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Aguascalientes City

Coat of arms of Aguascalientes
Coat of arms
Location of Aguascalientes within the state
Location of Aguascalientes within the state
Location of the state of Aguascalientes
Location of the state of Aguascalientes
Country Mexico
State Aguascalientes
Municipality Aguascalientes
Founded 22 October 1575
 • Mayor Juan Antonio Martín del Campo
 • City 385 km2 (149 sq mi)
Elevation 1,888 m (6,194 ft)
Population (2012)
 • City 934,424
 • Density 2,400/km2 (6,300/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,225,432
Demonym(s) Hidrocálido, Aguascalentense
Time zone CST (UTC−6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC−5)
Postal code 20000-20999
Area code(s) 449

Aguascalientes (Spanish pronunciation: ) is the capital of the state of Aguascalientes and is its most populous city, with a metropolitan population of 1,000,000.[1] It is located in North-Central Mexico. It is part of the macroregion of Bajío,[2] which is among the safest regions in Mexico.[3] Aguascalientes has repeatedly been recognized as one of the cities with the best quality of life in Latin America.[3][4] Nowadays, Aguascalientes is a vigorous service city that is experiencing an ongoing social, economic, and aesthetic revitalization process.[5]

It stands on the banks of the Río Aguascalientes, 1880 meters above sea level, at . It is the municipal seat for the Aguascalientes Municipality.The Aguascalientes metropolitan area includes the municipality of Jesus María y San Francisco de los Romo. It was a Chichimeca Indian territory. It later blossomed as a strategic link between Mexico City and the mines of Zacatecas, while prosperous agriculture and ranching helped feed Spain’s emerging New World cities.[6]

OECD has recognized Aguascalientes as having the best business climate standards in the world.[7] It is a strong business and economic centre in the Bajío region.[8] Its strategic location and excellent infrastructure have made it a regional hub and a popular location for international headquarters.[8]

Its first-class services and hotel industry turn it into one of the most important centers in Mexico with numerous options of entertainment, gastronomy, leisure activities, arts and recreation[9]


  • History 1
  • Climate 2
  • Name 3
  • Modern day 4
  • Demographics 5
  • Quality of life 6
  • Economy 7
  • Education 8
  • Transport 9
    • Cycling 9.1
    • Roads 9.2
    • Airport 9.3
  • Urban development 10
    • Fiber optic infrastructure 10.1
  • Culture and recreation 11
    • Neighborhoods and tradition 11.1
  • Notable residents 12
  • Sports 13
  • References 14
  • Other 15
  • External links 16


The city was founded on 22 October 1575 by Juan de Montoro as a postal service rest stop between the city of Zacatecas and Mexico City. Although its founders did not envision it becoming a major city, it became the capital of the newly formed state of the same name when its territory separated from the adjacent state of Zacatecas in 1835. When the state separated from Zacatecas, Aguascalientes raced ahead in its development, while the state of Zacatecas remained behind in comparison.

Aguascalientes was born out of four original neighborhoods. Guadalupe was where most travellers stayed on their way to Mexico City, and has some of the most beautiful cemeteries in Mexico. Triana, named after a neighborhood in Seville, has the most Spanish influence in its architecture, and is the oldest neighborhood in the city. It is home to the José Guadalupe Posada museum and the magnificent Church of Our Lady of Guadalupe. La Salud was intended to be a great convent complex, but it was never completed; only the church, cemetery and square remain lined in colonial-style stone streets. The San Marcos neighborhood is where the fabled San Marcos Fair has been celebrated for hundreds of years, and is notable for its neoclassical garden and baroque church.

More than two thirds of the local population of Aguascalientes is 78% European descent, mostly Spanish and French with settlement of French troops in the Valley of Huajucar during the Second Mexican Empire. Many Hidrocalidos trace their lineage back to Germany and the Netherlands, due to the settlement of various Mennonite communities, but also Italian, Russian, Polish, Swedish, German, Greek, and Romanian due to the high number of refugees who came to the state during World War II, 15% mestizo (mixed Amerindian-European), 7% Asian (mostly Japanese and Korean due to the rapid growth in Nissan production with the opening of a new factory in the state.


Under the Köppen climate classification, Aguascalientes has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh). Most of the precipitation is concentrated from June to September.

Climate data for Aguascalientes (1951–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.5
Average high °C (°F) 22.3
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.4
Average low °C (°F) 4.5
Record low °C (°F) −6.0
Average rainfall mm (inches) 14.1
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.4 1.5 1.0 1.6 3.6 9.7 13.5 13.2 9.5 4.9 1.6 2.2 64.7
Average relative humidity (%) 58 52 47 45 46 59 66 68 68 65 60 62 58
Mean monthly sunshine hours 237.6 238.1 257.9 249.6 270.4 227.0 223.6 231.8 198.9 231.2 245.6 213.2 2,824.9
Source #1: Servicio Meteorologico Nacional[10]
Source #2: Colegio de Postgraduados (sun and humidity)[11]


The name originates from the Spanish words, "aguas calientes" meaning "hot waters" although a more accurate translation is "Hot Springs", part of the original name of "Villa de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción de las Aguas Calientes" (Village of our Lady of Assumption of the Hot Springs). When the city was first settled by Juan de Montoro and 12 families, it was given this name for its abundance of hot springs. These thermal features are still in demand in the city's numerous spas and even exploited for domestic use. People from Aguascalientes (both the city and the state) are known by the whimsical Spanish demonym hidrocálidos or "hydrothermal" people.

Modern day

Aguascalientes today identifies itself as at the confluence of tradition and industry. Its preserved colonial center testifies to its rich architectural heritage and cultural vision. On the other hand, the precisely planned peripheral expressways, as well as its first class avenues and lanes, are surrounded with industrial parks that employ thousands of people. The state reports a high index of migrants, especially from other states, seeking to acquire a better quality of life.


"Plaza Bosques Tower"

According the latest census by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and Data Processing (INEGI), Aguascalientes City was the 13th largest metropolitan area by population in the country, with over 980,000 people in the year 2010. It is one of the fastest growing cities in Mexico.

As of 2010, the city of Aguascalientes had a population of 722,250, 15th place in Mexico.[12]

Horse on San Marcos Blvd. New Capital City financial district

Quality of life

The city has a Human Development Index of 0.82,[13] comparable to countries such as Canada, Luxembourg, France or the UK.[14] Open heart surgeries and heart and kidney transplants have been performed in Aguascalientes for the past 20 years; by comparison, these same surgeries were first performed in the USA 28 years ago. The life expectancy of 76 years is similar to that which can be found in Denmark, Ireland or Portugal.

100% of the population has Medical Service Coverage. In addition, two more government-controlled Medical Services exist for those who work in a job affiliated with them. There are also plenty of options in the form of private medical centers.


According to the world bank Aguascalientes has the most business friendly environment in Mexico and is one of the best places in the world to invest.[7] 240 multinationals were installed during the last 30 years; USA, Japan, Spain, France, Germany, Sweden, Brazil among others. 70% of Japan's investment in Mexico is in Aguascalientes.

25 companies from the industry of IT & Software cluster.[7] Softtek, the largest software development company in Mexico, has large operations in Aguascalientes.

The most important out-of-Japan Nissan plant is located in the city, and among other models of cars, it manufactures the worldwide production of the Sentra and Versa. Due to this the city has a significant Japanese population.

Texas Instruments has one plant in Aguascalientes, it is dedicated to integrated circuitry (IC) manufacturing. Sensata Technologies, former Texas Instruments Sensors and Controls division, has one plant in the city, making sensors and controls for automobile, HVAC and industrial use. Flextronics is another electronics manufacturer that has a plant located in Aguascalientes City. There are also several companies that work in the robotics industry, the most notable being FANUC Robotics.

UNESCO World Heritage Site
Historic Ensemble of Aguascalientes Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Type Cultural
Criteria II, IV,
Reference 1351
UNESCO region Latin America and the Caribbean
Inscription history
Inscription 2010 (34th Session)


Eight out of the 100 best colleges in Mexico are in Aguascalientes. 25 universities & colleges: for only 1 million inhabitants. 1st place Per Capita in México.[7]

The Escuela Japonesa de Aguascalientes (アグアスカリエンテス日本人学校 Aguasukarientesu Nihonjin Gakkō), an overseas Japanese school, is in Aguascalientes.[15]

As of 2013, it has 59 primary school students and 13 junior high school students for a total of 72 students.[16]



Aguascalientes is known as one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the Mexico. The municipality is also developing a system of interconnected green bicycle routes, greenways, the aim being to facilitate fast, safe, and pleasant bicycle transport from one end of the city to the other.[17]


Aguascalientes has a large network of roads connecting different municipalities of the city together and to other cities.


Lic. Jesús Terán Peredo International Airport serves the city.

4 Daily non-stop international flights: Los Angeles, Dallas, Houston.

Urban development

Aguascalientes is a strategically planned City. Pioneers in Urban Development regulation (since 1936). City planned around 3 beltway loops (unique in Mexico). The 3rd beltway loop will be fully operated until 2022.[7]

Fiber optic infrastructure

Aguascalientes has the same fiber-optic and voice/data communication infrastructure as Mexico City, Guadalajara, and Monterrey[7]

Culture and recreation

Aguascalientes is the city that invests most in Culture.[7] The Aguascalientes Theater is ranked one of the largest and most comfortable in Mexico.

Government Palace: a forest of columns, carved arches and imperial stairs
INEGI's headquarters.

Aguascalientes organizes the largest festival held in Mexico, the San Marcos Fair, which takes place from the middle of April to the beginning of May. The celebration was held originally in the San Marcos church, neighborhood, and its magnificent neoclassical garden; since then, it has greatly expanded to cover a huge area of exposition spaces, bullrings, nightclubs, theaters, performance stages, theme park, hotels, convention centers, and other attractions. It attracts almost 7 million visitors to Aguascalientes every year.

The old part of the city revolves around downtown and the four original neighborhoods from which the city expanded. The most notable building here is the Baroque Government Palace, dating from 1664 and constructed out of red volcanic stone, it is known for its hundred arches. The prominent Baroque Cathedral, begun in 1575, is the oldest building in the city. The tall column in the center of the main square dates from colonial times; it held a statue of a Spain's viceroy, which was toppled when the country gained independence; the current sculpture on its summit commemorates Mexican independence.

The extraordinary Baroque facade of Guadalupe Church

Neighborhoods and tradition

The city of Aguascalientes is made up of four traditional neighborhoods, all of which grew up around the central Plaza de la Patria: Guadalupe, San Marcos, El Encino and La Estacion.

The neighborhood of Guadalupe, a traditional producer of pottery, centers around its local temple. At the heart of Guadalupe, you'll recognize this religious sanctuary – the second most important in the city and dating back to the late 18th century – by its baroque façade. Look up and you won't miss the temple's enormous dome covered in traditional talavera tiles. Venture inside and you'll be surrounded by the temple's many flower and angel motifs – a true baroque paradise.

The next is San Marcos, founded in 1604 and once home to natives of Tlaxcala state who fled persecution. Today, the area hosts the traditional San Marcos Fair in springtime. There is San Marcos Gardens, a charming green spot where paths and trees are abundant. The gardens are traditionally frequented by poets, artists and lovers on lazy afternoons. Directly in front of the gardens, you'll see the baroque San Marcos Temple, its tiled dome glinting in the sun.

El Encino or La Triana, head for the Encino gardens with their tile-decorated central fountain is full of tranquility. While in the area, the Jose Guadalupe Posada Museum – showcasing the work of an extraordinary cartoonist and engraver born in Aguascalientes – is well worth a visit. The museum houses two permanent exhibition rooms and another for temporary exhibitions. Last but not least, the neighborhood of La Estacion takes its name from the old railway station, inaugurated in 1911 and one of Aguascalientes' architectural and historical treasures.

Aguascalientes historic downtown is home to several outstanding museums including the Aguascalientes Museum (Museo de Aguascalientes), the city's art museum, housed in a Classical-style building designed by the beloved self-trained architect Refugio Reyes; the Guadalupe Posada Museum (Museo Guadalupe Posada), located in the historic nationhood of Triana, exhibits the life and work of José Guadalupe Posada; and the State History Museum, which is housed in an elegant Art Nouveau mansion typical of the Porfirian period with and ornate patio and dining room with vegetable motifs in a Mediterranean style, with a French Academism facade, and interior columns and an arcade of pink stone characteristic of Porfirian Eclecticism.

Camarin of San Diego: Interior detail

Other designs by Refugio Reyes include the Paris Hotel, the Francia Hotel, and his masterpiece, the superb Church of San Antonio, considered to be one of the most beautiful churches in Mexico. The Church of our Lady of Guadalupe possesses an extraordinarily exuberant Baroque facade designed by José de Alcibar, a renowned architect of the period considered to be one of the most famous artists in Mexico in the 1770s. The Camarin of the Immaculate in the church of San Diego is considered by historians to be the last Baroque building in the world; it links the Baroque and Neoclassical styles; it is the largest of the fewer than ten of these type of structures built in the whole continent.

Aguascalientes is also home to some of the country's leading provincial theaters. Outstanding examples are the Morelos Theater, historically important for its role during the Mexican Revolution as a convention site; architecturally, the building is notable for its facade and interior, which houses a small museum. The Teatro Aguascalientes is the city's premier theatre and opera house and is equipped with the latest technology.

Morelos Theater
San Marcos Church
San Marcos Garden

In addition, in the modern section of the city, the Museo Descubre astonishes as an interactive museum of science and technology aimed at providing with a hands-on learning experience. It also possesses an IMAX screen. The Museum of Contemporary Art is the city's premier art museum.

The gothic structure of the Los Arquitos cultural center used to be one of the first bathhouses in the city, declared a historic monument in 1990. The Ojocaliente is also an original bathhouse still in use today, and fed with thermal springs. La Estacion Historic Area (The Old Train Station Complex) contains the Old Train Station and Railway Museum historic complex, which at some point in 1884 formed the largest rail hub and warehouses in all Latin America. The complex is adorned with dancing fountains, a railway plaza and original locomotives and monuments. It was in this complex that the first locomotive completely manufactured in Mexico was made. It symbolizes the progress of the city and its transformation from the rural to an emergent industrial economy. The rail factories supplied with railways and locomotives to whole of Mexico and Central America. The Train Station is also historic due to its unusual (for Mexico) English architectural style. The Alameda avenue, the railway hangars, the factory complexes, and its surrounding housing have been proposed to be placed in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Notable residents


The city is home to the soccer team Club Necaxa, which currently plays in the Primera Division de Mexico after spending a year in the national's second tier known as Liga de ascenso (formerly Primera A). The club left Mexico City and relocated to Aguascalientes following the 2003 opening of Estadio Victoria, which is now the club's home venue. Panteras de Aguascalientes is the city's entry in Mexico's National Professional Basketball League. The baseball team Rieleros de Aguascalientes, returned to the Mexican League in 2012. The team previously won the championship in 1978.


  1. ^ Javier Rodríguez Lozano. "En estos días Aguascalientes llegará al millón de habitantes - La Jornada Aguascalientes (". La Jornada Aguascalientes ( Retrieved 7 September 2014. 
  2. ^ "Bajío, el nuevo milagro mexicano - T21". T21. Retrieved 7 September 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "Historia de la Ciudad de Aguascalientes". Retrieved 7 September 2014. 
  4. ^ "Aguascalientes, la ciudad más limpia de Latinoamérica :: El Informador". EL INFORMADOR. Retrieved 7 September 2014. 
  5. ^ "Línea Verde contará con servicios digitales - La Jornada Aguascalientes (". La Jornada Aguascalientes ( Retrieved 7 September 2014. 
  6. ^ "Aguascalientes, traditional city in Mexico". Retrieved 7 September 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g [2]
  8. ^ a b "Se ofertan mil empleos a jóvenes en Aguascalientes". Retrieved 7 September 2014. 
  9. ^ "Aguascalientes recibió a 187 mil turistas este verano". Retrieved 7 September 2014. 
  10. ^ NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951-2010 (in Spanish). National Meteorological Service of Mexico. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
  11. ^ "Normales climatológicas para Aguascalientes, AGS" (in Spanish). Colegio de Postgraduados. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Aguascalientes". Catálogo de Localidades.  
  13. ^ INEGI, CONAPO, SEDESOL (2000). Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (ed.): «Ciudades de México por IDH» (PDF).
  14. ^ "Human Development Report 2013 : The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World" (PDF). Retrieved 18 November 2014. 
  15. ^ "Home." Escuela Japonesa de Aguascalientes. Retrieved on May 10, 2014. "Avenida del Lago 161,Jardines del Parque,Aguascalientes, AGS,C.P.20276,Mexico"
  16. ^ "Visita a la Escuela Japonesa de Aguascalientes" (Archive). La Jornada Aguascalientes. Retrieved on October 1, 2013.
  17. ^ "Se implementará en Aguascalientes el proyecto de Movilidad en Bicicleta del DF - La Jornada Aguascalientes (". La Jornada Aguascalientes ( Retrieved 7 September 2014. 


Aguascalientes was the hometown of Esperanza Ortega in the book Esperanza Rising.

External links

  • Municipal website
  • News website including streaming media and radio news
  • Grupo de Usuarios de Linux de Aguascalientes
  • City Map and Commercial guide with street search and product/company search
  • Fotos, Mensajes, y Mas de Aguascalientes
  • Photographs of Aguascalientes in
  • Link to tables of population data from Census of 2005 INEGI: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática

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