World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Danish orthography

Article Id: WHEBN0035727011
Reproduction Date:

Title: Danish orthography  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Danish language, Empty set, Latin alphabets, Qasigiannguit, Latin alphabet
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Danish orthography

Danish orthography is the system used to write the Danish language. The oldest preserved examples of written Danish are in the Runic alphabet, but by the end of the High Middle Ages the Runes had mostly been replaced by the Latin letters.

Danish currently uses a 29-letter Latin alphabet, identical to the Norwegian alphabet.

Alphabet

The Danish alphabet is based upon the Latin alphabet and has consisted of the following 29 letters since 1948.
(Listen to a Danish speaker reciting the alphabet in Danish)

Problems playing this file? See .
Letter Pronunciation Most common corresponding phonemes
A a /æːˀ/ /a/ or /aː/
B b /b̥eːˀ/ /b/
C c /seːˀ/ /k/ or /s/ (in foreign words)
D d /d̥eːˀ/ /d/
E e /eːˀ/ /ə/, /e/, /eː/, /ɛ/ or /ɛː/
F f /ef/ /f/
G g /ɡ̊eːˀ/ /ɡ/, /k/ or nothing
H h /hɔːˀ/ /h/, silent before other consonants
I i /iˀ/ /i/, /iː/ or /e/
J j /jʌð/ /j/
K k /kʰɔːˀ/ /k/
L l /el/ /l/
M m /em/ /m/
N n /en/ /n/
O o /oːˀ/ /o/ or /oː/
P p /pʰeːˀ/ /p/
Q q /kʰuːˀ/ /k/
R r /æːɐ/ /r/
S s /es/ /s/
T t /tˢeːˀ/ /t/
U u /uːˀ/ /u/, /uː/ or /o/
V v /ʋeːˀ/ /ʋ/
W w /dʌb̥əlʋeːˀ/ /ʋ/
X x /eɡ̊s/ /ks/
Y y /yːˀ/ /y/, /yː/ or /ø/
Z z /seð/ /s/
Æ æ /ɛːæˀ/ /ɛ/ or /ɛː/
Å å /ɔːˀ/ /ɔ/ or /ɔː/
Ø ø /øːˀ/ /ø/, /œ/, /øː/ or /œː/
  • In monomorphematic words vowels are usually short before two or more consonants + e.
  • Vowels are usually long before a single consonant + e.
  • In two consecutive vowels the stressed vowel is always long and the unstressed is always short.

The letters c, q, w, x and z are not used in the spelling of indigenous words. Therefore, the phonemic interpretation of letters in loanwords depends on the donating language. However, Danish tends to preserve the original spelling of loan words. In particular, a 'c' that represents /s/ is almost never normalized to 's' in Danish, as would most often happen in Norwegian. Many words originally derived from Latin roots retain 'c' in their Danish spelling, for example Norwegian sentrum vs Danish centrum.

The "foreign" letters also sometimes appear in the spelling of otherwise-indigenous family names. For example, many of the Danish families that use the surname Skov (literally: "Forest") spell it Schou.

Diacritics

Standard Danish orthography has no compulsory diacritics, but allows the use of an acute accent for disambiguation. Most often, an accent on e marks a stressed syllable in one of a pair of homographs that have different stresses, for example en dreng (a boy) versus én dreng (one boy). It can also be part of the official spelling such as in allé (avenue) or idé (idea).

Less often, any vowel except å may be accented to indicate stress on a word, either to clarify the meaning of the sentence, or to ease the reading otherwise. For example: jeg stód op ("I was standing"), versus jeg stod óp ("I got out of bed"); hunden gør (det) ("the dog does (it)"), versus hunden gǿr ("the dog barks"). Most often, however, such distinctions are made using typographical emphasis (italics, underlining) or simply left to the reader to infer from the context, and the use of accents in such cases may appear dated. A common context in which the explicit acute accent is preferred is to disambiguate en/et (a, indefinite article) and én/ét (one, numeral) in central places in official written materials such as advertising, where clarity is important.

History

The letter Å was introduced in Danish in 1948, replacing Aa or aa. The new letter came from the Swedish alphabet, where it has been in official use since the 18th century. The initial proposal was to place it first Å in the Danish alphabet, before A. Its place as the last letter of the alphabet, as in Norwegian, was decided in 1955.[1] The former digraph Aa still occurs in personal names, and in Danish geographical names. Aa remains in use as a transliteration, if the letter is not available for technical reasons. Aa is treated like Å in alphabetical sorting, not like two adjacent letters A, meaning that while a is the first letter of the alphabet, aa is the last.

The difference between the Dano-Norwegian and the Swedish alphabet is that Swedish uses the variant Ä instead of Æ, and the variant Ö instead of Ø — similar to German. Also, the collating order for these three letters is different: Å, Ä, Ö.

In current Danish, W is recognized as a separate letter from V. The transition was made in 1980; before that, the W was merely considered to be a variation of the letter V and words using it were alphabetized accordingly (e.g.: "Wales, Vallø, Washington, Wedellsborg, Vendsyssel"). The Danish version of the Alphabet song still states that the alphabet has 28 letters; the last line reads otte-og-tyve skal der stå, i.e. "that makes twenty-eight". However, today the letter "w" is considered an official letter.

Computing standards

Danish keyboard with keys for Æ, Ø, and Å.

In computing, several different coding standards have existed for this alphabet:

See also

References

  1. ^ Einar Lundeby: "Bolle-å-ens plass i det danske alfabet" [The placing of Å in the Danish alphabet] in Språknytt, 1995/4. http://www.sprakrad.no/Toppmeny/Publikasjoner/Spraaknytt/Arkivet/Spraaknytt_1995/Spraaknytt-1995-4/Bolle-aa-ens_plass_i_det_dans/

External links

  • Type Danish characters online
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.