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Casimir I of Kuyavia

 

Casimir I of Kuyavia

Casimir I of Kuyavia (Polish: Kazimierz I kujawski) (c. 1211[1] – 14 December 1267) was Prince of Kujawy, Mazovia and Wielkopolska, from 1233 until his death. He was the son of Konrad I of Masovia, High Duke of Poland, and his wife Agafia of Rus.

Life

Casimir received the Duchy of Kujawy on his father's death in 1233. In 1239 he received a dowry from his second wife Constance, daughter of Henry II the Pious. In subsequent years, his support of his father's turbulent politics brought him to the duchy of Gdańsk. Casimir's brother, Boleslaw, had become Duke of Mazovia on the death of their father.

Casimir did not wish to quarrel with his brother Boleslaw over the inheritance. When Boleslaw died childless in 1248, all his possessions should have passed to his brother Casimir. However, Boleslaw had decided to leave his lands to their younger brother, Ziemowit.

Ziemovit allied with Daniel of Galicia against Casimir. As part of the alliance, Ziemovit married Daniel's daughter, Pereyaslava. In 1254, Ziemowit struck an alliance with the Teutons, for protection against the advancing Baltic tribes. A coalition, led by Boleslaw the Pious of Greater Poland in 1259 forced Ziemovit to give back some of the lands that were rightfully Casimir's. Other territories passed to Henry II the Pious.

In 1250, Casimir tried to establish peaceful relations with the neighboring Yotvingians tribes. However, his peace plan was not supported by the Teutonic Order, which had the Pope on its side. After its failure, Casimir turned his attention elsewhere. In order to secure the northern border of his territory, he appealed to the Knights Templar, who settled in Łuków. It was not until 1263, that relations with the Teutonic Order returned to normal.[2]

Meanwhile, Casimir faced more troubles. In 1258, Boleslaw the Pious made an alliance with Wartislaw III, Duke of Pomerania. Together, they launched an attack against Casimir, claiming lands that had been given to him illegally by Henry II the Pious. The attack failed, but Boleslaw did not give up. The following year, he succeeded in bringing the powerful dukes Bolesław V the Chaste (Casimir's cousin), Ziemovit and Daniel of Galicia) into his coalition against Casimir. Peace negotiations were difficult and required the coalition to launch a new attack against Casimir, in 1261. Taking advantage of his weakening father, Casimir's son Leszek II the Black made a claim on his inheritance. Casimir lost the Duchy of Sieradz, which he divided between his sons.

Casimir died in 1267 and was buried in the Cathedral of Włocławek.

Marriages and Children

Casimir's first marriage was to Jadwiga, whose origins are unknown, possibly the daughter of Hedwig, wife of Władysław Odonic. They had no children and she died in 1235.[3]

Casimir married secondly in 1239 to Constance, daughter of Henry II the Pious and Anna of Bohemia. They had the following children:

  1. Adelaide (before 7 April 1249-8 December 1291), nun
  2. Leszek II the Black (1240/42-30 September 1288), Duke of the Fragmentation of Poland
  3. Ziemomysł of Kuyavia (1241/45-29 October/24 December 1287), Duke of Kuyavia

After Constance died in 1257, Casimir married in the same year, Euphrosyne, daughter of Casimir I of Opole and Viola, and they had the following children:

  1. Władysław I the Elbow-high (1261-March 2, 1333), King of Poland (1320–1333)
  2. Casimir (1261/62-10 June 1294), killed while in battle in Lithuania
  3. Siemowit (1262/67-1309/14), Duke of Kuyavia-Brieg, married Anastasia of Galicia (daughter of Lev I of Galicia)
  4. Euphemia (d.18 March 1308), married Yuri I of Galicia

References

This article incorporates information from the revision as of 11 October 2009 of the equivalent article on the polski World Heritage Encyclopedia.
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