Br-DFLY

Bromo-DragonFLY

Identifiers
CAS number 502759-67-3 N
PubChem 10496688 S YesY
ChemSpider 8672089 S YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 2
Properties
Molecular formula
Molar mass 294.144 g mol−1
log P 2.519
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Bromo-DragonFLY (or 3C-Bromo-Dragonfly, DOB-Dragonfly[2]) is a psychedelic drug related to the phenethylamine family. Bromo-DragonFLY is considered an extremely potent hallucinogen, only slightly less potent than LSD with a normal dose in the region of 200 μg to 800 μg, and it has an extremely long duration of action up to several days.[3] Bromo-DragonFLY has a stereocenter and R-(-)-bromo-DragonFLY is the more active stereoisomer.

History

Bromo-DragonFLY was first synthesized by Matthew Parker in the laboratory of David E. Nichols in 1998. As with the earlier and less potent dihydrofuran series of compounds nicknamed FLY, Bromo-DragonFLY was named after its superficial structural resemblance to a dragonfly.

Pharmacology

The hallucinogenic effect of bromo-DragonFLY is mediated by its agonist activity at the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor. Bromo-DragonFLY also has a high binding affinity for the 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C serotonin receptors, and is most accurately described as a non-subtype selective 5-HT2 agonist, as it is actually twice as potent an agonist for 5-HT2C receptors as for 5-HT2A, as well as being less than 5x selective for 5-HT2A over 5-HT2B.[4][5]

Dosage

The typical dose of Bromo-DragonFLY is not known, however it has varied from 500 μg to 1 mg.[3] It has about 300 times the potency of mescaline, or 1/5 the potency of LSD. It has been sold in the form of blotters, similar to the distribution method of LSD, which has led to confusion, and reports of mistakenly consuming Bromo-DragonFly. It has a much longer duration of action than LSD and can last for up to 2–3 days[3] following a single large dose, with a slow onset of action that can take up to 6 hours before the effects are felt.

Toxicity

The toxicity of Bromo-DragonFLY appears to be fairly high for humans when taken in doses above the therapeutic range, with reports of at least five deaths believed to have resulted from Bromo-DragonFLY reported in Norway,[6] Sweden,[7][8] Denmark,[9][10] Finland[11] and the United States. Laboratory testing has confirmed that in October 2009, a batch of Bromo-Dragonfly was distributed, mislabeled as the related compound 2C-B-FLY, which is around 20x less potent than BDF by weight. This mistake is believed to have contributed to several lethal overdoses and additional hospitalizations. The batch implicated in these deaths also contained significant synthesis impurities, which may have contributed to the toxicity.[12]

Vasoconstrictive action resulting from severe overdose of Bromo-DragonFLY is known to have caused tissue necrosis of the extremities in at least one case. In September 2007, a 35-year-old Swedish male required amputation of the front part of his feet and several fingers on one hand after taking a massive (but unknown) overdose; reportedly, the compound acted as a long-acting efficacious vasoconstrictor, leading to necrosis and gangrene which became apparent several weeks after the overdose occurred. Treatment was of limited efficacy in this case, although tolazoline is reportedly an effective treatment where available.[13][14]

Overdoses, disturbing experiences, and Bromo-DragonFLY associated health problems have been described. One case in 2008 in England involved inhalation of vomit, causing nearly fatal asphyxia.[15] Seizures have also been reported.[16]

On October 3, 2009, a 22-year-old male from Copenhagen died after ingesting Bromo-dragonfly. His friend described the trip saying, "It was like being dragged to hell and back again. Many times. It is the most evil [thing] I've ever tried. It lasted an eternity" [17]

On May 7, 2011, in the United States, two young adults died after overdosing on Bromo-DragonFLY, which they thought was 2C-E, and several others were hospitalized during the same incident. Because they took a dosage appropriate for 2C-E, those who took the drug received, in some cases, 100x the normal dose. Both deaths followed seizures, vomiting blood, and terrifying hallucinations. Several surviving victims are reportedly still suffering from its physical effects.[18]

Drug prohibition laws

United States

Bromo-DragonFLY is listed as a Schedule I in Oklahoma.

Canada

Listed as a Schedule 1 [19] as it is an analogue of amphetamine.[20] The CDSA was updated as a result of the Safe Streets Act changing amphetamines from Schedule 3 to Schedule 1.[21]

United Kingdom

Reported as a Class A drug.[22] however it is unclear whether the chemical structure is covered by the ban on substituted phenethylamines[23]

Sweden

Sveriges riksdag added Bromo-Dragonfly to schedule IV ("substances, plant materials and fungi with medical use") as narcotics in Sweden as of Jan 3, 2008, published by Medical Products Agency in their regulation LVFS 2007:14 listed as Bromo-Dragonfly, brombensodifuranyl-isopropylamin.[24] Bromo-DragonFLY was first classified as "health hazard" by Sveriges riksdags health ministry Statens folkhälsoinstitut under the act Lagen om förbud mot vissa hälsofarliga varor (translated Act on the Prohibition of Certain Goods Dangerous to Health) as of Jul 15, 2007, in their regulation SFS 2007:600 listed as brombensodifuranylisopropylamin (Bromo-Dragonfly), making it illegal to sell or possess.[25]

Denmark

On December 3, 2007 the drug was banned in Denmark.[26] The substance has been declared illegal by health minister Jakob Axel Nielsen, following recommendations from the Danish Health Ministry. It is currently classified as a dangerous narcotic and therefore its possession, manufacture, importation, supply or usage is strictly prohibited. Anyone involved in such activities can face legal action.[27]

Norway

Bromo-DragonFLY is currently on the Norwegian narcotics list,.[28][29] Thus it is effectively a narcotic drug by Norwegian law.

Romania

The chemical compound has been added as an illegal substance under the Law 143/2000 on February 10, 2010.[30]

Australia

As of 9 September 2011, Bromo-DragonFLY was added to Schedule 2 of the Queensland Drugs Misuse Regulation 1987.[31]

Finland

As of 12 March 2012, Bromo-DragonFLY is an illegal designer drug.[32]

See also

Notes

References

  • receptor' J. Med. Chem. 41(26): 5148-5149
  • 'Enantiospecific synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a series of super-potent, conformationally restricted 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonists' by J. J. Chambers, D. M. Kurrasch-Orbaugh, M. A. Parker, and D. E. Nichols in J. Med. Chem. 44(6): 1003-1010 (2001) 10.1021/jm000491y
  • Bromo-dragonfly – livsfarlig missbruksdrog
  • Per, 35, blev stympad av dödsdrogen - Vårdades i respirator i tio dygn efter att ha tagit Bromo-Dragonfly
  • [6]
  • [7]

External links

  • Erowid Bromo-Dragonfly vault
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