World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Al Anbar Governorate


Al Anbar Governorate

Anbar Governorate
محافظة الأنبار
Anbar Province
Location of Anbar Governorate
Country  Iraq
Capital Ramadi
Governor Suhaib al-Rawi
 • Total 138,501 km2 (53,476 sq mi)
Population (July 2011 Estimate)
 • Total 1,561,407[1]

Al Anbar Governorate (Arabic: محافظة الأنبار‎; al-’Anbār) (or Anbar Province) is, geographically, the largest governorate in Iraq. Encompassing much of the country's western territory, it shares borders with Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. The provincial capital is Ramadi, and other important cities in the province include Fallujah and Haditha.

Before 1976 the governorate was known as Ramadi; before 1962, it was known as Dulaim. In 1976 it was renamed Al Anbar Province. Nearly all the inhabitants of the province are Sunni Muslims and mostly from the Dulaim tribe.

As of 2015, the majority of Al Anbar is occupied by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.


  • Etymology 1
  • Geography 2
  • Government 3
  • Population 4
  • Anbar during the United States War in Iraq 5
  • Cities and towns 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9


US helicopter showdown in Ramadi 2005.

The name of the governorate means "granaries" in Persian and hence Arabic, The word Anbar (أنبار) is the plural of Nbr (نبر) in Arabic which means "granary". The name of the Governorate is taken over from a historic city that was originally located on its territory and whose ruins can still be seen 5 km northwest of Fallujah near the city of Saqlawiyah today. This city of Anbār (Persian: Peruz Shapur) was founded in the 3rd century by the Muntherids, and was before the Arab conquest in 634, the second largest city of Iraq. It was abandoned after the Mongol invasion in the 14th century.

Dulaim is the old name of the governorate due to the Dulaim tribe inhabiting the region. It was called also called Al-Dulaim (لواء الدليم) in the Ottoman period and Sanjak Al-Dulaim in the seventeenth century.


Al Anbar

Geographically, Anbar governorate is considered part of the Arabian Peninsula. The region's geography is a combination of steppe and true desert, characterised by a desert climate, low rainfall and a large variation in temperature between day and night. Summer temperatures rise to 42 degrees Celsius, whilst in the winter average lows reach 9 degrees Celsius. The northwesterly and southwesterly winds are sometimes to a maximum speed of 21 m/s. Average rainfall in winter to 115 mm.

The most important agricultural crops in Al-Anbar are wheat, potatoes, autumn, barley, maize and vegetables and fodder. There are also a large number of orchards and the province has 2.5 million palm trees. Agriculture depends on perfusion or through the rivers and the wells and the rains.

The Euphrates River flows diagonally from the north to the southeast, passing through six of the seven districts:



The main cities of Al Anbar

In the 1920s, the governorate had 250,000 and Baghdad had 250,000. At the moment the total population of Iraq was 2 million. Today there are 9 million people living in Baghdad.[3] Among them are about a million Anbari people in the city of Baghdad and the suburbs of Baghdad; their origins from Al-Anbar belong to the Al-Anbar tribes moved to Baghdad during the past 500 years and their recent migrations to Baghdad was during the twenties and thirties of the last century.

Half of the residents in Anbar are living on the banks of the Euphrates River outside cities and the towns, there were between 1.9 million and 2 million inhabitants in the districts of Al Anbar.[4] The largest cities are Ramadi (pop. 900.000) and Fallujah (700.000).

Districts Population
Ramadi 908,480
Fallujah 701,354
Heet 412,414
Al-Qa'im 370,646
Rutba 180,118
Haditha 151,384
Anah 103,154

According to UN estimate in 2003 the population of Al Anbar is 1,230,169.[5] There are no precise estimates of the population which include all of the cities and towns and villages in Anbar. According to a 2003 estimate by the NGO Coordination Committee in Iraq, the population was 1,230,140.

It is estimated that around 90 percent of Anbar's inhabitants are adherents of the Sunni branch of Islam. The remaining ten percent are either Shi'ites or Christians.[6]

Anbar during the United States War in Iraq

President Al Asad Airbase, September 2007

The geographic challenge of the Anbar Governorate is demonstrated by two contrasting facts: while it is Iraq's largest governorate, it also is its most sparsely populated. For a governorate that is approximately the size of Bangladesh, it is home to fewer than 1.8 million Iraqis. Most of the population lives in the major cities, like Ramadi and Fallujah, and almost everyone else lives within a short distance of the Euphrates River that snakes from Baghdad to the Syrian Border near Al Qa'im.[7] Its strategic challenge was demonstrated, in part, by casualty statistics. During the first four years of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), the Anbar Province was the deadliest province for American service members, claiming approximately one-third of American fatalities.[7]

In a country where most were associated with the Shi'ia branch of Islam, the Anbar Province was the Sunni stronghold that had long provided Saddam Hussein with the support he needed to remain in power.[7] During the early years of Operation Iraqi Freedom, it provided an important base for Al Qaeda and insurgent operations.[7] Part of its significance came from the fact that the Western Euphrates River Valley served as an important infiltration route for foreign fighters headed to Iraq’s heartland.[7] The New York Times compared this region to the Vietnam War’s Ho Chi Minh Trail, as foreign fighters and insurgents used the river valley to move in relative safety from the Syrian border to cities like Baghdad, Ramadi and Fallujah.

The contrast between the fertile Euphrates River Valley and the rest of the province is striking. Along the Euphrates, groves of fruits and vegetables and acre after acre of date palms are surrounded by a lushness that paints the area a vivid green. Just a few miles from the Euphrates, however, the barren landscape turns brown. With the exception of an occasional Bedouin, the desert is essentially empty. Whether traveling by aircraft, vehicle, or on foot, the Anbar Governorate is vast. During a time when mining roads became a strategy of choice for insurgents, the need to patrol and travel throughout the province became one of the Marine Corps’ greatest challenges. The threat of insurgent activity, when combined with the challenges that long-distance travel, choking dust, and stifling heat created, made the Anbar Province a difficult area of operation.[7]

Cities and towns

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ Baghdad
  4. ^
  5. ^ UN Data 2003
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b c d e f

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.