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Automotive

The automotive industry is a term that covers a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, towed vehicles, motorcycles and mopeds. It is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue.

The term automotive industry usually does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as repair shops and motor fuel filling stations.

The term automotive was created from Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by SAE member Elmer Sperry.[1]

History


The automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929 before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons.[2] After World War II, the U.S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China almost doubled the U.S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units.[3]

Safety

Main article: Automobile safety

Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, danger, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automotives themselves implies that there is no risk of damage.

Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market. The standard ISO 26262 [4] (_See also main article:_ ISO 26262) for instance is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety.[5] That is, to ensure that motored vehicles meet all requirements for safe manufacturing and operation for end-users.

In case of safety issues, danger, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run. This procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material.

Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls,[6] which cause considerable financial consequences.

Economy

Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 260 billion US gallons (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly.[7] The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia.[8] Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study expects this trend to accelerate.[9][10]

World motor vehicle production

For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929 before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the US automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had one car per 4.87 persons.[11] After WWII the U.S. issued 3/4 of world's auto production. In 1980 the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. By producing 18.4 million units in 2011, China produced more than twice the number of automobiles made by the U.S. in second place with 8.7 million units, while Japan was in third place with 8.4 million units.[3]

By year

Template:Global Production of Motorvehicles

By country

Template:World motor vehicle production by country in 2012

By manufacturer

Rank of manufacturers by production, 2012[12]

Rank Group Total Cars LCV HCV Heavy Bus
1 Toyota 10,104,424 8,381,968 1,448,107 268,377 5,972
2 GM 9,285,425 6,608,567 2,658,612 7,558 10,688
3 Volkswagen 9,254,742 8,576,964 486,544 169,064 22,170
4 Hyundai 7,126,413 6,761,074 279,579 70,290 15,470
5 Ford 5,595,483 3,123,340 2,394,221 77,922
6 Nissan 4,889,379 3,830,954 1,022,974 35,451
7 Honda 4,110,857 4,078,376 32,481
8 PSA 2,911,764 2,554,059 357,705
9 Suzuki 2,893,602 2,483,721 409,881
10 Renault 2,676,226 2,302,769 373,457
11 Chrysler 2,371,427 656,892 1,702,235 12,300
12 Daimler AG 2,195,152 1,455,650 257,496 450,622 31,384
13 Fiat 2,127,295 1,501,979 498,984 85,513 40,819
14 BMW 2,065,477 2,065,216 261
15 SAIC 1,783,548 1,523,398 190,848 67,805 1,497
16 Tata 1,241,239 744,067 314,399 165,171 17,602
17 Mazda 1,189,283 1,097,661 91,622
18 Dongfeng Motor 1,137,950 539,845 245,641 337,545 14,919
19 Mitsubishi 1,109,731 980,001 127,435 2,295
20 Changan 1,063,721 835,334 166,727 59,978 1,682
21 Geely 922,906 922,906
22 Fuji 753,320 734,959 18,361
23 BAIC 720,828 83,033 285,081 348,659 4,055
24 FAW 706,012 480,443 52,983 168,793 3,793
25 Great Wall 624,426 487,704 136,722
26 Mahindra 606,418 429,101 173,083 3,461 773
27 Isuzu 600,470 32,309 565,617 2,544
28 Chery 563,951 550,565 13,386
29 Avtovaz 553,232 553,232
30 Brilliance 489,770 231,527 231,862 26,381
31 JAC 476,356 200,278 114,864 145,811 15,403
32 BYD 455,444 455,444
33 Chongqing Lifan Motor Co. 272,657 183,750 24,035 64,872
34 Volvo 234,680 224,000 10,680
35 Proton 162,455 134,934 27,521
36 China National Heavy Duty Truck 127,792 1,224 125,792 776
37 Paccar 125,336 125,336
38 GAZ 125,319 88,899 21,561 14,859
39 Ashok Leyland 117,738 30,776 61,519 25,443
40 Hunan Jiangnan Automobile Manufacturing Co. 117,051 117,051
41 Guangzhou Auto Industry 114,157 87,408 25,611 1,138
42 Shannxi 86,283 8,044 166 77,808 265
43 Porsche 86,083 86,083
44 South East (Fujian) 85,515 81,512 4,003
45 Navistar 83,371 72,005 11,366
46 Xiamen King Long 78,226 36,451 41,775
47 UAZ 70,434 32,469 37,965
48 Tangjun Ou Ling 69,167 16,459 52,708
49 Hebei Zhongxing 63,221 4,955 58,266
50 Sichuan Nanjun 60,743 18,296 41,602 845

Company relationships

It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.

Notable current relationships include:

Top vehicle manufacturing groups by volume

The table below shows the world's largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2011 end of year production figures from the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA)[13] for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque. Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint ventures are typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source of controversy.[14][15]

Note: This section does not include the selling of other products in a region example; CAT sells commercial vehicles in the US, Canada, Mexico, and Australia, and New Zealand. But sells its other products worldwide. If the table(markets) says that a brand is available in example North America, it doesn't include Territories controlled by countries on other continents. Example; GMC isn't available in any European territories within North America.

Marque Country of origin Ownership Markets
1. General Motors Company ( United States)
Buick United States Division United States, Canada, Mexico, China, Israel
Cadillac United States Division North America, Europe, Middle East, China, Japan, South Korea
Chevrolet United States Division Global, except Australia, New Zealand
GMC United States Division North America, Middle East
Holden Australia Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand
HSV Australia Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand
Jie Fang China Joint venture China
Opel Germany Subsidiary Europe (except UK), North Africa, South Africa, Middle East, China, Singapore, Chile
OPC Germany Subsidiary Europe (except UK), South Africa, Middle East, Singapore, Chile
Vauxhall United Kingdom Subsidiary United Kingdom
UzDaewoo Uzbekistan Joint venture Central Asia, Russia
2. Volkswagen Group AG ( Germany)
Audi Germany Subsidiary Global, except Iran
Bentley United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
Bugatti France Subsidiary Global
Lamborghini Italy Subsidiary Global
Ducati Italy Subsidiary Global
MAN Germany Subsidiary Europe, Asia, Africa, South America, India
Porsche Germany Subsidiary Global, except Iran
Scania Sweden Subsidiary Global
SEAT Spain Subsidiary Europe, South America, Africa, Middle East, China, Mexico
Škoda Czech Republic Subsidiary Europe, Asia, Central America (including Dominican Republic), South America, Northern and western Africa, Australia, New Zealand
Volkswagen Germany Subsidiary Global
Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Germany Subsidiary Europe, Central America, South America, Australia, China
VTB Brazil Subsidiary Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria and South Africa
3. Toyota Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Daihatsu Japan Subsidiary Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America
Hino Japan Subsidiary South East Asia, Japan, North America and South America
Lexus Japan Division South East Asia, Japan, Middle East, United States, Canada, Europe, Brazil, Panama, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India
Lexus F Japan Division South East Asia, Japan, Middle East, United States, Canada, Europe, Brazil, Panama, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India
Ranz China Joint-venture China
Scion United States Subsidiary United States, Canada
Toyota Japan Division Global, except Iran
TRD United States Subsidiary North America, United Kingdom, Japan
4. Hyundai Motor Group ( South Korea)
Hyundai South Korea Division Global, except Mexico
Kia South Korea Subsidiary Global
5. Ford Motor Company ( United States)
Ford United States Division Global
FPV Australia Subsidiary Australia
Ford Team RS United Kingdom Subsidiary Europe
Lincoln United States Division United States, Canada, Mexico, Middle East, Japan, South Korea, China
SVT United States Division North America, Middle East
Troller Brazil Subsidiary South America, Africa
6. Nissan ( Japan)
Datsun Japan Division Indonesia, India, Russia, South Africa
Infiniti Template:Country data HK Subsidiary Global, except Japan, Korea, South America and Africa
Infiniti Performance Line Japan Division Global, except Japan, Korea, South America and Africa
Nissan Japan Division Global, except Korea
Nismo Japan Division Global, except Korea
Venucia China Joint venture China
7. Fiat S.p.A. ( Italy)
Abarth Italy Subsidiary Global, except Iran
Alfa Romeo Italy Subsidiary Global, except Iran, China, Taiwan and the Philippines
Chrysler United States Subsidiary Global, except Europe (excluding UK and Ireland), Africa (excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding the Philippines)
Dodge United States Subsidiary Global, except Europe, Africa(excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding the Philippines)
Ferrari Italy Subsidiary Global, except Africa(excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia
Fiat Italy Subsidiary Global, except Africa(excluding South Africa), Iran, South East Asia
Jeep United States Subsidiary Global, except Africa(excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia (excluding the Philippines)
Lancia Italy Subsidiary Europe (except UK and Ireland, Cyprus, Denmark, Norway, Iceland & East Europe)
Maserati Italy Subsidiary Global
Mopar United States Subsidiary Global, except Africa(excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia
Ram United States Subsidiary United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Middle East
Street and Racing Technology United States Subsidiary Global, except Africa(excluding South Africa and Egypt), South Asia, South East Asia
Zastava Trucks Serbia Subsidiary Europe
8. PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A. ( France)
Citroën France Subsidiary Europe, Central and South America, Northern and Western Africa, South Africa, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand, Asia (except India, Pakistan and Bangladesh)
Peugeot France Subsidiary Global, except USA, Canada, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh
9. Honda Motor Company ( Japan)
Acura United States Subsidiary United States, Canada, Mexico, China
Everus China Joint venture China
Honda Japan Division Global, except Korea
10. Renault ( France)
Dacia Romania Subsidiary Europe, Middle East, Northern Africa
Renault France Division Global, except United States, Canada, Korea, Africa(excluding North Africa, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa)
Renault Samsung South Korea Subsidiary South Korea, Chile
11. Suzuki Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Suzuki Japan Division Global, except USA, Canada and Korea
Maruti Suzuki India Subsidiary India, Middle East, South America
12. BMW AG ( Germany)
BMW Germany Division Global
BMW i Germany Division Global
BMW M Germany Division Global
MINI United Kingdom Division Global
Rolls-Royce United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
13. Daimler AG ( Germany)
BharatBenz India Subsidiary India
Denza China Joint venture China
Freightliner United States Division North America, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand
Master Pakistan Subsidiary Pakistan
Mercedes-AMG Germany Division Global
Mercedes-Benz Germany Division Global
Mercedes-Benz Buses Germany Division Global
Mitsubishi Fuso Japan Subsidiary Global
Setra Germany Division Europe, Asia, USA
Smart Germany Division Global
Thomas Built United States Subsidiary North America
Western Star United States Subsidiary North America, Australia, New Zealand
14. Mazda Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Mazda Japan Division Global, except Korea
15. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation ( Japan)
Mitsubishi Japan Division Global, except Korea
Ralliart Japan Subsidiary Global, Except Korea
16. Dongfeng Motor Corporation ( China)
Fengshen China Division China
Venucia China Joint venture China
17. Tata Motors, Ltd ( India)
Hispano Spain Subsidiary Europe
Jaguar United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
Land Rover United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
Tata India Division India, Ghana, Italy, Nepal, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Nigeria
Tata Daewoo South Korea Subsidiary South Korea, Pakistan
18. Geely Automobile ( China)
Englon China Division China
Emgrand China Division China, United Kingdom, Turkey
Gleagle China Division China
Geely China Division China, Taiwan, Russia, North Africa, Middle East, South America, South Africa, Australia, Turkey
Maple China Division China
Volvo (Cars) Sweden Subsidiary Global
19. Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Corporation, Ltd ( China)
BAW China Division China
Foton China Subsidiary China, Taiwan, Japan, Australia, South America, India
20. Chana Automobile Company, Ltd ( China)
Chana China Division China, Taiwan, South Africa, Europe
Hafei China Subsidiary China
Changhe China Division China, Venezuela
Tiger Truck United States Subsidiary United States, Canada
21. SAIPA ( Iran)
Pars Khodro Iran Subsidiary Iran
SAIPA Iran Division Iran, Syria
SAIPA Diesel Iran Subsidiary Iran
Zamyad Iran Subsidiary Iran
22. Chery Automobile Company, Ltd ( China)
Chery China Division China, South East Asia, Russia, South Africa, South America
Qoros China Joint-Venture China, Europe, Israel
Riich China Division China
Rely China Division China
23. OAO AvtoVAZ ( Russia)
Lada Russia Division Europe (except United Kingdom, Portugal and Malta), Central Asia
VIS Russia Division Russia
24. First Automotive Group Corporation ( China)
Besturn China Division China
Freewind China Subsidiary China
Haima China Subsidiary China
Hongqi China Division China
Jiaxing China Subsidiary China
Jie Fang China Joint venture China
Vita China Subsidiary China
Xiali China Subsidiary China
25. Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd ( Japan)
Subaru Japan Division Global, except Mexico and Korea
26. Great Wall Motor Company, Ltd ( China)
Great Wall China Division China, Taiwan, South Africa, Russia, North Africa, Australia, Europe, Middle East
27. Isuzu Motors, Ltd ( Japan)
Isuzu Japan Division Global, except Brazil and Korea
28. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Company, Ltd ( China)
JAC China Division China, Africa, Brazil
29. Brilliance China Automotive Holding, Ltd ( China)
Brilliance China Division China, North Africa
Jinbei China Subsidiary China
30. SAIC Motor ( China)
Baojun China Joint venture China
Maxus China Division China, Australia, South Africa, United Kingdom, Chile, Malaysia
MG Motor United Kingdom Subsidiary China, United Kingdom, South America, Australia
Roewe China Division China, Belarus
Soyat China Division China
Yuejin China Division China
Wuling China Joint venture China
31. BYD Auto ( China)
BYD China Division China, Taiwan, Russia, United States, Canada
Denza China Joint venture China
32. Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd ( India)
Mahindra India Division India, South East Asia, Europe, North Africa, North America, Australia
REVA India Division India
SsangYong South Korea Subsidiary Global, except North America and Japan
33. AB Volvo ( Sweden)
Mack United States Subsidiary United States, Canada, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, Australia
NovaBus Canada Subsidiary North America
Prevost Canada Subsidiary North America
Renault Trucks France Subsidiary Global, except Japan, United States and Canada
UD Trucks Japan Subsidiary Global
Volvo Trucks Sweden Subsidiary Global
34. China Changan Automotive ( China)
China Changan Automotive China Subsidiary China
35. Iran Khodro Company ( Iran)
Iran Khodoro Iran Division Middle East,Northern Africa, Russia, Belarus, Central Asia, China, Venezuela
IKCO Diesel Iran Division Middle East, Northern and Western Africa
36. Chongqing Lifan Automobile Company, Ltd ( China)
Lifan China Division China, Taiwan, Russia, Middle East, South America
37. Proton Holdings, Bhd ( Malaysia)
Lotus United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
Proton Malaysia Division Southeast Asia, China, Australia, United Kingdom, Middle East
38. Jiangling Motors ( China)
Jiangling China Division China, Europe
39. Fujian Motors Group ( China)
Soueast China Joint-Venture China
King Long China Joint-Venture China, South East Asia, India, North America, Europe, Middle East, Australia, New Zealand
Xiamen Golden Dragon China Joint-Venture China, South East Asia, Middle East, Africa, South America
Higer Bus China Joint-Venture China,South Asia, Middle East, Africa, Russia, Eastern Europe, United States, Canada, Central America, South America
40. Kuozui Motors, Ltd ( Taiwan)
Kuozui Taiwan Subsidiary Taiwan
42. China National Heavy Duty Truck Group ( China)
Sinotruck Template:Country data HK Division China
43. Hunan Jiangnan Automobile ( China)
Jiangnan China Division China
44. Paccar Inc. ( United States)
DAF Trucks Netherlands Subsidiary Global, except North America and Japan
Kenworth United States Division North America, Australia
Leyland Trucks United Kingdom Subsidiary Global, except North America and Japan
Peterbilt United States Division North America
45. GAZ ( Russia)
GAZ Russia Division Russia, Europe, Central Asia
LiAZ Russia Subsidiary Russia
Ural Trucks Russia Division Russia
46. Shaanxi Automobile Group ( China)
Shaanxi China Division China
47. Qingling Motors Company Ltd. ( China)
Qingling China Division China
48. Ashok Leyland ( India)
Ashok Leyland India Division South Asia, Middle East, East Africa
49. Navistar International Corporation ( United States)
eStar United States Division United States, Canada
IC United States Subsidiary United States, Canada
International United States Division North America, South America, Russia, Middle East, Egypt, South Africa
??. Fiat Industrial S.p.A ( Italy)
Iveco Italy Subsidiary Global
Irisbus France Subsidiary Global, except North America
Zastava Trucks Serbia Subsidiary Europe
??. Oshkosh Corporation ( United States)
Oshkosh United States Division USA, Canada, China
??. Yulon Motor ( Taiwan)
Luxgen Taiwan Division Taiwan, China, Oman
Tobe Taiwan Division Taiwan
??. Shandong Kaima ( China)
Kaima China Division China
Jubao China Division China
Aofeng China Division China
??. Guangzhou Automobile Industry Group Co Ltd ( China)
Changfeng China Subsidiary China, Russia, Middle East, Africa
Everus China Joint venture China
Gonow China Subsidiary China
Trumpchi China Division China
??. Micro (cars) ( Sri Lanka)
Micro (cars) Sri Lanka Division Sri Lanka
??. Rongcheng Hawtai Automobile ( China)
Hawtai China Division China
??. Caterpillar Inc. ( United States)
CAT United States Division United States, Canada, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand

By total production

Quantifying the total production of a manufacturer, from their start-up, is a difficult task, because of frequent company ownership changes. However some producers, and independent sources, provide some valuable statistics:

  • Toyota reached 200 000 000 vehicles as of July 2012 (after 77 years of production).[16]

Minor automotive manufacturers

There are many automobile manufacturers other than the major global companies. They are mostly regional or operating in niche markets.

See also

References

External links

  • Top Ranking Car Companies
  • Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
  • All vehicle manufacturers in the world (in Dutch with English etc. translation)
  • Car makes of the world, 1894—present

Template:Automotive industry Template:Industries


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