World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Chrysler 300

Chrysler 300
2011 Chrysler 300C
Manufacturer Chrysler (Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, previously Chrysler and DaimlerChrysler)
Production 2004–present
Model years 2005–present
Assembly Brampton, Ontario, Canada (Brampton Assembly)[1]
Graz, Austria (Magna Steyr)
Beijing, China (Beijing Benz)
Designer Ralph Gilles (2001)
Freeman Thomas (2001)
Body and chassis
Class Full-size luxury car
Body style 4-door sedan
5-door station wagon (Europe, Australia and Latin America)
Layout Front engine, rear-wheel drive / all-wheel drive
Platform Chrysler LX platform
Related Lancia Thema
Predecessor Chrysler 300M
Chrysler Concorde
Chrysler Intrepid (Canada)

The Chrysler 300 is a full-size top-of-the-range luxury sedan produced by Chrysler. Designed by Ralph Gilles in 2001, and first shown at the 2003 New York Auto Show as a concept car, sales in the United States began in April 2004. The 300 was Chrysler's first rear-wheel-drive full-sized sedan since the discontinuation of the Chrysler Newport of 1981. The SRT-8 model was intended as the high-performance version.

The 2011 model was sold as the Lancia Thema in Europe, except in the United Kingdom and Ireland, where it was sold as the Chrysler 300C.[2]


  • First generation (2005–2010) 1
    • Model range 1.1
      • Base 1.1.1
      • Touring 1.1.2
      • Limited 1.1.3
      • 300C 1.1.4
      • SRT-8 1.1.5
    • Other variants 1.2
      • Station wagon 1.2.1
      • Diesel (2006–2011) 1.2.2
      • ASC Helios 300 1.2.3
      • Executive Series 300 1.2.4
    • Awards 1.3
    • Reception and legacy 1.4
  • Second generation (2011–present) 2
    • Variants 2.1
      • SRT8 2.1.1
      • Special editions 2.1.2
    • Engines 2.2
    • Marketing 2.3
    • 2015 facelift 2.4
  • Safety 3
  • Concept cars 4
  • Total U.S. sales 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

First generation (2005–2010)

First generation
Manufacturer DaimlerChrysler (2005–2007)
Chrysler LLC (2007–2009)
Chrysler Group LLC (2009–2010)
Also called Chrysler 300C
Production 2004–2010
Model years 2005–2010
Assembly Brampton, Ontario, Canada (Brampton Assembly)[1]
Graz, Austria (Magna Steyr)
Beijing, China (Beijing Benz)
Designer Ralph Gilles
Freeman Thomas
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
5-door station wagon (Europe, Australia)
Platform Chrysler LX platform
Related Dodge Charger
Dodge Challenger
Dodge Magnum
Mercedes-Benz E-Class
Engine 2.7 L EER V6
3.5 L EGG V6
3.0 L OM642 turbodiesel V6
Transmission 4-speed 42RLE automatic
5-speed W5A580 automatic
Wheelbase 120.0 in (3,048 mm)[3]
Length 197.8 in (5,024 mm)
Width 74.1 in (1,882 mm)
Height 58.4 in (1,483 mm)
SRT8: 57.9 in (1,471 mm)
Curb weight 3,721-4,046 lb (1,688-1,835 kg )[4][5]

The Chrysler 300 was designed to be a modern interpretation of the Chrysler C-300 and the letter series Chryslers that followed, featuring a large grille, long hood and low roofline that was prominent on those vehicles. The styling retained many elements of the 1998 Chrysler Chronos concept car, such as chrome interior accents and tortoiseshell finishings on the steering wheel and shifter knob.[6]

The Chrysler 300 is based on the rear-wheel drive Chrysler LX platform which features components derived from the W211 Mercedes-Benz E-Class of 2003 to 2009.[7] Shared components include the rear suspension design, front seat frames, wiring harnesses, steering column, the 5-speed automatic transmission's design, and a derivative of the 4Matic all-wheel drive system. The Chrysler 300 also features a double wishbone front suspension that is derived from the W220 Mercedes-Benz S-Class.

Model range


The basic 300 (or 300C in some countries) comes with standard 17-inch wheels, wheel covers, four-wheel disc brakes, single disc mp3 player, auxiliary input jack, power driver seat and a four-speed automatic transmission. It uses a 2,736 cc (2.736 L; 167.0 cu in) EER V6 making 190 hp (140 kW). In Canada, it comes standard with the Touring model's 3,518 cc (3.5 L; 214.7 cu in) V6 engine. The vehicle comes with standard rear wheel drive and available all wheel drive. The basic 300 model was renamed to LX for 2008 and remains as the code-name for the platform.[8]


The Touring model uses a 3,518 cc (3.5 L; 214.7 cu in) V6, producing 250 hp (190 kW) and 250 lb·ft (340 N·m) of torque, either a 4 or 5spd transmission depending on the year and drive configuration, and comes with 17-inch aluminium wheels, AM/FM radio with CD player and auxiliary audio jack, Electronic Stability Program (ESP), remote keyless entry, leather trimmed seats, and SIRIUS satellite radio. This model was renamed Touring Plus for the 2009 and 2010 model years.[8]


The Limited model included the Touring model's 3.5 L V6 engine, generating 250 hp (190 kW) and 250 lb·ft (340 N·m) and either a 4 or 5 speed transmission depending on the year and drive configuration. Additional features included 18-inch chrome-clad aluminium wheels, anti-roll bars.


2005–2010 Chrysler 300C

The top-of-the-line 300C version uses a 5.7 L (345 cu in) Hemi V8.[8] Using the Multidisplacement System (MDS), this engine can run on four cylinders when less power is needed in order to reduce total fuel consumption. The USEPA-rated fuel consumption of the 300C is: 15 miles per US gallon (16 L/100 km; 18 mpg-imp) city, and 23 miles per US gallon (10 L/100 km; 28 mpg-imp) highway. When all eight cylinders are needed, the 300C can make 340 hp (250 kW) and 390 lb·ft (530 N·m) torque. It uses a five-speed automatic transmission and comes standard with 18-inch chrome-clad alloy wheels, Chrysler's MyGIG Infotainment System in 2008 and SIRIUS Satellite Radio and Backseat Television in 2008. The HEMI engine includes a pushrod induction tube, located on the side of the engine-block. This tube makes the 300C more fuel efficient and quicker, because of the air being "pulled and pushed" into the engine's induction area. The engine uses the HEMI, or double rocker configuration, with a cam-in-block, overhead valve (OHV) pushrod design. There are two spark plugs per cylinder to promote efficient fuel/air mixture burn and thereby reduce emissions. In 2009 - 2010 power output was increased to 360HP.


The SRT-8 model was equipped with a 6.1-liter Hemi engine producing 425 horsepower at 6,200 rpm and 420 lb-ft of torque at 4,800 rpm. The SRT8 can hit 0-60 mph in 4.9 seconds.[9]

Other variants

Station wagon

2008 Chrysler 300C Touring

The 300C was sold in Europe and Australia and Japan as both a sedan and a station wagon. The station wagon was sold as the 300C Touring (not to be confused with the North American sedan's "Touring" trim level) which shared much of its sheet metal aft of the c-pillar with the Dodge Magnum. The base Chrysler 300 was not sold in Europe, instead all cars came with the 300C bodystyle/interior and a choice of either V6, diesel or V8 gasoline powerplants. All 300C Touring models, along with European 300C sedans and right-hand drive models were assembled by Magna Steyr in Graz, Austria beginning in June 2005.[10] The station wagon body-style was discontinued after the first generation.

Diesel (2006–2011)

In Europe and Australia, the 300C was available with a Mercedes-Benz 3.0 L diesel V6 engine (internal code OM642) rated 218 PS (160 kW; 215 hp)@3800rpm and 376 lb·ft (510 N·m)@1600rpm. Fuel economy for the 300C diesel is rated at 26.2 mpg-US (9.0 L/100 km; 31.5 mpg-imp) City, 42.8 mpg-US (5.50 L/100 km; 51.4 mpg-imp) Highway and 34.9 mpg-US (6.74 L/100 km; 41.9 mpg-imp) on the combined cycle. Acceleration from 0-60 mph happens in 7.9 seconds while the top speed remains the same as the gasoline V6 (140 mph (230 km/h)).

2008 UK models include 300C SRT-Design model in saloon or Touring body, which included SRT 20-inch alloy wheels and wheel arch spats, chrome mesh grille, MyGIG satellite navigation, SRT-8 steering wheel, SRT-8 leather sports seats and carbon fibre interior details.[11]

ASC Helios 300

ASC created a convertible version of the Chrysler 300C, dubbed the ASC Helios 300, and unveiled it at the North American International Auto Show in early 2005. Despite rumours, Chrysler has confirmed that the vehicle will not be produced.

Executive Series 300

The Walter P. Chrysler Executive Series 300 was an extended wheelbase version shown at the 2006 New York Auto Show. It added six inches (152 mm) to the rear passenger compartment.[12]

Heritage Edition 300C

The Chrysler 300C Heritage Edition debuted in 2006 and was a performance oriented trim that used the 5.7 Hemi and had styling ques from the Chrysler 300 "letter series" of the 1950s and the 1960s.[13]


The 300C was the 2005 Motor Trend Car of the Year and was on Car and Driver's Ten Best list for 2005 and 2006. It also won the North American Car of the Year and Canadian Car of the Year Best New Luxury Car awards. During its debut year, it was promoted as being one of the most awarded new cars ever.

Reception and legacy

The BBC Top Gear team described the 300C as "something different with a bit of kitsch gangster cool". They praised the spacious and well equipped interior and the low price while criticizing the quality of materials, ride, steering and low engine torque.[14]

The 300C enjoyed a wave of popularity in the mid-2000s, aided by celebrity owners (including US President Barack Obama,[15]) and appearances in music videos. In 2004, rapper Snoop Dogg famously called then-Chrysler CEO, Dieter Zetsche, asking for his own 300C; he later appeared in a commercial for the car alongside Lee Iacocca.[16] The 300C was ranked #12 in a article, "The 25 Most Iconic Hip-Hop Cars" due to its popularity in many hip-hop music videos following its introduction.[17] Chrysler 300 designer Ralph Gilles reflected on the vehicle's success in 2008, saying that the "300 turned out to be a bit of an icon for Chrysler".[18]

Second generation (2011–present)

Second generation
Manufacturer Chrysler Group LLC
Also called Lancia Thema (Europe)
Chrysler 300C (UK & Ireland)
Production 2011–present
Model years 2011–present
Assembly Brampton, Ontario, Canada (Brampton Assembly)[1]
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
Platform Chrysler LX platform
Related Dodge Charger
Dodge Challenger
Engine 3.6 L Pentastar V6
5.7 L HEMI V8
6.4 L HEMI V8
3.0 L VM A630 turbodiesel V6
Transmission 5-speed 5G-Tronic automatic
8-speed 8HP45 automatic [19]
Wheelbase 120.2 in (3,053 mm)
Length 198.6 in (5,044 mm)
Width 75.1 in (1,908 mm)
Height 58.4 in (1,483 mm)
Lancia Thema front.

A redesigned 300 was introduced in 2011. Only the sedan body-style is available; the station wagon version of the 300 has been discontinued. Exterior changes include an all new body, bi-xenon HID projector headlights, LED daytime running strips within the headlights, new tail lights with LEDs and a horizontally slotted front grille as standard. The car also features an updated version of the Chrysler brand's winged emblem, which dropped the blue ribbon centre dating back to 1930s. Thinner roof pillars and a more raked windshield contribute to improved visibility. A dual-pane panoramic sunroof will offer twice the outward visibility of an average sunroof. The new 300 has optional 20-inch polished-aluminium wheels. The all new interior upgrades include a new instrument panel with "soft-touch" materials throughout, 8.4 inch Uconnect Touch, new steering wheel and centre console, and standard leather seating on all trim levels. Both seat-mounted and curtain side airbags were made standard.

The predecessors' 2.7- and 3.5-litre engines were replaced with Chrysler's new 3.6-litre Pentastar V6 engine producing 292 horsepower (218 kW) and 260 lb·ft (350 N·m) of torque. The 5.7-litre HEMI V8 engine remained available with 363 horsepower. A 3.0-litre VM Motori V6 turbodiesel is also available in Europe, and Australia.[20] Beginning with model year 2012 all V6 models were equipped with the 8-speed 8HP45 automatic transmission, licensed from ZF Friedrichshafen .[21]


The 2011 model is offered in Touring, Limited, 300C, and 300C AWD trim levels. Touring and Limited trims come with the Pentastar V6, while the 300C line offers the 5.7 HEMI.[22]

A 300S trim was introduced at the 2011 New York International Auto Show together with the 300C Executive series. The 300S featured black treatment for grille and headlamps, 20-inch polished-face aluminium wheels with black painted pockets, 10-speaker Beats by Dr. Dre sound system,[23] and steering wheel mounted paddle shifters.[24] This was also sold in Europe as the Lancia Thema S from 2014.


Chrysler 300 SRT8 6.4L in New York Auto Show
Lancia Thema rear end.

An SRT8 version was unveiled at the 2011 New York International Auto Show, powered by a 6.4-litre 392 HEMI V8 engine. The 6.4 392 Hemi engine is also used in other Chrysler Group SRT vehicles. With 465 hp (347 kW), the new 300 SRT8 can go from zero to 60 mph (97 km/h) in the low 4 second range.[25]

In addition to the increase in power, the SRT8 receives specific exterior trim including a lower front fascia, large exhaust tips, body color instead of chrome trim and large 20-inch aluminium wheels. The car also gets a lowered, sportier suspension setup and a large Brembo brake package.[26]

The 300 SRT (or SRT8) was discontinued for MY 2015.[27]

Special editions

  • The 300 Motown Edition model sales began in the spring of 2013. The Motown Edition is a tribute to the Motown genre of music. Additions to the Chrysler 300C features, include special chrome wheels, a Beats by Dr. Dre ten-speaker sound system, "Motown Edition" badges on the front fenders, as well as 100 Motown tunes preloaded on a USB drive.[28] Berry Gordy, the creator of the Motown genre, appears in a 2012 TV ad for the Chrysler 300 Motown Edition, promoting his musical, and saying "This is Motown. And this is what we do". The song playing in the commercial is "Ain't No Mountain High Enough".
  • 300S Glacier Edition, available in the fall of 2012 as a 2013 model year vehicle. Based on the Chrysler 300S, the Glacier Edition adds signature details not found on other Chrysler 300 models.
  • Mopar '12, available as a 2012 model year vehicle. This Special Edition Chrysler 300 was designed by Mopar Performance to mark Mopar's 75th anniversary. Featuring a 3:91 gear ratio, sport tuned suspension, and unique badging, only 500 Mopar Edition 300's were made.


Model Engine Displacement Power @ rpm Torque @ rpm Years
Touring 3.6 V6 Pentastar 3,604 cc (219.9 cu in) 296 PS (218 kW; 292 hp) @ 6350 rpm 350 N·m (260 lb·ft) @ 4800 rpm 2011–
300S[29] 3.6 V6 Pentastar 3,604 cc (219.9 cu in) 304 PS (224 kW; 300 hp) 350 N·m (260 lb·ft) @ 4800 rpm 2011–
300C 5.7 V8 HEMI 5,654 cc (345.0 cu in) 368 PS (271 kW; 363 hp) @ 5150 rpm 527 N·m (389 lb·ft) @ 4250 rpm 2011–
300 SRT-8 6.4L 392 Hemi V8 engine 6,430 cc (392 cu in) 477 PS (351 kW; 470 hp) 637 N·m (470 lb·ft) 2012–
Lancia - (Chrysler UK)
Petrol 3.6 V6 Pentastar 3,604 cc (219.9 cu in) 286 PS (210 kW; 282 hp) @ 6350 rpm 340 N·m (250 lb·ft) @ 4650 rpm 2011–
Diesel 3.0 V6 VM Motori A630 2,987 cc (182.3 cu in) 190 PS (140 kW; 190 hp) @ 4000 rpm 440 N·m (320 lb·ft) @ 1600-2800 rpm 2011–
239 PS (176 kW; 236 hp) @ 4000 rpm 550 N·m (410 lb·ft) @ 1800-2800 rpm
  • Source for Lancia[30]


As part of the 2011 Chrysler 300 advertising campaign, three TV commercials were produced. "Homecoming" featured Detroit Lions defensive lineman Ndamukong Suh driving through his rainy hometown of Portland, Oregon, in his new 2011 Chrysler 300, retracing his humble beginnings. "Attitude" featured John Varvatos seeking inspiration at a record store in Brooklyn and record under his arm and into his Chrysler 300. "Good Things" featured Dr. Dre driving through the streets of Los Angeles in a Beats by Dre equipped 2012 Chrysler 300.[31]

The 'See It Through' TV commercial featured the Chrysler 300 and notable Detroit locals, including Detroit Lion's Ndamukong Suh and a poem written in 1917 by Edgar Guest titled "See It Through".[32]

2015 facelift

In late 2014 a facelift version of the 300 was introduced. Changes include:


The Lancia version was safety tested by Euro NCAP in autumn 2011 and got the following results:

Euro NCAP test results
Lancia Thema (2011)[33]
Test Points %
Adult occupant: 39 94%
Child occupant: 38 93%
Pedestrian: 21 59%
Safety assist: 5 94%

Concept cars

  • In 2000, Chrysler introduced the 300 HEMI C,[34] a 2+2 convertible bearing the new 5.7 litre HEMI engine with 353 horsepower (263 kW) and 353 lb·ft (479 N·m) torque. It had rear wheel drive and a four speed automatic transmission. It was capable of 0-60 mph in under 6 seconds.
  • In 1991, Chrysler introduced a Monteverdi High Speed inspired concept 300,[35] employing the Dodge Viper engine. It was inspired by the a 1970s Swiss-built sedan powered by Chrysler.

Total U.S. sales

Calendar Year Sales
2004[36] 112,930
2005[36] 144,068
2006[37] 143,647
2007[37] 120,636
2008[38] 62,352
2009[39] 38,606
2010[40] 37,116
2011[41] 36,285
2012[42] 70,747
2013[43] 57,724
2014[44] 53,382


  1. ^ a b c Fallah, Alborz (18 July 2009). "Chrysler gets back into production". CarAdvice. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  2. ^ "New Lancia Thema: Chrysler 300's European Alter Ego Officially Revealed". Carscoop. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  3. ^ Newberry, Stephan (2005). The Car design yearbook 3. Merrell.  
  4. ^ "2003 Chrysler 300 specifications, information, data". Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  5. ^ "First Test: 2005 Chrysler 300C".  
  6. ^ "The Chrysler 300 and 300C". Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  7. ^ "Burke Brown, LX Car Leader, on the 300C, Magnum, Charger, Challenger, and Hemi". Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c "2006 Chrysler 300" (PDF). Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  9. ^ St. Antoine, Arthur (February 2005). "2005 Cadillac CTS-V vs. Chrysler 300C SRT8 vs. Pontiac GTO". Motor Trend. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  10. ^ "Chrysler Group and Magna Steyr Enter Agreement for Chrysler 300C Production" (Press release). PRNewswire. 27 October 2005. Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  11. ^ Edwardson, Grant (25 February 2008). "Official: Chrysler 300C SRT Diesel Announced". Worldcarfans. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  12. ^ "New 2007 Chrysler 300 Long Wheelbase Debuts at the 2006 New York International Auto Show" (Press release). 13 April 2006. Archived from the original on 29 November 2006. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  13. ^ Aziz, Nick (Dec 21, 2005). "Chrysler announces 300C Heritage Edition.". Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  14. ^ "Car review: Chrysler 300C CRD Auto Car Review BBC Top Gear". BBC Top Gear. October 2005. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  15. ^ "Obama's Old Car Fails To Sell On eBay: $1 Million Asking Price Too High?". The Huffington Post. February 2, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  16. ^ Dayton, Dalia (February 19, 2015). "Chrysler 300:The Celebrity Owners and Promoters". Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  17. ^ Matias, Carlos (August 5, 2011). "The 25 Most Iconic Hip-Hop Cars".  
  18. ^ Chase, Chris (March 4, 2008). CanadianDriver Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  19. ^ "New Eight Speed Transmission Introduced by Chrysler". Retrieved 2 September 2011. 
  20. ^ Nagy, Chris (21 December 2010). "Luxury Reigns Affordable with 2011 Chrysler 300". Automoblog. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  21. ^ "ZF and Chrysler Reach Agreement for new 8-Speed Automatic Transmission". Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  22. ^ "2011-2014 Chrysler 300C cars (and Lancia Thema) with Luxury Series". Allpar. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  23. ^ Kekeh, Nicole (27 February 2012). "Meet The Boss Behind Chrysler's Image Makeover; He Is French". Forbes. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  24. ^ "2012 Chrysler 300 S / 300C Executive Series". Car and Driver. April 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  25. ^ "2012 Chrysler 300 SRT8". News Car Quotes. 2011-04-20. Retrieved 2011-08-08. 
  26. ^ Nagy, Chris (18 July 2011). "Posh Performer: 2012 Chrysler 300 SRT8". Automoblog. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  27. ^ Kierstein, Alex (6 May 2014). "Say goodbye to Chrysler SRT models". Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  28. ^ "Introducing the 2013 Chrysler 300 Motown Edition". Forward Look. January 16, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2014. 
  29. ^ "Chrysler 300 Review". Edmunds. Retrieved 1 January 2014. 
  30. ^ "New Thema: alternative class". lanciapress. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  31. ^ "Chrysler Good Things". 7 June 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  32. ^ "Chrysler See It Through". 22 November 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  33. ^ "Euro NCAP results for Lancia Thema" (PDF). 2011. 
  34. ^ Acuña, Evan. "2000 Chrysler 300 Hemi C Information and History". Conceptcarz. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  35. ^ "1991 Chrysler 300 Information and History". Conceptcarz. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  36. ^ a b "Chrysler Group 2005 US Sales". Chrysler. 3 January 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2009. 
  37. ^ a b "Total Chrysler LLC December 2007 Sales Up 1 Percent on the Strength of Retail". 3 January 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2009. 
  38. ^ "December 2008 Sales: Chrysler LLC". 5 January 2009. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  39. ^ "Chrysler Group LLC December 2009 Sales". 5 January 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  40. ^ "December 2010 Sales: Chrysler - Cheers & Gears Forums". 3 January 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  41. ^ "Chrysler sales shoot up 37% (26% for 2011)". Allpar. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  42. ^ "Chrysler Group LLC Reports December 2012 U.S. Sales Increased 10 Percent" (Press release). Chrysler Group LLC. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  43. ^ "Chrysler Group LLC Reports December 2013 U.S. Sales Increased 6 Percent" (Press release). Chrysler Group. 3 January 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  44. ^ "FCA US LLC Reports December 2014 U.S. Sales Increased 20 Percent" (PDF) (Press release). FCA US LLC. 5 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015. 

External links

  • Chrysler 300 Official Website - Australia
  • Chrysler 300 Official Website - UK
  • Chrysler 300 Official Website - USA
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.