Uvular Pharyngeal
plain labial. plain labial. plain labial. palatal. plain labial. palatal. plain labial. phar. lab. + phar. plain labial.
Nasal m n
Stop voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡʲ ɡ ɡʷ
ejective tʷʼ kʲʼ kʷʼ qʲʼ qʷʼ
Affricate voiceless t͡s t͡ʃ t͡ɕ t͡ɕʷ ʈ͡ʂ
voiced d͡z d͡ʒ d͡ʑ d͡ʑʷ ɖ͡ʐ
ejective t͡sʼ t͡ʃʼ t͡ɕʼ t͡ɕʷʼ ʈ͡ʂʼ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ ʃʷ ɕ ɕʷ ʂ χʲ χ χʷ χˤ χˤʷ ħ ħʷ
voiced v z ʒ ʒʷ ʑ ʑʷ ʐ ʁʲ ʁ ʁʷ
Approximant l j ɥ w
Trill r

Typology

Abkhaz is typologically classified as an agglutinative language. Like all other Northwest Caucasian languages, Abkhaz has an extremely complex (polysynthetic) verbal system coupled with a very simple noun system; Abkhaz distinguishes just two cases, the nominative and the adverbial.

Writing system

Main article: Abkhaz alphabet

Abkhaz has had its own adaptation of the Cyrillic script since 1862. The first alphabet was a 37-character Cyrillic alphabet invented by Baron Peter von Uslar. In 1909 a 55-letter Cyrillic alphabet was used. A 75-letter Latin script devised by a Russian/Georgian linguist Nikolai Marr that lasted from 1926 to 1928. The Georgian script was imposed in 1938, but after the death of Stalin, an Abkhaz desire to remain separate from Georgians led to the reintroduction of the current Cyrillic alphabet in 1954 designed in 1892 by Dimitri Gulya together with Konstantin Machavariani and modified in 1909 by Aleksey Chochua.

А а
[a]
Б б
[b]
В в
[v]
Г г
[ɡ]
Гь гь
[ɡʲ]
Гә гә
[ɡʷ]
Ҕ ҕ
[ʁ/ɣ]
Ҕь ҕь
[ʁʲ/ɣʲ]
Ҕә ҕә
[ʁʷ/ɣʷ]
Д д
[d]
Дә дә
[dʷ]
Е е
[ɛ]
Ж ж
[ʐ]
Жь жь
[ʒ]
Жә жә
[ʒʷ]
З з
[z]
Ӡ ӡ
[d͡z]
Ӡә ӡә
[d͡ʑʷ]
И и
[j/jɨ/ɨj/i]
К к
[kʼ]
Кь кь
[kʼʲ]
Кә кә
[kʼʷ]
Қ қ
[kʰ]
Қь қь
[kʲʰ]
Қә қә
[kʷʰ]
Ҟ ҟ
[qʼ]
Ҟь ҟь
[qʼʲ]
Ҟә ҟә
[qʼʷ]
Л л
[l]
М м
[m]
Н н
[n]
О о
[ɔ]
П п
[pʼ]
Ҧ ҧ
[pʰ]
Р р
[r]
С с
[s]
Т т
[tʼ]
Тә тә
[tʼʷ]
Ҭ ҭ
[tʰ]
Ҭә ҭә
[tʷʰ]
У у
[w/wɨ/ɨw/u]
Ф ф
[f]
Х х
[x/χ]
Хь хь
[xʲ/χʲ]
Хә хә
[xʷ/χʷ]
Ҳ ҳ
[ħ]
Ҳә ҳә
[ħʷ]
Ц ц
[t͡s]
Цә цә
[t͡ɕʷʰ]
Ҵ ҵ
[t͡sʼ]
Ҵә ҵә
[t͡ɕʼʷ]
Ч ч
[t͡ʃʰ]
Ҷ ҷ
[t͡ʃʼ]
Ҽ ҽ
[t͡ʂʰ]
Ҿ ҿ
[t͡ʂʼ]
Ш ш
[ʂʃ]
Шь шь
[ʃ]
Шә шә
[ʃʷ]
Ы ы
[ɨ]
Ҩ ҩ
[ɥ/ɥˤ]
Џ џ
[d͡ʐ]
Џь џь
[d͡ʒ]
Ь ь
[ʲ]
Ә ә
[ʷ]

History

The earliest extant written records of the Abkhaz language are in the Arabic script, recorded by the Turkish traveller Evliya Çelebi in the 17th century. Abkhaz has only been used as a literary language for about 100 years.

Status

Both Georgian and Abkhaz law enshrines an official status of the Abkhaz language in Abkhazia.

The 1992 law of Georgia, reiterated in the 1995 Constitution, grants Abkhaz the status of second official language on the territory of Abkhazia, along with Georgian.

In November 2007, the de facto authorities of Abkhazia adopted a new law "on the state language of the Republic of Abkhazia" which mandates Abkhaz as the language of official communication. According to the law, all meetings held by the president, parliament or government must be conducted in Abkhaz (instead of Russian which is currently a de facto administrative language) from 2010 and all state officials will be obliged to use Abkhaz as their language of every-day business from 2015. Some, however, have considered the implementation of this law unrealistic and concerns have been made that it will drive people away from Abkhazia and hurt the independent press due to a significant share of non-Abkhaz speakers among ethnic minorities as well as Abkhaz themselves, and a shortage of teachers of Abkhaz. The law is an attempt to amend a situation where up to a third of the ethnic Abkhaz population are no longer capable of speaking their own language, and even more are unable to read or write it; instead, Russian is the language most commonly used in public life at present.[4]

Sample text

Дарбанзаалак ауаҩы дшоуп ихы дақәиҭны. Ауаа зегь зинлеи патулеи еиҟароуп. Урҭ ирымоуп ахшыҩи аламыси, дара дарагь аешьеи аешьеи реиҧш еизыҟазароуп.[5]

Transliteration

Darbanzaalak auaɥy dshoup ihy daqwithny. Auaa zegj zinlei patulei eiqaroup. Urth irymoup ahshyɥi alamysi, dara daragj aesjei aesjei reiphsh eizyqazaroup.

Translation

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Notes

Template:Notelist

References

Bibliography

  • Chirikba, V. A. (1996) 'A Dictionary of Common Abkhaz'. Leiden.
  • Chirikba, V. A. (2003) 'Abkhaz'. – Languages of the World/Materials 119. Muenchen: Lincom Europa.
  • Hewitt, B. George (2010) 'Abkhaz: A Comprehensive Self Tutor' Muenchen, Lincom Europa ISBN 978-3-89586-670-8
  • Hewitt, B. George (1979) 'Abkhaz: A descriptive Grammar'. Amsterdam: North Holland.
  • Hewitt, B. George (1989) Abkhaz. In John Greppin (ed.), The Indigenous Languages of the Caucasus Vol. 2. Caravan Books, New York. 39-88.
  • Vaux, Bert and Zihni Psiypa (1997) The Cwyzhy Dialect of Abkhaz. Harvard Working Papers in Linguistics 6, Susumu Kuno, Bert Vaux, and Steve Peter, eds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Linguistics Department.

External links

  • Introduction, basic phrases and grammar and texts
  • Abkhaz alphabet and pronunciation (Omniglot)
  • Abkhaz entry in LanguageServer (University of Graz)
  • Abkhaz at Language Museum
  • Example of Abkhaz language
  • Template:UDHR
  • Abkhaz-Russian On-Line Dictionary
  • Ancient Adyghe Abkhaz–Abaza Ubykh alphabet
  • Abkhaz basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database
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