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Anglo-Swedish War (1810-1812)

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Anglo-Swedish War (1810-1812)

Anglo-Swedish War of 1810-1812
Part of the Napoleonic Wars
Date 17 November 1810 – 18 July 1812
Location
Result Treaty of Örebro
Belligerents
 Sweden  United Kingdom
Casualties and losses
None None

During the Napoleonic Wars until 1810, Sweden and the United Kingdom were allies in the war against Napoleon. As a result of Sweden's defeat in the Finnish War and the Pomeranian War, and the following Treaty of Fredrikshamn and Treaty of Paris, Sweden declared war on the United Kingdom. The bloodless war, however, existed only on paper, and Britain was still officially allowed to station ships in the Swedish port of Hanö and trade with the Baltic nations.

Background

The Treaty of Paris concluded on January 6, 1810, forced Sweden to join the Continental System, a trade embargo against Great Britain. Since Great Britain was Sweden's biggest trade partner this caused economic difficulties, and the trade continued to take place through smuggling. On November 13, 1810, France delivered an ultimatum to the Swedish government demanding that within five days Sweden:

  • Declare war against Great Britain,
  • Confiscate all British ships in Swedish ports,
  • Seize all British products in Sweden.

France and its allies threatened to declare war against Sweden if Sweden did not meet the French demands. On November 17, the Swedish government declared war against Great Britain.

The war

No acts of war occurred during the conflict, and Britain was even permitted to station boats in Hanö. Nevertheless, fearing the possibility of a British invasion, the Swedish government began to conscript more farmers into military service. This led to the only bloodshed during the war on June 15, 1811, when Major-General Hampus Mörner with 140 men acted to disperse a group of farmers in Klågerup in Scania who objected to the conscription policy. In the Klågerup riots, Mörner's soldiers killed 30 farmers.[1]

Aftermath

The Swedish Crown Prince Charles August had died on May 28, 1810, and on August 21, 1810, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte was elected crown prince of Sweden. Under Bernadotte's rule, Sweden's relationship with France deteriorated. When France occupied Swedish Pomerania and the island of Rügen in 1812, Sweden sought peace with Great Britain.

Treaties of Orebro

After long negotiations, the Treaty of Orebro was signed on July 18, 1812. On the same day and at the same place, Britain and Russia signed a peace treaty bringing the Anglo–Russian War of 1807–1812 to an end.[2]

Notes

References

Literature

  • Norie, John William(1827) - (J. W. Norie & Co)
  • Sundberg, Ulf(1998) - Svenska krig, 1521-1814 (Hjalmarson & Högberg, Stockholm) ISBN 91-89080-14-9

See also

sv:Sveriges krig mot Storbritannien 1810-1812

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