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Charles Augustus Strong

Charles Augustus Strong (28 November 1862 – 23 January 1940) was a philosopher and psychologist. He spent the earlier part of his career teaching in the United States of America, but he later settled in Italy, near Florence, and it was there between 1918 and 1936 that he wrote most of his works.[1]


  • Early life and studies 1
  • Career 2
  • Philosophy 3
  • Publications 4
  • References 5

Early life and studies

Charles Augustus Strong was born in America on 28 November 1862, at Carl Stumpf and Friedrich Paulsen.


On his return to America Strong worked part-time as an instructor in philosophy at Cornell University.

In 1889 Strong went to Paris, Freiburg and Berlin. In the same year he married Bessie, the daughter of John D. Rockefeller.

In 1890 Strong became a docent at Clark University and in 1892 he was appointed associate professor of psychology at the University of Chicago. Chicago's first psychological laboratories were set up by Strong in 1893.

Strong moved on to Columbia University, where he lectured in psychology until 1903 and from 1903 to 1910 was a professor of psychology. In 1903 he authored his first work, Why the Mind Has a Body.

In 1906, on the death of his wife, Strong moved with his daughter Margaret to Fiesole near Florence in Italy. Strong died on 23 January 1940 near his Villa Le Balze, Fiesole, Italy.

His villa was left to Margaret Rockefeller Strong de Larraín, Marquesa de Cuevas (1897–1985). He was a member of the Century Club of New York.


In The Origin of Consciousness (1918), Strong advocated a form of panpsychism. The book expanded on William Kingdon Clifford's mind-stuff theory. Philosopher David Skrbina has noted that "Strong stands out as one of the more consistent and open advocates of panpsychism in the first part of the century."[2]


  • Why the Mind Has a Body (1903)
  • The Origin of Consciousness (1918)
  • Essays in Critical Realism (1920)
  • The Wisdom of the Beasts (1921)
  • A Theory of Knowledge (1923)
  • Essays on the Natural Origin of the Mind (1930)
  • A Creed for Sceptics (1936)


  1. ^ Neal W. Klausner. (1967). C. A. Strong: Realist and Panpsychist. The Monist. Vol. 51, No. 2, British and American Realism, 1900-1930. pp. 267-283.
  2. ^ Skrbina, David. (2005). Panpsychism in the West. MIT Press. p. 158. ISBN 0-262-19522-4
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